E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning


    Day 1 : Gender Based Violence

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    railibo-
    Guest

    Re: Day 1 : Gender Based Violence

    Post  railibo- on Sat 27 Jun 2009, 1:04 pm

    RAIZA JOY S. LIBO-ON, RN
    Exec4, MSN-MCN
    Violence Against Women
    Guide Questions for the discussions:

    1. Kindly see the graphs the moderators have uploaded. You can make a logical conclusion on these graphs to start a discussion.
    • There is an increased percentage of women who had experienced both physical and sexual violence inflicted to them by their intimate partners in all 15 countries.
    • Severity of violence experienced among ever partnered women in each country ranges from moderate to severe physical abuse, where majority of the case documented reports a greater incidence of moderate physical abuse.
    • Out of the 15 countries, 10 countries have an increased percentage of abused women who experience physical violence only from their intimate partners. It can then be concluded that violence experienced by women are usually inflicted by their intimate partners.
    • There is an increased percentage of women who believed that wife beating is justifiable if the wife is being unfaithful, but it is also alarming to note that there are still women who accepts beating even if there are no reasons at all.
    • There are a decreased percentage of women in all 15 countries who believed that they have the right to refuse to have sex with their husband if they don’t want to. It can be concluded then that there are still women who doesn’t have any knowledge with regards to their rights and so they can’t assert it or that they may have knowledge but can not assert it.
    • Majority of the cases of physical and sexual violence among women reporting such abuse since the age of 15 years are done by their partners.
    • Reported cases of women who had experienced sexual abuse before age 15, may it be face-to-face or anonymous is but of a little percentage only. It can then be concluded that there are still cases of sexual abuse that are not yet reported.
    • In the Bangladesh province, they have a higher incidence of women who have reported that their first experience of sexual intercourse was forced. It can then be concluded that the women in this country have less protection against sexual abuse and that their rights as a woman are being overlooked.
    • It can be concluded that in all 12 countries, women are forced into sexual intercourse at a young age. Sexual abuse is experienced by women at an early age.
    Overall, it can then be concluded that violence against women encompasses a subset of family and intimate violence including threatening or actual use of physical, psychological or sexual abuse against a woman by her family members or other intimates. Most assaults on women are perpetrated by their partners, and statistics vary because there are no consistent reporting procedures done from each countries. Violence against women can begin as child abuse. Sexual assault or abuse is another from of violence where in the woman is forced to have sexual intercourse with her abuser or take part in unwanted sexual activity. All women are not spared from these incidents. At one point in their lives they may experience different forms of violence. Usually victims of this kind of abuse includes the young, unmarried, separated or divorced women and nonwhite women. (Violence Against Women). Violence against women is a problem experienced globally. ( Violence Against Women and the Global War against Global Issues)
    Cases of violence against women are seldom reported to authorities. Women who experience these abuses have many reasons for not reporting incidents of violence. Legal authorities often do not take appropriate action. Many women do not know their legal rights. Women have good reason to fear that they will be victimized again, either by insensitive, accusatory questions or by actual assault. And health care facilities and police seldom consistently record data on violence against women, the sex of the perpetrators, or the relationship of the abuser to the victim. (Violence Against Girls and Women”)

    2. After reading on the 10 cases of violence against women, how can we strengthen our local programs which addresses VAW?
    Programs that addresses VAW will only be successful if we first help women become aware that they are victims and that they need help. Self-awareness coming from the woman herself is the initial step towards freedom from the bondage of violence. So I guess we should first focus on helping women be aware of their situation and from their guide and help them retrieve their pride as a woman.
    It would also be proper if our government could formulate consistent reporting procedures of cases of violence against women. Proper reporting and documentation will facilitate provision of proper assistance as well as follow up for those cases that will be reported.
    The government should also train personnels as a well as other key persons in the different communities in the proper provision of assistance to women who report their situation. Through this immediate interventions/ assistance will be given to women at the time when she decides to come in the open and seek help. It would also be beneficial if proper information will be provided in the community about violence against women, its effects, and how they should view it. With the community being aware of it, women will feel less stigmatized.
    Programs that focuses on regaining of self esteem should also be established to help women regain their pride and self-worth.

    3. What is the status of Research Initiatives on Violence against women? How helpful can researches be in this case? What could be its role in the primary prevention of violence?
    A lot of researches about violence against women are now easily accessed in the internet. These clearly shows that researchers are now interested in the welfare of women as well as her rights. These researchers served as the eye-opener all the people . Through these they have come to know the present and devastating situations of women experiencing violence in their society. Through these researches, programs were formed to help women as well as to assert their rights. The role of these researches in the primary prevention of violence is to make the people be aware of the existence of the problem, and help them realize that they can do something about it in order to create an environment that provides equal rights to both men and women, young and old.

    References:
    “ Violence Against Women”
    index.php (retrieved June 22, 2009)

    “Violence Against Girls and Women”
    (retrieved June 22, 2009)

    “Violence Against Women and the Global War on a Global Issue” December 12, 2006
    (retrieved June 22, 2006)


    It seems that what i have posted here before was not uploaded...so I'm reposting it again..hopefully this time it will be posted. sorry for the inconvenience.

    mfnierra
    Guest

    gender based migration

    Post  mfnierra on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 4:49 pm

    Dear Students,

    Having read your posts on this thread, I would like to site Ara's post as a model for you to follow in future postings. May i remind you that the basic expectation is for you to discuss your views based on the guide questions provided by the moderators and to provide at least three citations to support your argument.

    Also, the moderator need not limit her role to simply starting and synthesizing the material. You may also 'moderate' the discussion, so to speak

    I am closely monitoring your contributions in this forum.

    Thank you

    Ma'am Mae

    Maria Al
    Guest

    Online discussion1

    Post  Maria Al on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 6:14 pm

    Perez, Maria Althea Sabrina L.
    Exec-4

    Guide Questions for the discussions:

    1. Kindly see the graphs the moderators have uploaded. You can make a logical conclusion on these graphs to start a discussion.
    Among all the graphs presented regarding the Prevalence of lifetime physical and sexual violence by an intimate partner, it was seen in significant digits that the largest number of women experiencing both physical and sexual violence were from Ethiopia. It was supported by an article released in BBC news last October 2006 entitled “Ethiopian women are most abused” states that Women in Ethiopia are most likely to suffer violence at the hands of their partners, says the United Nations. Nearly 60% of Ethiopian women were subjected to sexual violence, including marital rape, according to the Ending Violence Against Women report. Almost half of all Zambian women said they had been attacked by a partner. In addition to violence from partners, the report also condemned what it found to be high levels of institutionalized violence, such as female genital mutilation, estimating that 130 million girls and women had undergone this practice. The report states that the major form of violence takes place at the domestic level, in the households... and it takes place in societies throughout the world.

    2. After reading on the 10 cases of violence against women, How can we strengthen our local programs which addresses VAW?

    After reading the 10 cases of violence against women, one way of strengthening the program is by locally adapting model standards and strategies. Programs must be more culturally-sensitive and specific to approach matters such as reproductive rights, fight against AIDS/HIV, and even female genital mutilation. We must also establish a holistic approach in combating violence: medically, legally, socially and in education. A previous noted report stated that compiled from a number of different studies conducted in at least 71 countries governments were not giving women adequate protection. Apart from that 100 countries had no domestic violence laws and marital rape could not be protected in more than 50. Since we are in century run by technology, media campaign is fit to be able to spread the news to people and awareness will be increased.


    3. What is the status of Research Initiatives on Violence against women? How helpful can researches be in this case? What could be its role in the primary prevention of violence?
    Research is very important not just addressing the problems in violence, but also in other matters as well. Researches play a big role regarding cases related to violence in women. It will give us a broader perspective regarding the phenomena and also will be able to know if the programs implemented are efficiently working or people are able to sustain it.

    Maria Al
    Guest

    Online discussion1

    Post  Maria Al on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 6:12 pm

    Perez, Maria Althea Sabrina L.
    Exec-4

    Guide Questions for the discussions:

    1. Kindly see the graphs the moderators have uploaded. You can make a logical conclusion on these graphs to start a discussion.
    Among all the graphs presented regarding the Prevalence of lifetime physical and sexual violence by an intimate partner, it was seen in significant digits that the largest number of women experiencing both physical and sexual violence were from Ethiopia. It was supported by an article released in BBC news last October 2006 entitled “Ethiopian women are most abused” states that Women in Ethiopia are most likely to suffer violence at the hands of their partners, says the United Nations. Nearly 60% of Ethiopian women were subjected to sexual violence, including marital rape, according to the Ending Violence Against Women report. Almost half of all Zambian women said they had been attacked by a partner. In addition to violence from partners, the report also condemned what it found to be high levels of institutionalized violence, such as female genital mutilation, estimating that 130 million girls and women had undergone this practice. The report states that the major form of violence takes place at the domestic level, in the households... and it takes place in societies throughout the world.

    2. After reading on the 10 cases of violence against women, How can we strengthen our local programs which addresses VAW?

    After reading the 10 cases of violence against women, one way of strengthening the program is by locally adapting model standards and strategies. Programs must be more culturally-sensitive and specific to approach matters such as reproductive rights, fight against AIDS/HIV, and even female genital mutilation. We must also establish a holistic approach in combating violence: medically, legally, socially and in education. A previous noted report stated that compiled from a number of different studies conducted in at least 71 countries governments were not giving women adequate protection. Apart from that 100 countries had no domestic violence laws and marital rape could not be protected in more than 50. Since we are in century run by technology, media campaign is fit to be able to spread the news to people and awareness will be increased.


    3. What is the status of Research Initiatives on Violence against women? How helpful can researches be in this case? What could be its role in the primary prevention of violence?
    Research is very important not just addressing the problems in violence, but also in other matters as well. Researches play a big role regarding cases related to violence in women. It will give us a broader perspective regarding the phenomena and also will be able to know if the programs implemented are efficiently working or people are able to sustain it.

    ma.crist
    Guest

    gender based violence

    Post  ma.crist on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:36 pm

    Ma. Cristina D. Arroyo Women’s Health
    MSNMCN E4 Prof. Mae Nierras

    GENDER-BASED VIOLENCE


    1. The graphs implies that most gender violence occur in countries with low socioeconomic status and for those which tightly hold on into their traditions and beliefs. Gender violence comes in two forms, physical and sexual violence. Most of the time, when patient experience physical violence, it would follow that she may also experience sexual violence at one point in her life.
    Among the reasons why the woman experience violence and on which justify the beating, two stand out: that is if woman is unfaithful and for no reason at all. It is depressing to know that women accept the violence for no reason at all. It implies that violence is just a normal act in their normal day. In my opinion, this only gives more power to men to further abuse these women.
    It can be observed in the graphs that women in developed countries such as Brazil and Japan basically have insights of their right to refuse to have sexual intercourse with their husband under circumstances. On these countries, may we add Peru, Serbia and Montenegro city and Thailand who share the same beliefs/insights among women. As for other countries like Bangladesh, Ethiopia province, Samoa and Tanzania, majority of the women that the have the right to refuse sexual intercourse when their husbands are sick.
    Another inference that may be withdrawn here is that women in urban areas is most likely aware that gender violence in different faces should not exist in their society. There are higher incidences in rural than urban areas.
    Most of the women experience violence from their partner. Some experience it from both partner and non-partner, and a very few experience it from non-partners.
    Few among these women had the guts to report violence, and among these few, a big proportion would report the abuse anonymously.
    Bangladesh and Peru province shared the most number of women who had forced sex during their first sexual intercourse. And Japan and Serbia and Montenegro City shared the least.

    2. We need to adopt what the others have done to make their efforts against violence successful.
    One of the initial actions that our local authorities must do is awareness-rising among the victims. This is really the first step in any program to be successful. The victims must recognize that they are indeed victims of violence and no one can initially help them but themselves. This gives the opportunity for these women or these victims to reflect back and recognize that problems existed.
    A group specific for violence against women must be established and must be maintained by local authorities. This formed group must be advertised so that women who experience violence must be aware that a certain group is just out there to help her.
    This certain group must strengthen links and resources that will help these women in attaining justice or attaining new hope, new life- a life free from any violence. To start with, as a human being it is out basic right not to hurt by anyone. It will be helpful if the links that the group reaches out are prominent and influential authorities. This will aid in not only strengthening the group but in sustaining its day-to-day activities/programs.
    The programs provided for this population must be community-based and individual-focused. Community-based in a sense that integrating back into the community will not be as hard for these women. The community must also have proper education on what and how are the proper approaches for these women so that stigma will not be evident. Stigma is one of the major reasons why for the first place, these women are timid to come out in the public. Individual-focused activities in such a way that the activities that will be provided for these women will depend on whatever their strengths and abilities are. This would be a good start for these women to regain what were lost from them. An abused woman lacks self-esteem and self-importance. Through individual-focused activities will provide avenues to insidiously regain self-esteem and self-importance.
    In one of those cases, some mentioned the importance of men participation on these kinds of programs. I strongly believe in that. It’s about time to address this problem is such a way the main source of violence against women, must be involved.
    In conclusion, for any program to be successful, the primary and major key is to involve everyone, after all, we are living in the same society so might as well create a community that is a conducive environment to live in for everyone, not basing on what gender you were born to have.

    3. When you googled “violence-against-women” in the internet, in an instant a lot of resources and literature would support this issue, which only means that the research field has given more than enough time and attention. The importance of researches on this issue is to expose to the public that there is a problem, that violence is rampant and that there are a lot of implications in our society. I guess, in research wise there is no problem since as I said a lot of literature talks about gender-based violence. The problem is the public that continuously pretend to be blind on these matters. It’s about time to act. It’s about time to put the message of these researches into action. And I guess that’s the main point of researches, to make people lives easier and to stimulate people to create a better society, if not perfect then at least, fair.

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Violence Aganist Women Discussion

    Post  ara_portillo on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:26 pm


    Portillo, Maria Santa R.
    EXEC 4 - MCN


    >>continuation>>

    2. After reading on the 10 cases of violence against women, How can we strengthen our local programs which addresses VAW?

    The publication of UNFPA “Programming to Address Violence Against Women: 10 Case Studies” details a review of the programs implemented within the four decades of battle against the Violence among women. It presented effective approaches utilized by 10 countries: Bangladesh, Colombia, Ghana, Kenya, Mauritania, Mexico, Morocco, Romania, Sierra Leone, and Turkey. Even if the stories are coming from just few countries from the globe, the lessons learned from their experiences can be a stepping stone to scale up awareness response and eventually action oriented approach about this problem.
    The findings of the review revealed the following as important considerations for efforts geared in implementing the same programs:
    • There is a need to establish stronger partnerships, collaboration and coordination among various stakeholders, especially human rights and women’s groups, to position violence against women high on national human rights agendas.
    • Provision of health care, psychological counselling, legal advice and human rights education, along with temporary shelter are necessary but not sufficient conditions to protect them from violence. There is a need for them to be economically self-reliant for them to break free of abusive relationships.
    • Engagement of both the men and the young ones are important to transform social and cultural behaviours.
    • Collaboration with the media and making it as partner in information dissemination has been effective.
    • To bring legitimacy to such programs, appropriate legal and policy frameworks are a necessary prerequisite.
    • Training and involvement of local governments, the judiciary, the police, and health-care providers.
    • Thorough understanding of the program designers and implementers of the local culture of the ones that they are targeting.
    • Commitment, dedication and patience among the organizers.
    • Crucial roles played by the key leaders of the community - local power structures and faith based organization.
    • Creating a coalition across sectors and building its capacity to fight violence against women is a necessary condition for ensuring prevention in the long run.

    Since violence among women results to a multitude of unwanted effects to the over-all health of the individual, thus, it is a deterrent as a woman strives for self development. Policies that could be culled out with regards to evidenced facts presented above are as follows:

    • Establishing financing on program implementation at international, regional and country levels.
    o As the statistics shows, it is estimated that one in every five women faces some form of violence during her lifetime, in some cases leading to serious injury or death. This kind of violence is in its discreet operation in all part of the world. Literatures have proven that reaching out to these countries is effective. However, in any kind of project, funding is necessary. This programs can lead to the development of shelter for women or self-help groups which would be very necessary since according to literature, such groups provides unconditional and complete support that is crucial to recovery. Also, it takes 1 years for the victims to regain previous level of functioning (Videbeck, 2004
    ).
    • Increasing efforts to enhance national awareness on violence against women.
    o As the document states, the programs implemented in the ten countries are all spearheaded by women themselves (singly/in group). This implies that the efforts started because they are the ones who identified the problem as occurring. Until recently, most governments have considered violence against women (particularly “domestic” violence by a husband or other intimate partner) to be a relatively minor social problem.

    • Enact policies that promote gender equality.
    o VAW is legitimized due to the existing traditions and policies within a society. Sanction for among the perpetuators is less grave compared to the victims. Revisiting and promulgating new laws which safeguard the rights of women the same as men is in deemed needed. A mix of interventions specifically aimed at reducing violence and protecting women will be required. These interventions include enactment and enforcement of sanctions against men who perpetrate violence against women; training of judiciary, police and health care workers to recognize and deal appropriately with violence against women; and services for women experiencing violence such as shelters, telephone hotlines; psychological and legal advice, and support networks.

    • Institute interventions to improve women’s health across the lifespan.
    o This involves efforts to eliminate poverty and hunger among them, provision of quality education and health care. As what is written in the literatures, violence is shaped by different factors. Links have been established in its connection to poverty, low literacy level, and poor access to health care.

    • Strengthening Research Efforts with regards to VAW.
    o More is still needed to be discovered with the big issue of VAW. Findings from research, as it applies in nursing practice, are the best type of evidence in practice (Goode, 2000). The results of the research from the 10 case studies have lead to the implementation of different programs. However, less research focuses on the factors on why the perpetrators engaged in such violent behaviour.

    • Strengthening Multidisciplinary Collaboration
    o The victims of violence require a collaborative approach with different agencies since they suffer from an array of consequences.

    • Development of stronger knowledge base through more confirmatory strategies.
    o Many experiences being shared by the successful program implementers are needed.

    3. What is the status of Research Initiatives on Violence against women? How helpful can researches be in this case? What could be its role in the primary prevention of violence?

    Research has paved way for understanding the complex phenomenon of women who are being abused. However, little is known for other places. Just like the recommendation from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women, more research is indeed necessary on the magnitude of the problem and its cost that will serve as the cornerstone giving way to efforts of advocacies and actions.
    Deepening the understanding the culture specific attitudes of different settings is one of the most challenging areas of research. Women perceive that violence is a “part” of the culture and there is now other way but just to accept it (ABA Commission on Domestic Violence, 2004). In relation with this, strategies that will address the said cause can be implemented. Findings from research, as it applies in nursing, are the best type of evidence in practice (Goode, 2000).
    The policy recommendation of the WHO article on VAW about research shows that to date, little research has been done on the male attitudes and beliefs that contribute to partner violence. Work in this area is needed if the goal is to cover the comprehensiveness of VAW.

    The outcomes of researchers also lead to the WHO Handbook for the documentation of interpersonal violence prevention programmes. This provides useful guidance for the systematic collection, from diverse settings, of information on programmes for the prevention of interpersonal violence. Same way, findings from other researches can lead to prevention strategies at the primary level.
    Even if research has been proven as a great tool in dealing with this problem, still from a review of the publication of the National Institute of Health on “Agenda on Research of Women’s Health on the 21st Century”, VAW is not included. Further recognition isneeded to include this area among the research priorities of other agencies.

    Cited References:
    American Bar Association Commission on Domestic Violence. (2002). Statistics on domestic violence. Retrieved June 23, 2009, from http;//www.abanet.domvio/stat.html

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2004). Available at www.cdc.gov/cdc.html

    Johnson H., (1996). Dangerous domains: violence against women in Canada. Ontario, International Thomson Publishing

    Kishor S. & Johnson K., (2004). Profiling domestic violence: a multi-country study. Calverton, MD: ORC MACRO

    Goode, C.J. (2001). What constitutes evidence in evidence-based practice?. Applied nursing research. 13, 222-225

    Hewett P.C., Mensch B.S., Erulkar A.S., (2004). Consistency in the reporting of sexual behaviour by adolescent girls in Kenya: a comparison of interviewing methods. Sexually Transmitted Infections

    Van der Kolk., (2005). Physical and sexual abuse of adults. In S. Videbeck, Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, (third ed., pp.205). Philadelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins

    Videbeck, S., (2006). Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing, (third ed., pp.205). Philadelphia: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins

    Readings:
    • WHO Publication : WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women
    • UNFPA : Programming to Address Violence Against Women: 10 Case Studies

    • NIH: Agenda on Research of Women’s Health on the 21st Century

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Violence Aganist Women Discussion

    Post  ara_portillo on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:24 pm

    Portillo, Maria Santa R.
    EXEC 4 - MCN


    On-line Discussion Day 1 – Violence against Women

    1. Kindly see the graphs the moderators have uploaded. You can make a logical conclusion on these graphs to start a discussion.

    This statistics from the WHO Multi-country Study on Women’s Health and Domestic Violence against Women have shown the prevalence and patterns of violence from the countries involved. Though it only presents data from a few, the findings are somehow more than enough to bring into its readers awareness one of the most disabling factor affecting woman’s health. Indeed, according to the WHO fact sheet, violence against women is a major public health problem and a violation of human rights.
    According to the CDC (2004), 95% of the victims of domestic violence are women. In the US, estimates are that one in three women has been beaten by her spouse at least once.

    Physical violence and sexual violence by intimate partners
    The statistics show that violence by intimate partners is the most common cause of violence among women. Though most would think that it should not be. Women suffer both physical and sexual; or solely sexual nor physical violence from their intimate partners. This has been supported by various researches which present an irony to the concept of home as a haven of safety and love (Johnson, 1996; Kishor & Johnson, 2006).Victims from 11 countries rated the severity of the violence as moderate and others from 4 countries as severe.

    Physical violence by intimate partners
    The proportion of ever-partnered women who had ever suffered physical violence by a male intimate partner ranged from 13% in Japan city to 61% in Peru province, with most sites falling between 23% and 49%. The prevalence of severe physical violence (a woman being hit with a fist, kicked, dragged, choked, burnt on purpose, threatened with a weapon, or having a weapon used against her) ranged from 4% in Japan city to 49% in Peru province. The vast majority of women physically abused by partners experienced acts of violence more than once.

    Sexual violence by intimate partners
    The range of lifetime prevalence of sexual violence by an intimate partner was between 6% (Japan city and Serbia and Montenegro city) and 59% (Ethiopia province), with most sites falling between 10% and 50%. While in most settings sexual violence was considerably less frequent than physical violence, sexual violence was more frequent in Bangladesh province, Ethiopia, province and Thailand city.

    Physical and sexual violence by intimate partners
    For ever-partnered women, the range of lifetime prevalence of physical or sexual violence, or both, by an intimate partner was 15% to 71%, with estimates in most sites ranging from 30% to 60%. Women in Japan city were the least likely to have ever experienced physical or sexual violence, or both, by an intimate partner, while the greatest amount of violence was reported by women living in provincial (for the most part rural) settings in Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Peru, and the United Republic of Tanzania. Likewise, regarding current violence – as defined by one or more acts of physical or sexual violence in the year prior to being interviewed – the range was between 3% (Serbia and Montenegro city) and 54% (Ethiopia province), with most sites falling between 20% and 33%. These findings illustrate the extent to which violence is a reality in partnered women’s lives, with a large proportion of women having some experience of violence during their partnership, and many having recent experiences of abuse.

    Reasons to justify violence
    Investigation of the reasons why women think that violence occurred reveals that top perceived cause is surprisingly, out of something women do not know or they are just accepting the violence without any idea for it. This is followed by doubts on the wife’s loyalty; then with the reason that the wife is not following what the husbands wants and lastly, the wife was not able to complete work at home. The result reveals a sad fact that most women are still submissive, passive and voiceless inside their homes – accepting the violence by the perpetuators. This is rooted to the perceptions dictated by culture and tradition in other countries that inequalities still exists and this differences in status justifies the reason for abuse. The battered woman may come from a culture that accepts domestic violence (ABA Commission on Domestic Violence). Other reasons that can explain this phenomenon is the so-called “dependency” of the abused with their husbands – both personal and financial dependency (Videbeck, 2006).

    Circumstances in which the wife has the right to refuse sex
    Respondents were also asked whether they believed a woman has a right to refuse to have sex with her partner in a number of situations, including: if she is sick, if she does not want to have sex, if he is drunk, or if he mistreats her. The main reason identified is being sick, followed by occasions if the husband is drunk and mistreats her, and lastly, because they (the wife) do not want to. It is in the provinces of Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Peru, and the United Republic of Tanzania, and in Samoa, where between 10% and 20% of women felt that women that they did not have the right to refuse sex under any of these circumstances.


    Non-partner physical and sexual violence

    Non-partner physical violence since age 15 years

    Women’s reports of experience of physical violence by a non-partner since the age of 15 varied widely. By far the highest level of non-partner physical violence was reported in Samoa (62%), whereas less than 10% of women in Ethiopia province, Japan city, Serbia and Montenegro city, and Thailand reported non-partner physical violence. Commonly mentioned perpetrators included fathers and other male or female family members. In some settings (Bangladesh, Namibia, Samoa, and the United Republic of Tanzania), teachers were also frequently mentioned.

    Non-partner sexual violence since age 15 years

    The highest levels of sexual violence by non-partners since age 15 years – between 10% and 12% – were reported in Peru, Samoa, and the United Republic of Tanzania city, while levels below 1% were reported in Bangladesh province and Ethiopia province. The perpetrators included strangers, boyfriends and, to a lesser extent, male family members (excluding fathers) or male friends of the family.

    Comparing partner and non-partner violence since age 15 years

    A common perception is that women are more at risk of violence from strangers than from partners or other men they know. The data show that this is far from the case. In the majority of settings, over 75% of women physically or sexually abused by any perpetrator since the age of 15 years reported abuse by a partner. In only two settings, Brazil city and Samoa, were at least 40% of women abused only by someone other than a partner.

    Sexual abuse before age 15 years

    Early sexual abuse is a highly sensitive issue and considered a taboo for most countries. This is the reason why there has been under reporting and under surveillance of this health situation (Hewett , Mensch & Erulkar, 2004).
    Violence like rape is still under-reported. Estimates are that only one rape is reported for every 4 to 10 rapes that occur. This under-reporting is due to feelings of shame and guilt, the fear of further injury and the belief that she has no recourse to the social system (van der Kolk, 2005).
    The study therefore used a two-stage process allowing women to report both directly and anonymously (without having to reveal their response to the interviewer) whether anyone had ever touched them sexually, or made them do something sexual that they did not want to before the age of 15 years. In all but one setting, anonymous reporting resulted in substantially more reports of sexual abuse, and large differences were recorded in Ethiopia province (0.2% using direct reporting versus 7% anonymously), Japan city (10% versus 14%), Namibia city (5% versus 21%), and the United Republic of Tanzania city (4% versus 11%).

    Forced first sex
    In 10 of the 15 settings, over 5% of women reported their first sexual experience as forced, with more than 14% reporting forced first sex in Bangladesh, Ethiopia province, Peru province, and the United Republic of Tanzania. In all sites except Ethiopia province, the younger a woman at first experience of sex, the greater the likelihood that this was forced. In more than half the settings, over 30% of women who reported first sex before the age of 15 years described that sexual experience as forced. In some countries (notably Bangladesh and Ethiopia province), high levels of forced first sex are likely to be related to early sexual initiation in the context of early marriage, rather than being by perpetrators other than partners.

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Day 1 : Gender Based Violence

    Post  ara_portillo on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 11:59 am

    Good day Ma'am Nierras and classmates!
    The moderators would be presenting graphs and case studies which could be very helpful in this discussion. To formally start this discussion, let us present few facts:

    -Violence against women is a major public health problem and a violation of human rights
    -A lack of access to education and opportunity, and low social status in communities are linked to violence against women
    -Violence by an intimate partner is one of the most common forms of violence against women
    -A wide range of physical, mental, sexual and reproductive, and maternal health problems can result from the violence against women.
    A Many women do not seek help or report their experiences when violence occurs

    Gender violence can serve as a "brake on socioeconomic development, a serious threat to national growth and efforts to attain peace" (Philippine Plan for Gender -Responsive Development, 1995)

    Violence Against Women (VAW)
    - "...any act of gender-based violence that results, or is likely to result, in physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occuring in public or private life."
    (United Nations Commision on the Status of Women, 1992)

    Guide Questions for the discussions:

    1. Kindly see the graphs the moderators have uploaded. You can make a logical conclusion on these graphs to start a discussion.
    2. After reading on the 10 cases of violence against women, How can we strengthen our local programs which addresses VAW?
    3. What is the status of Research Initiatives on Violence against women? How helpful can researches be in this case? What could be its role in the primary prevention of violence?

    Let's have a healthy-intellectua l discussion. We'll be monitoring postings until 11am, try our best to respond to queries and arguments and post our synthesis afterwards.

    Thank you.

    Moderators,

    Dena Renae Tan
    Jonnah Rose Mosquera-Catapia

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    Re: Day 1 : Gender Based Violence

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      Current date/time is Tue 24 Oct 2017, 4:35 am