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    Day 2: Gender Perspective of Migration

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    lauren
    Guest

    Re: Day 2: Gender Perspective of Migration

    Post  lauren on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 7:51 pm

    1. What is your gender perspective of migration?

    My viewpoint with regards to gender migration is that people tends to migrate because they what to be economically independent. They want to help their family in terms of finances, but one thing that I’ve noticed was that most of the migrants today are mostly women and for some women migration may mean increase in social mobility, economic independence and relative autonomy. Migrant women and men may have different experiences as they stay outside of their country because women are frequently segregated into tradition “female occupation” such as domestic worker, childcare, garments manufacturing.

    2. How does the author threaded the inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development?

    One of the impacts of migration among women is that it is empowering on their part. It gives them the lesson of leaving the patriarchal nature of their homes and earning a living for the family. However, the phenomenon also creates vulnerabilities for them since it still makes the women often the subject of gender-based violence and exploitation. Whether labor migrants, family migrants, human trafficking victims, or refugees, they face the double problem of being female and foreign. Likewise, there are still many discriminatory laws on emigration and immigration of voluntary migrants that affect the protection of migrant women.
    The article Women, Migration and Development, shows that dearth of data relating to women and migration in terms of availability, quality and comparability exists. So to address this, policy recommendations was suggested by the author. This includes policies and programs to empower migrant women’s rights, to protect their safety and security; to reduce the cost of remittance transfers; to provided financial literacy information and to improve research and data gathering with regards this concern of the 21st century.
    3. How does an increase in migration among women affects global migration streams and its consequences? What effects does this migration create to the woman’s health, familial and social relationship?
    An increase in migration among women reflects the growing interest in migration trends and dynamics in an increasingly globalised world. The effects of migration to women are there is an increase in social mobility, economic independence and relative autonomy, but there are also some negative effects which a migrant women may encounter such as gender-based violence, trafficking, labor force etc,.

    4. What lapses do policy makers must seek in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves?

    I think the policy makers should see to it about the condition of the women as they enter that country because this may affect other social life, entitlements, including the capacity to gain citizenship quickly, access to training language classes, to obtain job training, and to access income security program.

    References:
    D:\migration.mht

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Synthesis of Day 2 Discussion

    Post  ara_portillo on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 2:22 pm

    I would like to thank everyone for your participation with regards our discussion on Gender Perspectives on Migration.
    As of 1:00 p.m.. The following have posted their responses: Yogi, Tina, Angel, Jenny, Meg, Raizza, Althea.

    Here is the synthesis of the discussion:

    • Gender is a socially and culturally constructed role of women and men in their daily life, thus, overlapping the inequality on their structural relationship. It is believed that gender has its pull and push factors behind the global migration trend. It plays a significant role both in the origin and host countries.

    • According to U.N., gender perspective on migration 'views the migration of women and men as influenced by beliefs and expectations about appropriate behaviours for women and men and between women and men, which are reinforced in economic, political and social institutions'. The gender perspective of migration is a chance to address the limited attention given to the presence of migrant women and their contributions

    • Traditionally, migration has been mostly a male phenomenon because men had the freedom to travel and a duty to maintain the financial upkeep of the family. Migration was a men’s world: migrants’ jobs were male jobs and migrants’ rights were men’s rights. But recently globalization has brought with it a feminization of migration (December 18, 2008).

    • There are various reasons why there is increase in migration among women. Family reunification, to study, to acquire work experience, gain economic independence and to escape discrimination and constraining gender norms such as obligation to marry or have children, to name some. Gender inequality in the country of origin is one of the biggest motivating factors for women to migrate (UN, Division of Advancement of Women; Association for Women’s Rights in Development, 2008).

    • A linkage exists with the terms women, migration and development. The increased participation of women in migration has lead to the “feminization of migration phenomenon” and this has effects on personal development of the woman herself; on the economy of countries of origin; on the economy of the host country.

    • Woman empowerment is one of the outcomes of migration. However, some researches pointed out that women are vulnerable for abuse and violations of rights and even more discrimination at the hands of brokers, recruiters, employers, and migration officials. They are exposed to abuse and exploitation such as physical and social isolation, sexual harassment, and sexual and physical violence. (UNIFEM, 2006).

    • Immigrant remittances and returning immigrants will provide important balance of payments help, direct investments, and useful skills in their home countries. For most receiving countries, immigration will provide demographic and economic vitality for those with aging populations—even as it raises complex political and social integration challenges (National International Council, 2001).

    • Positive effects to the family will be the economic return. On the negative side, studies conclude those women’s migration leads to “values disorientation,” in families and the neglect of children (Beltran and Rodriguez 1996). Meanwhile in a public dialogue sponsored by migrant advocates, it was found that the overseas workers and their families are not able to release their psychological anxieties and emotional distress. This results in loneliness and depression and to some extent, others would rather commit suicide (Rodriguez, 2005).

    • The impact of migration on women's health is complex, depending on whether she is migrating or staying behind, and what types of work she is involved in. They become the victims of violence and they become more susceptible with STIs and HIV/AIDS.

    • There are lots to consider with regards to the policies to foster a win-win situation for women. Most of the laws is specific to the male population. Formal labor contracts and set rights and responsibilities of the workers; regulatory mechanisms targeting the problems of trafficking, illegal recruitment, violence against women; support groups and program for the families left behind; improvement of access of migrant women, including refugee women and displaced girls, to primary and reproductive health-care services; policies that enhance migrant women’s employment opportunities, access to safe housing, education, language training in the host country, health care and other services; steps to reduce the cost of remittance transfers by encouraging competition in the remittance transfer market.

    *** With the discussion, we have learned that women are inseparable with various social phenomena. Through migration, they have contributed a lot to economic development of the sending and receiving states. But still, inequalities exist even in this area and much needs to be done to protect this vulnerable population.

    Again, thank you for your participation. This is ara, signing-off.

    Maria Al
    Guest

    Online Discussion #2

    Post  Maria Al on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 2:17 pm

    Perez, Maria Althea Sabrina L.
    Executive-4

    ANSWER TO #1

    Migration has been a permanent phenomenon throughout history, international migration in the globalized economy is a growing and increasingly complex phenomenon. A very large part of contemporary migration is directly or indirectly related to the world of work. A gendered perspective is essential to understanding both the causes and consequences of international migration. I believe that people regardless of their race, economic status and even gender should have equal rights and benefits when it comes to migration. Work-related gender bias must be totally abolished. According to the issue “Towards a fair deal for migrant workers in the global economy” by the International Labor Office in Geneva (ILO) in 2004, it was stated that Migrant women often face multiple disadvantages. They often have limited legal right. Most can only find employment in sectors where wages are squeezed. Trends towards more flexible employment relationships, gender discrimination, abuses in recruitment and irregular status compound these disadvantages and have led to the greater vulnerability of most migrant workers. I believe that the governments have a responsibility to comply with the equal treatment pledges in their constitutions and international treaties. Much needs to be done to ensure the equal treatment of migrant women, especially they are the most liable to abusive situations such as domestic workers, and to minimize their exploitation, forced labour, smuggling and trafficking.

    ANSWER TO # 2

    According to the author “the nexus between migration and development is two-sided: underdevelopment affects migration and migration affects development.” They are to experience migration for them as well as their families to have better life they are forced by economic or political insecurity in the home community. Migration can either help or break women’s life. Help in the sense that it allows them to have an empowering experience. They move away from traditional situations in which they can exercise greater autonomy over their own lives. Besides their personal gains, migration could also affect economic status of not just their family but also their country’s economy as well. As of 2005, the World Bank estimates, international remittances to developing countries exceeded $200 billion per year (World Bank). According to a research done by Monica Boyd from the University of Toronto regarding the Incorporation of Gender into Migration Theory revealed that the interests of men and women in families do not always coincide and may affect the amount of remittances to be given. As one reviewer of the literature concluded, “While research often finds that women are less likely and/or tend to remit less than men when they do remit, this is not a uniform finding. What is more, some of the available research finds that women remit more both overall and as a percentage of income than do men – and women tend to have stronger networks with their families that is associated with greater remitting behaviors” (Orozco et al., 2006). This means that migration not only achieve personal gains to women but also helps in aiding the economy as well. In the best scenario, migration should be on the voluntary part of the migrant.

    ANSWER TO # 3

    Migrant women domestic workers are among the world’s most vulnerable workers. Most are women moving from poorer to richer countries for economic reasons, and most leave their children behind, often in the care of relatives or a hired local maid, creating global care chains. The availability of foreign maids, in turn, allows women with children in destination countries to work for wages, so that many of the world’s women between the ages of 15 and 64 years are able to pursue paid employment outside the home. But sad to say, there are limited job offerings for women inside or even outside their country. In some European countries (France, Greece, Italy and Spain) domestic work or housekeeping is the most common occupation open to female migrants. According to a research done by the International Labor Office in Geneva, it was found out that working conditions of domestic workers vary enormously. Some are treated as members of their employer’s family, while others are exploited and subjected to conditions which in some cases amount to virtual slavery and forced labor. Domestic workers often have to work long or even excessive hours of work (on average, 15-16 hours per day), with no rest days or compensation for overtime; they generally receive low wages, and have inadequate health insurance coverage. Women are also exposed to physical and sexual harassment and violence and abuse, and are in some cases trapped in situations in which they are physically or legally restrained from leaving the employer’s home by means of threats or actual violence, or by withholding of pay or identity documents.

    Wage discrimination by nationality is experienced by domestic workers in most countries in Asia and the Middle East. Filipinos generally earn the highest wages among domestic workers, partly because of their knowledge of English and awareness of local laws and regulations. Most Indonesian and Sri Lankan maids do not receive the legal minimum wage. A similar pattern has been observed in the Middle East for domestic workers: the ILO Bahrain study found that “wages are determined according to the nationality of the female domestic workers instead of their experience” (International Labor Office in Geneva, 2004).

    Migration may also alter the status and gender relations of men and women. New economic roles and new responsibilities affect spousal relationships, in some instances leading to considerable negotiations and resistance to change by both men and women. Studies have examined the alteration in marital power and the process of negotiation not only for immigrant couples, but also in cases where one partner is still living in the origin country. The literature on female migration generally focuses on two broad aspects of status that can change as a result of the migration process. The first is the position of migrant women within their families. For some women, migration may mean an increase in social mobility, economic independence, and relative autonomy. This is especially true if women's moves are accompanied by increased participation in the labor market. New economic and social responsibilities may change the distribution of power within the family, leading to greater authority and participation in household decision making and control over the family's resources. These also may cause positive shifts in the relationship between immigrant women and their husbands and children. Gender relations and hierarchies within the family context affect the migration of women because it is usually within the family that female subordination to male authority plays itself out. The family both defines and assigns the roles of women, which determine their relative motivation and incentive to migrate, and controls the distribution of resources and information that can support, discourage, or prevent migration (Boyd, 2009).

    ANSWER TO #4
    Gender is deeply embedded in determining who moves, how those moves take place, and the resultant futures of migrant women and families. If international migration theory is to incorporate gender appropriately and effectively, it must take into account the subtle as well as the obvious factors that coalesce to create different experiences all along the migration spectrum. Further defining and understanding these forces and outcomes will greatly enhance the theoretical grounding of international migration in general and the individual experiences of migrant women around the world.
    There are best practices which can inspire improvements in working conditions for migrants in the receiving country:
    • including having competent institutions to supervise recruitment and migration
    • encouraging migrants to sign contracts whose provisions have been approved by competent national authorities
    • including migrant workers under work-related health programs, and establishing specialized agencies to monitor and seek to reduce discrimination.
    • A non-binding multilateral framework and plan of action on international labor migration built on a rights-based approach.
    • Establishment of a global knowledge base on international labor migration;
    • A sustained social dialogue in the protection of migrant workers' rights.

    Workers’ organizations have networked to provide greater protection to migrant workers, and also adopted an action plan against racism and discrimination. In several countries, private businesses have taken the initiative to improve their housing and living conditions and health care.

    rai_libo
    Guest

    Women, and development

    Post  rai_libo on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 2:06 pm

    Raiza Joy S. Libo-on, RN
    EXEC 4 MSN-MCN
    Women, Migration and Development

    What is your “gender perspective of migration?”

    In my opinion migration is a good experience for women. Through this their horizons are broaden. They get to practice autonomy and some freedom that they don’t get from their countries that has a culture that provides little freedom or recognition to women. Migration empowers women and can also provide benefits to their families as well as the community. But on the other hand it has its drawbacks. Since women are in another country that has its own culture different from their native land, they are exposed to dangers such as violence, harsh labor, trafficking, and vulnerability to armed conflicts. Policies should be established to ensure the safety of women against these dangers.


    • How does the author threaded the inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development?

    The author threaded the inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development by pointing out that women who encounters economic and political problems that hinders their rights and places them in danger are likely to see migration as the only option to protect themselves and their families. And as more information are gained with regards to the benefits of migration, offset of migration is unlikely since there is an increased movement by the people. The author also pointed out that migration affects economic developments in the home countries through financial resources as well as the skills, entrepreneurial activities, and support for democratization and human rights.


    How does an increase in migration among women affects global migration streams and its consequences? What effects does this migration creates to the woman’s health, familial and social relationship?

    Increase in migration among women means a need to establish policies that will protect them and their rights. More Microfinance institutions are being build that are very beneficial to women. A lot of Diasporas communities are being established that helps stimulate political reforms in home countries. Migration also greatly affects the health of the women. Migrant women who have hazardous works face occupational health problems. Women who become victims are exposed to sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/ AIDS as well as injuries. Migration also causes mental disorders such as depression on women who have to live behind their loved ones to earn a living to another country. Culture and language barriers are also a problem encountered by women in accessing health assistance. Vasquez (1992) as cited by Carling (2005) points out that migration enhances the autonomy of women both as an independent migrants or as defacto heads of the household while their husbands are working abroad. The migration of the women results in a profound changes in family relationship as well as in the context of family reunification and likely to involve emotional and social costs. It was also found that women who migrate are found to have difficulty in adjusting to new socio- cultural environment because of general constraints and personal barriers. Another point to consider is the effect of international migration which could cause intergenerational tensions and reinforcement of traditional gender roles.


    What lapses do policy makers must seek in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves?

    They must establish strong policies that help empower women and reduce the risk of being subjected to abuse and vulnerability as well as policies that protects the rights of the women regarding immigration laws.




    RESOURCES:
    “Empowering Women Migrant Workers”
    “Asia pacific perspective on gender Dimension of International Migration”
    Carling, J. 2005 “Global Migration Perspectives” Global Commission on International Migration





    sorry for the late post.



    Razz

    yogi_tan

    Posts : 5
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Answer to Q4

    Post  yogi_tan on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 1:25 pm

    What lapses do policy makers must seek in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves?

    The World Survey highlights policy recommendations to improve the situation of migrant women, utilizing relevant United Nations instruments and analysing such issues as family reunification, labour migration, forced migration, human trafficking, integration of international migrants, and citizenship and nationality from a gender perspective.

    1. Ratify and actively monitor the implementation of all international legal instruments that promote and protect the rights of migrant women and girls.

    2. Review national emigration and immigration laws and policies in order
    to identify discriminatory provisions that undermine the rights of all
    migrant women, including such rights as bestowing and retaining
    nationality, according nationality to children and acquiring citizenship
    where the marriage is violent and abusive.

    These laws will ensure the safety and security of migrating women. Problems among migrating women are discrimination, exploitation and abuse. These issues should be the focus of lawmakers.

    megsenga
    Guest

    my opinion on women and migration

    Post  megsenga on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 1:16 pm

    I'd go straight to my point. I think it is sad that for economic reasons women are forced to migrate just to support their families. I remember the movie by Vilma Santos ANAK. She did not really migrate but yet stayed there long enough to work with the hope of giving her children a good life, only to come back home and find out that her family is falling apart. Her children needed a mother and she was not there. And who does her children blame? still her. This is a sad scenario that is very common and very true especially here in our country. While she maybe portrayed as a modern Filipino hero, I still feel sad for her.

    I am not saying that women should just stay where they are. This situation is already here. Poverty is running high and hence many go abroad in search of greener pastures. But it becomes a vicious cycle, the children who grow up without a mother eventually enter into a family life of their own financially unprepared perhaps to raise a family with the option of going in the same footsteps, that is going abroad to make money.


    sorry im late..

    more later

    yogi_tan

    Posts : 5
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Answer to Q3

    Post  yogi_tan on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 1:15 pm

    How does an increase in migration among women affects global migration streams and its consequences? What effects does this migration creates to the woman’s health, familial and social relationship?


    Women migration causes great impact on the family. It will be a difficult adjustment for family members. Men will take the new domestic role and the grandparents or relatives will take part in taking care of the children. Migrating husband’s roles may change drastically upon entering a new society. If their skills are not readily transferable to industrialized countries the men may find themselves unable to support their families. Men would save money from their work abroad and then eventually plan to come back home.

    On the other hand, the impact on the migrating mother who leaves family behind is likely to involve emotional and social cost. Women and their family will experience long period of separation. Hence, making the adjustment stage harder for the migrating mother. Women were very reluctant to return; they struggled to retain the gains that migration and wage employment brought them (Grassmuck and Pessar, 1991). They save money and then go back home. Whereas, women realized that returning would mean retirement from paid labour and loss of freedoms. Therefore, tensions developed over finances and over new gender roles.

    yogi_tan

    Posts : 5
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Migration

    Post  yogi_tan on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 1:14 pm

    What is your gender perspective of migration?

    In the recent years, there have been an increasing number of women migrants. Out of 191 million international migrants registered in 2005, 94.5 million were women. More women represent the majority of immigrants for countries such as North America, Europe, the Middle East and the South Sea Islands. In 2005 they represented the majority in all regions of the world except Africa and the Arab World. The increase in women migrants has become more pronounced since the beginning of the 1990s (FIDH, 2007).

    Gender is a socially and culturally constructed role of women and men in their daily life, thus, overlapping the inequality on their structural relationship.

    A gender perspective on migration extends current understanding about international migration by examining the gender-specific causes of migration, the vulnerability as well as the potential for the empowerment of migrant women and the consequences of international migration (United Nations, 2006).

    A gender perspective migration converges the opportunities and at the same time threats for women. The opportunities for migration consist of autonomous decision making ability, active participation in the community, and the chance to express her thoughts freely. In the process of international migration, women often move away from traditional, patriarchal authority to situations in which they can exercise greater autonomy over their own lives (Martin, 2007).

    However, opportunities concur with threats at the same time. Threats for women in migration are vulnerable for exploitation, discrimination, and abuse.
    Women who migrated to countries with strict religious and cultural norms are exposed to a difficult adjustment (UN, 2006).
    Threats are in the form of violence of employers, trafficking of women, and women refugees for the war-zone prone areas.
    A. Violence of employers: Particularly in the Middle East, domestic employees have their passport taken away on arrival and are therefore totally dependent on the employer. Many are not receiving their payment. They even work late at night without a time for resting. Also, many of them suffer serious brutality which can extend to rape and torture.
    B. Trafficking of women: The sex trade and exploitation of clandestine migrants today represent the third largest source of illicit revenue worldwide after arms and drugs. International human trafficking probably involves between 600,000 and 800,000 individuals each year. 80% of victims are women (FIDH, 2007).
    C. Women refugees: Since the beginning of the 90s, sexual violence has become a true weapon of warfare. This results in forced pregnancy, very serious genital lesions and the spread of AIDS amongst refugee and displaced women.
    Refugees camp have been a facet for most kind of exploitation and most of the time rape cases are rampant.

    On the other side, men also have adjustments on the rising numbers of women who are migrating. Men who also migrate can be prone to discrimination in their work. They may feel uneasy on the new environment because they misses the "power" or "authority" they have exercised on the place of their origin.
    In Asia, when men migrate, leaving their families behind, there appears to be evidence that the women-headed households adjust rapidly to the situation. Women continue their usual activities, but they also take on new roles in the absence of their spouses. Men retain their role as breadwinner, albeit at a distance. Little information is available on the reintegration process when men return, but experts speculate that
    tensions are likely to arise as women and children readjust to their presence (United Nations, 2004a).


    How does the author threaded the inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development?

    There is a linkage on women, migration and development. Women have the alternative to migrate whether voluntarily or involuntarily. The nexus between migration and development is two-sided: underdevelopment affects migration and migration affects development. In the long-term, the best solution to unwanted migration is “stay at home” development (Martin, 2007).

    Migrant women contribute to the economic and social development of their country of destination and their country of origin through their financial contributions from remittances, the improvement of their own skills and their contribution to the improvement of the education and skills of the next generation. The impacts are felt in three principal areas: financial contributions through financial and social remittances,
    investment by diasporas, and human capital gains when migrants return (UN, 2006).

    jenny ca
    Guest

    Re: Day 2: Gender Perspective of Migration

    Post  jenny ca on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:37 pm

    What is your “gender perspective of migration?”[/b][/b]It is true that increasing number of women is migrating within or outside their host countries or places. The estimated number of migrants worldwide rose to over 190 million persons residing outside their countries of origin in 2005. With some 86 million migrants were migrant workers and their families as of 2000 (United Nations Development Fund for Women, 2006). Women migrants constitute 50 per cent of the total international migrant population, globally, but in countries like Indonesia, the Philippines and Sri Lanka accounted for some 60 to 80 per cent of migrant women workers abroad between 2000 and 2003. Though, gender inequality is still controversial in nature, no one should be deprived of the rights especially the to choose what is just and good for themselves.

    Perhaps, a lot of things changed as women as what had been noted in some literatures entered the long before male sphere of comfort. The notable female presence on migration flows is not a new phenomenon. What is new however is the economic role assumed in the migration process (D.L.Castañeda, UN-INSTRAW, 2004) and eventually how it impact development. And positive and negative consequences may arise in the process. For me, these impending consequences of migration would be addressed as early as possible if enough opportunities for women are available within the country of origin. Since, they chose to move out of the country for economic opportunities, providing women equal opportunities to bolster their capabilities would be best.
    But let us not contained the discussion of gender migration to women alone, but instead, take into account how men adapt to this visible colonization of women in the field known after them. It was noted that most gender researches had focused on women rather than on gender, which also includes male. And I’d like to agree that women are not always the losers. Certain groups of men are particularly vulnerable to insecurity and marginalization, for instance those who are unable to fill the culturally prescribed role of ‘breadwinner’ in times of economic restructuring (Chant 2000). With this, I’d like to stand in the position that both men and women should be equally treated, though impossible because of culture, and be considered both agent of development.

    • How does the author threaded the inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development?
    Since a large number of women are migrating outside the country to seek greener pastures for her family, as I looked through the literature, itevolves around the role of women who migrated in remitting economic and social resources to their countries. They remitted monetary resources that eventually be used for infrastructures and educational purposes. . Remittances constitute the second largest capital flow to developing countries; with formal transfers nearly triple the value of official development assistance and accounting for as much as 10% of the GDP in some countries (UNIFEM, 2006).

    However, little attention has been paid to the fact that monetary resources are not the only revenue that households receive and issues on gender and remittances are generally neglected. Migrant women workers contribute to the development of both sending and receiving countries through their labor and skills, remittances and productive investments upon their return home. Migrants often form associations to raise and remit funds for infrastructure development, health and education programs, and income generation activities in their home communities (D. L. Castañeda, 2004). Temporary or permanent Migrant women, moreover, bring with them the skills when they arrive to their home countries. And more importantly, let us not ignore that development should also focus on assuring that the human rights regardless of the class, nationality, sexual orientation, gender, age, etc would not be disrespected. If we want to consider development due to migration, we must look at the improvements that the work of migrants provide in destination countries and highlight the almost null recognition on the growth (or at least maintenance) of the well-being in developed countries.

    • How does an increase in migration among women affects global migration streams and its consequences? What effects does this migration creates to the woman’s health, familial and social relationship?
    Most women migrated for employment believing this will help them to change the way their family is currently living. Asian female migrants opt to work abroad under trying conditions for the good of the family, aware that personally they may gain little from the experience (Lim & Oishi 1996). Moreover, Family reunification, increasing desire to escape discrimination, cultural constraints and domestic violence are few of the other reasons listed to contribute to such migration process.
    Had leaving the country also possessed them a belief that at some point they will be empowered. Some researches pointed out that women are vulnerable for abuse and violations of rights and even more discrimination at the hands of brokers, recruiters, employers, and migration officials. They find themselves vulnerable as women, as foreigners and as unskilled laborers, exposing them to abuse and exploitation such as physical and social isolation, sexual harassment, and sexual and physical violence. They also reiterated that what often starts out as labor migration can end in trafficking and such jeopardize women’s safety, dignity, well-being and overall empowerment (UNIFEM, 2006). And this violation of migrant worker rights can also entail costs to receiving countries, in terms of medical or legal services required and in reduced productivity and absenteeism resulting from psychological and physical stress. In the event that this is continuously happening, development of the home country, as what we previously described to be benefiting from monetary remittances would be greatly affected.

    • What lapses do policy makers must seek in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves?
    There are several laws and policies that law-makers should adapt and if not, initially taken, to protect the migrant women and eventually lead both the home and host country benefiting.

    1. Formal labor contracts and set rights and responsibilities of the workers. Let’s take the Jordanian Ministry of Labor as an example. They settle it within themselves and endorsed standard working contracts for non-Jordanian workers including the delineation of the rights and responsibilities of both the worker & employer (UNIFEM, 2004).
    2. Recognition of labor rights union organization helping migrant workers in protecting the rights of its members.
    3. Since trafficking is identified to increase women’s vulnerability for abuse, a regulatory mechanism should be employed for recruitment agencies. Like what the Philippine government is doing to reduce rate of illegal recruitment and trafficking. This program should be strengthened and be implemented at all cost.
    4. The general public must be informed of their rights of migrants both men and women, and the potential violations that may be present. Awareness campaigns must be structured and strengthened in providing information to the migrants and the families before prior decision to migrate is arrived at.

    Ma. Ange
    Guest

    Gender Perspetive of Migration

    Post  Ma. Ange on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:26 pm

    MA. ANGELICA H. VERAIN
    EXEC4- MSN MCN

    ANSWER #1

    Migration could be a transforming experience for both male and female. It can somehow improve the position of women in her family and in the society. I personally view migration as a stepping stone for a brighter future not just for the woman but also for her family and in a larger context, in the society. Migration can help raise women and men from the lower to lower middle class socio-economic ranks (ILO, 2004; De and Ratha, 2005). With migration, it is not just the socio-economic status that is developed but moreover, it can advance gender equality and women's empowerment through opportunities it opens for greater independence, self-confidence and status. Migration can increasingly offer women education and career opportunities that may not be available or maybe denied to them in their own country.

    With respect to migration, it is important to consider the roles that men and women will have to work on since it will have an influence on how women will be treated. In some societies, gender inequality may lead to overt or covert discrimination against female migrants in terms of their access to social services, the labor market and the judicial system. Thus, policies directed towards protecting the rights of women, particularly migrants should be instituted.

    ANSWER #2

    The author started with defining the importance of a gender perspective in understanding migration. He correlated the gender inequality that could be one factor why women leave the country. In addition, new opportunities that may affect one's development that was emphasized by globalization, precipitated women to migrate.

    Today close to a half of all the 175 million migrants worldwide are women, and their proportion of total migrants has been rising steadily over the last few decades. However, there are few governments with elements in their migration policies that cater for the particular gender of the migrant (IOM, 2003, p277). Scholars that advocate the New Economy of Professional Migration theory suggest that one reason for the increased level of female migration is the increased autonomy from their families that this affords them. In many developing nations much of the decision-making processes are undertaken by the family and women have little say in the process. However, migration could be a way of gaining independence.


    Boserup pioneered research into the relationship between gender and economic development. Her work initiated a number of theoretical approaches towards assessing the role of sex differences in development economics. Three of these approaches are, the Women In Development (WID) approach, the Women And Development approach (WAD) and the Gender And Development approach (GAD) The WID approach has received support from international organizations, governments and non-governmental organisations and has facilitated the integration of women into the economic growth process (Beneria, 2001, p1).The WAD approach aims at instigating change in the development model itself so that it can transform the position of women, integrate them into the economy and afford them greater benefits. The GAD approah concerns on the information about men and their roles, positions and social conditions were deemed an important part of investigating the effects of development on women (Beneria, 2001).

    Several researches state the relationship between female migration and development. International female labour migration afects the economic development in several ways. The first effect is labour contribution. International female labour migration is mainly caused by a shortage of female labour in one country in some specific occupations. These shortages are met through importation of female labours from the labour surplus-countries. Dustmann and Schmidt in their 2000 study on native and immigrant women in Germany found that indeed there was a wage differential between native and immigrant women, however, most of this was accounted for by educational differences. Thus women also have capital contribution. In foreign exchange contribution foreign exchange remittances from the host country to the country of origin of female migrants have become an increasingly important aspect of a number of countries female emigration policies. The remittances are an especially important source of foreign exchange for developing nation. However, As of 2005, the World Bank estimates, international remittances to developing countries exceeded $200 billion per year (World Bank). Considering that OfficialDevelopment Assistance (ODA) seldom exceeds $100 billion per year, migrants are contributing more financial resources to their home countries than are the wealthy countries’ development agencies (OECD, 2002).


    ANSWER #3

    The need to migrate is usually a function of the complex interaction of economic, social, familial and political factors.Because the status of women is usually linked to their role and status within the family and is defined in relationship to their male partners, migration can place women in situations where they experience stress and anxiety due to the loss of their traditional social entourage and environment. Their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and among the most important, however, are the denial of access to education, employment, goods and services, the lack of respect for basic human rights and unequal acess to basic public services which is particularly important given the special needs of women espeially with regard to reproductive health care. Especially in informal activities and domestic work, there is typically inadequate or no provision of maternity benefits and even the possibility of dismissal on pregnancy. There are also reports of overcrowding and poor conditions of housing, especially in women-dominated workplaces.

    One important and emerging area of concern is the greater vulnerability of women migrants to HIV-AIDS infections, which has been already noted empirically in sub-Saharan Africa (UN-INSTRAW 2005).Women are in any case biologically at greater risk of infection than men. The migration of both men and women often involves separation from partners and the greater possibility of engagement in shortterm sexual relationships given migrant lifestyles. Women most often work in the informal trading sector or domestic work, which subjects them to poor working conditions and low pay, sometimes forcing them to resort to sex work to supplement their income. In such a context, gender discrimination can constrain women migrants’ ability to access information and testing related to HIV/AIDS or to negotiate the use of protective methods. Another study by UNDP-INSTRAW for the Arab region (2008) has found thatlimited preparedness and poor access to information and services render women vulnerable to HIV.

    Quite often, legal systems in host countries do not adequately provide rights to migrant women workers (Kawar 2004, Piper 2005). Also, since women is only a migrant in a certain place, there are social, cultural and eonomic barriers that can prvent them from acessing and benefiting from all their legal rights. One basic constraint is problem with the channel of ommunication. Insufficient knowledge of the local language may hinder a migrant woman to be fully aware and demand on her rights There is also a possibility of hostility or indifference of officialdom. Lack of outside contacts and isolation from peers, fear of reprisal and other methods such as withholding of passports by employers all contribute to a web of exploitation and have been found to be a major cause of prolonged exploitation of women migrants in some cases.

    ANSWER #4

    Among the policies that should be implemented in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves include an increase in the support networks and information to migrant women. Appropriate bodies at various levels (local, national and international) need to be informed to provide support networks to migrant women that are accessible and known. The main problem that women face based form the literatures is lack of knowledge about their rights and the pratices of their workplace. This problem can led to another problem of abuse, discrimination and exploitation. Next is to increase penalties and more severe laws on trafficking, combined with increased assistance for the trafficked womennitiatives to combat trafficking must be generated in both the host country and the country of origin, and these initiatives need to be coordinated to maximize an efficient effort to stop trafficking. Another reommendation is increasing the awareness and recognition of migrant women by the broader public. This would prevent or if not, reduce discrimination and xenophobia towards migrants which in turn, would allow migrants more social interaction, and would reduce discrimination and exploitation directed at them. There should also be standardized data on both national and international figures so that trends could be examined with amuch higher degree of accuracy, in order that correct policies can be generated. They should fous on the cases of illegal migration of women and alsoexploitation of women. These policies will enable us to fully understand the issues concerned in migration so that every issue will be properly assessed and acted upon.

    Ma. Ange
    Guest

    Gender Perspetive of Migration

    Post  Ma. Ange on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:26 pm

    MA. ANGELICA H. VERAIN
    EXEC4- MSN MCN

    ANSWER #1

    Migration could be a transforming experience for both male and female. It can somehow improve the position of women in her family and in the society. I personally view migration as a stepping stone for a brighter future not just for the woman but also for her family and in a larger context, in the society. Migration can help raise women and men from the lower to lower middle class socio-economic ranks (ILO, 2004; De and Ratha, 2005). With migration, it is not just the socio-economic status that is developed but moreover, it can advance gender equality and women's empowerment through opportunities it opens for greater independence, self-confidence and status. Migration can increasingly offer women education and career opportunities that may not be available or maybe denied to them in their own country.

    With respect to migration, it is important to consider the roles that men and women will have to work on since it will have an influence on how women will be treated. In some societies, gender inequality may lead to overt or covert discrimination against female migrants in terms of their access to social services, the labor market and the judicial system. Thus, policies directed towards protecting the rights of women, particularly migrants should be instituted.

    ANSWER #2

    The author started with defining the importance of a gender perspective in understanding migration. He correlated the gender inequality that could be one factor why women leave the country. In addition, new opportunities that may affect one's development that was emphasized by globalization, precipitated women to migrate.

    Today close to a half of all the 175 million migrants worldwide are women, and their proportion of total migrants has been rising steadily over the last few decades. However, there are few governments with elements in their migration policies that cater for the particular gender of the migrant (IOM, 2003, p277). Scholars that advocate the New Economy of Professional Migration theory suggest that one reason for the increased level of female migration is the increased autonomy from their families that this affords them. In many developing nations much of the decision-making processes are undertaken by the family and women have little say in the process. However, migration could be a way of gaining independence.


    Boserup pioneered research into the relationship between gender and economic development. Her work initiated a number of theoretical approaches towards assessing the role of sex differences in development economics. Three of these approaches are, the Women In Development (WID) approach, the Women And Development approach (WAD) and the Gender And Development approach (GAD) The WID approach has received support from international organizations, governments and non-governmental organisations and has facilitated the integration of women into the economic growth process (Beneria, 2001, p1).The WAD approach aims at instigating change in the development model itself so that it can transform the position of women, integrate them into the economy and afford them greater benefits. The GAD approah concerns on the information about men and their roles, positions and social conditions were deemed an important part of investigating the effects of development on women (Beneria, 2001).

    Several researches state the relationship between female migration and development. International female labour migration afects the economic development in several ways. The first effect is labour contribution. International female labour migration is mainly caused by a shortage of female labour in one country in some specific occupations. These shortages are met through importation of female labours from the labour surplus-countries. Dustmann and Schmidt in their 2000 study on native and immigrant women in Germany found that indeed there was a wage differential between native and immigrant women, however, most of this was accounted for by educational differences. Thus women also have capital contribution. In foreign exchange contribution foreign exchange remittances from the host country to the country of origin of female migrants have become an increasingly important aspect of a number of countries female emigration policies. The remittances are an especially important source of foreign exchange for developing nation. However, As of 2005, the World Bank estimates, international remittances to developing countries exceeded $200 billion per year (World Bank). Considering that OfficialDevelopment Assistance (ODA) seldom exceeds $100 billion per year, migrants are contributing more financial resources to their home countries than are the wealthy countries’ development agencies (OECD, 2002).


    ANSWER #3

    The need to migrate is usually a function of the complex interaction of economic, social, familial and political factors.Because the status of women is usually linked to their role and status within the family and is defined in relationship to their male partners, migration can place women in situations where they experience stress and anxiety due to the loss of their traditional social entourage and environment. Their social integration in new settings may be equally limited by their initial lack of education and among the most important, however, are the denial of access to education, employment, goods and services, the lack of respect for basic human rights and unequal acess to basic public services which is particularly important given the special needs of women espeially with regard to reproductive health care. Especially in informal activities and domestic work, there is typically inadequate or no provision of maternity benefits and even the possibility of dismissal on pregnancy. There are also reports of overcrowding and poor conditions of housing, especially in women-dominated workplaces.

    One important and emerging area of concern is the greater vulnerability of women migrants to HIV-AIDS infections, which has been already noted empirically in sub-Saharan Africa (UN-INSTRAW 2005).Women are in any case biologically at greater risk of infection than men. The migration of both men and women often involves separation from partners and the greater possibility of engagement in shortterm sexual relationships given migrant lifestyles. Women most often work in the informal trading sector or domestic work, which subjects them to poor working conditions and low pay, sometimes forcing them to resort to sex work to supplement their income. In such a context, gender discrimination can constrain women migrants’ ability to access information and testing related to HIV/AIDS or to negotiate the use of protective methods. Another study by UNDP-INSTRAW for the Arab region (2008) has found thatlimited preparedness and poor access to information and services render women vulnerable to HIV.

    Quite often, legal systems in host countries do not adequately provide rights to migrant women workers (Kawar 2004, Piper 2005). Also, since women is only a migrant in a certain place, there are social, cultural and eonomic barriers that can prvent them from acessing and benefiting from all their legal rights. One basic constraint is problem with the channel of ommunication. Insufficient knowledge of the local language may hinder a migrant woman to be fully aware and demand on her rights There is also a possibility of hostility or indifference of officialdom. Lack of outside contacts and isolation from peers, fear of reprisal and other methods such as withholding of passports by employers all contribute to a web of exploitation and have been found to be a major cause of prolonged exploitation of women migrants in some cases.

    ANSWER #4

    Among the policies that should be implemented in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves include an increase in the support networks and information to migrant women. Appropriate bodies at various levels (local, national and international) need to be informed to provide support networks to migrant women that are accessible and known. The main problem that women face based form the literatures is lack of knowledge about their rights and the pratices of their workplace. This problem can led to another problem of abuse, discrimination and exploitation. Next is to increase penalties and more severe laws on trafficking, combined with increased assistance for the trafficked womennitiatives to combat trafficking must be generated in both the host country and the country of origin, and these initiatives need to be coordinated to maximize an efficient effort to stop trafficking. Another reommendation is increasing the awareness and recognition of migrant women by the broader public. This would prevent or if not, reduce discrimination and xenophobia towards migrants which in turn, would allow migrants more social interaction, and would reduce discrimination and exploitation directed at them. There should also be standardized data on both national and international figures so that trends could be examined with amuch higher degree of accuracy, in order that correct policies can be generated. They should fous on the cases of illegal migration of women and alsoexploitation of women. These policies will enable us to fully understand the issues concerned in migration so that every issue will be properly assessed and acted upon.

    ma. cris
    Guest

    gender perspective of migration part2

    Post  ma. cris on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:23 pm

    Effects of Migration

    Global Migration

    Migration will have both positive and negative consequences for sending and receiving states alike, but on balance the benefits will outweigh the costs for most countries.
    Most experts believe that migration will continue to contribute significantly to noninflationary economic growth and demographic balance, despite some initially higher welfare costs and some downward pressure on wages in relevant sectors.


    Impact on Host Countries

    On the positive side, emigration will help relieve some social and political pressures from the large, unemployed and restless youth cohorts of poor sending countries. Moreover, immigrant remittances and returning immigrants will provide important balance of payments help, direct investments, and useful skills in their home countries. Immigrant populations can often act as liberalizing and modernizing forces in their native lands, particularly at times of political transition.

    On the negative side, emigration will drain some sending countries of an increasing portion of their small, highly educated elites (National International Council, 2001).

    Emigration will relieve pressures from their unemployed youth, generate substantial remittances, and often provide them with leverage on receiving countries. Returning immigrants often will be agents of economic modernization and political liberalization. But emigration also will result in the loss of skilled personnel—especially in Sub-
    Saharan Africa, South and East Asia, and Russia—while ethnic diasporas will sometimes be agents of extremism or separatism, as in the Balkans.



    Impact on Receiving Countries

    On the positive side, migration will offer a source of demographic and economic dynamism for aging developed countries that will replenish their youth cohorts and expand their shrinking labor and military recruitment pools. It also will expand their tax and consumer bases that are key to maintaining fiscal balance, the social contract, and economic growth.

    On the negative side, immigration and refugee flows sometimes will change the balance of ethnic and political power within and among nations, especially in developing countries. Large-scale flows of migrants and refugees— some recent, some decades old, and some yet to take place—will provoke political instability and conflict.

    For most receiving countries, immigration will provide demographic and economic vitality for those with aging populations—even as it raises complex political and social integration challenges (National International Council, 2001).

    In the Philippines, the Filipina domestic had become synonymous with the nation-state. If Filipina domestic workers occupied low-status jobs, the Philippines as a country had come to problematically occupy a low-status on the global stage. The saddest reality as found in the mission is the irreparable damage that has been inflicted to the reputation of the Filipina woman in the international scene because of the indiscriminate deployment of our women as domestic helpers (DHs) and entertainers. The country has gained the embarrassing reputation that it is a country of DHs, entertainers, and even prostitute. It is said that even in a certain dictionary the latest definition of the word ‘Filipina’ is a ‘housemaid’ (Rodriguez, 2005).
    Women’s Health
    The impact of migration on women's health is complex, depending on whether she is migrating or staying behind, and what types of work she is involved in. Trafficking victims are at the most serious risk in terms of injuries and sexually transmitted diseases, and refugee women often suffer from post-traumatic stress disorder with little or no recourse to treatment and support. (AWID, 2008).
    Women are particularly exposed to infectious diseases and are not informed enough about sexually transmitted diseases, such as AIDS (December 18, 2008).
    Immigrants and refugees have sustained the stresses of both a move and of being newcomers to our society, with similar barriers in language and understanding of a new culture and health system. In general, refugee patients are at higher risk for physical and emotional crises after arrival than at other times (Ivey, 2001).

    Family and Social Relationship
    Migration has its positive and negative impact on the families these women left behind. While it is true that these women secure the economic stability of their families, various implications on family’s values set in. Their roles as wives and mothers are mostly the areas where disturbances among the family occur.
    The types of effects examined include those on family structure and composition, family headship, marriage and divorce, intergenerational and intrafamily relationships, care of children and the aged, the economic situation of the family, the role and status of women and power relationships in the family. Both migration and the family are in a very dynamic situation and there are important two-way relationships between them. International migration has both positive and negative influences on families in Indonesia. It is important to gain a deeper understanding of the relationship between migration and family to maximize the benefits and at least ameliorate the negative effects (Hugo, 2002).
    Others believed that women’s migration undermined the social and moral fabric of Philippine society as families were left without wives and mothers. Migrant advocates, including NGO workers, religious groups and scholars, echoed public concerns about women’s migration, specifically the migration of domestic workers. They too believed that the migration of women negatively impacted their families left behind in the Philippines (Rodriguez, 2005).

    Studies conclude those women’s migration leads to “values disorientation,” in families and the neglect of children (Beltran and Rodriguez 1996). Meanwhile in a public dialogue sponsored by migrant advocates, it was found that the overseas workers and their families are not able to release their psychological anxieties and emotional distress. This results in loneliness and depression and to some extent, others would rather commit suicide (Rodriguez, 2005).

    As for the social relationship, migrant women display considerable agency. They contribute to the economic development of their countries of destination through their competencies and skills, and to that of their countries of origin through their remittances and their increased experience when they return to those countries. Upon return to the countries of origin, migrant women may disseminate the importance of rights and opportunities for women. They engage in activities supporting health and education in the community.

    Making migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants

    Strengthen policy and laws about migration both in the host and source countries must be strongly established. Policies must focus on:

    o Protection of migrants in their host countries
    o Remuneration and benefits of these overseas workers
    o Improvement of economic status of the sources countries, so that need for going overseas will not be apparent anymore
    o Improvement on recruitment scheme for overseas workers
    o Coordination with host countries
    In the Philippines, Republic Act 8042 (RA8042) was passed mandating many important policies very specifically related to better protecting women migrants. It addresses the calls for migration reform that the broader public and migrant advocates had been articulating over the years. It states in RA8042 that, “The State recognizes that the ultimate protection to all migrant workers is the possession of skills. Pursuant to this and as soon as practicable, the government shall deploy and/or allow the deployment only to skilled Filipino workers”. For domestic workers, who the state officially categorizes as “vulnerable workers”, this has meant mandatory training programs prior to deployment overseas. In addition to skills training, the state also expanded its worker education programs attempting to better disseminate “information of labor and employment conditions, migration realities and other facts, and adherence of particular countries to international standards on human and workers’ rights which will adequately prepare individuals into making informed and intelligent decisions about overseas employment”. Post-deployment, in countries of destination, RA8042 mandates government services on-site that offer additional training and skills upgrading programs. Moreover, the state provides legal and welfare services for migrant workers in distress. Because the state has officially incorporated a “gender sensitive” approach to migration policy, it means that all of these programs attempt to address the specific problems faced by migrant women. Finally, the state, through RA8042, even mandates new forms of non-governmental organization (NGO)-state partnership that engage migrant advocates in the provision of services and programs to aid in migrant workers’ protection. RA8042 states, “non-governmental organizations, duly recognized as legitimate, are partners of the State in the protection of Filipino migrant workers and in the promotion of their welfare”.
    • Organizations and support groups of the families left behind by these women must be provided by the State. Program and activities must be provided that seek to fulfill the needs of these families in terms of emotion, mental, psychological and spiritual aspects.
    • Identification of ways better to promote “stay at home” development that will provide women with employment opportunities, education, health care and other services, legal rights, and protection from violence in their home communities. Such programs would help ensure that migration is by choice, not necessity, and that women migrants who with to return can do so in safety and dignity.

    • Providing means of investment/economic stability for the migrants women when they return to their source countries.






    References:


    Martin, Susan. 2007.Women, Migration and Development. Institute for the Study of International Migration, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University.

    The Invisible ones: women in migration. An initiative of December 18. 2008. Available at

    Martin, Susan. 2001. Global migration trends and asylum. Available at

    Nowlis, Rebecca Sladek. 2000. Migration can lead to new perceptions of women’s work, health, and social status. University of San Francisco News Office. Available at

    Migrants Human Rights: From the Margins to the Mainstream. An initiative of December 18. 2008. Available at

    Migration and development: the answer to poverty?. An initiative of December 18. 2008. Available at

    Eviota EU; Smith PC. 1984. The migration of women in the Philippines. Available at
    United Nations. Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable

    Development. Division for the Advancement of Women. 1993. A gender perspective on migration and urbanization. Available at

    Asis, Maruja M.B.2006. The Philippines' Culture of Migration. Migration Policy Institute.

    Jones, Rochelle. 2005. World Survey on the Role of Women in
    Development. Association for Women’s Rights in Development. Available at

    Ivey, Susan. 2001. Immigrant women's health initial clinical assessment. West Journal Med. Volume 174 (6).

    United Nations Development Fund for Women. 2006. Empowering Women Migrant Workers. Available at

    International Organization for Migration. Working to Prevent and Address Violence against Women Migrant Workers. Available at

    National Intelligence Council. 2001.Growing Global Migration and Its Implications for the United States. Available at

    United Nations. Department for Policy Coordination and Sustainable Development. Division for the Advancement of Women. 1993. Women and International Migration. Available at

    Rodriguez, Robyn M.2005. Domestic Insecurities: Female Migration from the Philippines, Development and National Subject-Status. The Center for Comparative Immigration Studies. Available at

    ma. cris
    Guest

    gender perspective of migration

    Post  ma. cris on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:21 pm

    Ma. Cristina D. Arroyo Women’s Health
    MSNMCN E4 Prof. Mae Nierras

    [b]Gender Perspective of Migration


    Gender perspective of migration

    According to the UN Population Division, in 1965, only 75 million persons fit the definition, rising to 84 million by 1975 and 105 million by 1985. There were an estimated 120 million international migrants in 1990, the last year for which detailed international statistics are available. An examination of data from selected countries of in-migration indicates that international migration continued with about the same rate of growth in the 1990s. As of the year 2000, according to estimates, there are 150 million international migrants (Martin, 2001).
    In the Philippines, for the last 30 years, a culture of migration has emerged, with millions of Filipinos eager to work abroad, despite the risks and vulnerabilities they are likely to face. A nationwide survey of 1,200 adult respondents in 2002 found one in five Filipinos expressing a desire to migrate. Women are very visible in international migration from the Philippines. They not only compose the majority of permanent settlers, i.e., as part of family migration, but they are as prominent as men in labor migration. In fact, since 1992, female migrants outnumbered men among the newly hired land-based workers who are legally deployed every year. Among the top 10 destinations of OFWs, Hong Kong, Kuwait, Singapore, Italy, United Arab Emirates, Japan, and Taiwan are dominated by women OFWs. In Hong Kong, for example, more than 90 percent of OFWs are women (Asis, 2006).
    Traditionally, migration has been mostly a male phenomenon because men had the freedom to travel and a duty to maintain the financial upkeep of the family. Migration was a men’s world: migrants’ jobs were male jobs and migrants’ rights were men’s rights. But recently globalization has brought with it a feminization of migration, and the number of women who migrate alone, as men do, to make money for themselves and/or to support their families, is increasing (December 18, 2008). In most societies, men are more likely to respond to economic opportunities than women because of cultural and social norms that restrict the choices open to women. Thus, women are less likely to migrate independently, and when they migrate as dependent family members they may not be free to respond to the opportunities that migration opens up to them. Studies show that migrant women are generally eager to take advantage of any economic opportunities and that women are more likely than men to use all their income to enhance their family's well-being (United Nations Division for Advancement of Women, 1993).
    Nearly half of the migrants in different countries are women. This statistic only supports the growing phenomenon of women migration. Most of these women are married or single, divorced or widows, mothers and daughters, girls and older (December 18, 2008).
    There are various reasons why there is increase in migration among women. Family reunification, to study, to acquire work experience, gain economic independence and to escape discrimination and constraining gender norms such as obligation to marry or have children, to name some. Gender inequality in the country of origin is one of the biggest motivating factors for women to migrate (UN,Division of Advancement of Women; Association for Women’s Rights in Development, 2008).
    The migrant women are faced with the double burden of being female and a migrant. To add, burden on language and culture barriers are also evident (Association for Women’s Rights in Development, 2008; Martin, 2007). Most of the type of jobs these women find are maids, cleaners and caretakers of the sick, the elderly and of children, as well as farmers, waitresses, sweatshop workers, highly skilled professionals, teachers, nurses, entertainers, sex workers (December 18, 2008).
    In the Philippines migration status, the most common type of job that a Filipina would take are in domestic work and entertainment (Rodriguez, 2005; Asis, 2006). Female OFWs can also be found in factory work, sales, and nursing (Asis, 2006).
    Since the kinds of jobs these women take are unprotected sectors, female migration has raised many concerns about the safety and well-being of women migrants (Asis, 2006). Many women who migrate find themselves at risk of gender-based violence and exploitation ( Martin, 2007; UN, Division for the Advancement of Women). In addition, it is important to keep in mind that gender does not operate in isolation from race, ethnicity, and religion. Since many migrant women differ from the host population in these respects, they may face additional discrimination (Martin, 2007).

    On the other hand, Migration is also an empowering experience for many women. Their access for financial resources increases as they migrate and work in other countries (Martin, 2007). Some women also when they come back to their host country, they become advocate of women’s right and opportunities (UN, Division for the Advancement of Women)





    Inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development

    Underdevelopment affects migration and migration affects development. There are positive and negative impacts of migration of women on aspects of development.

    One of the major reasons why women migrate is economic/financial restraints. To attain this, women will engage in all possible jobs they can find aboard in order to sustain the economic factor of the families they left behind through remittances. Overall, women remit more than men. Women, also tend to have stronger networks with their families that are associated with greater remitting behaviors. These remittances help the families and the host countries’ economic status. Women’s remittances make up for a large part of some country’s revenues (in 2005, 86% of the remittances from Europe to the Dominican Republic were sent by women). Women tend to send home a higher proportion of their wages but the total amount is smaller because they often earn less than men (December 18, 2008).

    Diasporas also play an important role in stimulating development apart from remittance transfers. Migrants often form associations to raise and remit funds for infrastructure development, health and education programs, and income generation activities in their home communities.

    Women also, are likely to engage themselves into supporting health and education, their active involvement in hometown associations might stimulate more investment in those areas that promote longer-term economic and social development.

    As a result of women’s migration experience, they gain innovative knowledge and skills that .they can share into their fellowmen when they return to their host countries, further advancing the development on these countries. Avenues for economic stability such as small business can be established by these women.
    On the other side of the coin, these women as a result of discrimination or any episodes of inequalities aboard would encourage their daughters or families to migrate. Another factor would be the acculturation part of these women, when they found out that culture doesn’t match them, then more likely than not, they wouldn’t recommend going to other countries to their respective families, hindering of what might have been an opportunity for development for these families.



    (answer to no 3 and 4, next) message is too big so i have to divide it and post it in another page.

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Day 2: Gender Perspective of Migration

    Post  ara_portillo on Wed 24 Jun 2009, 12:03 pm

    Dear Ma’am Nierras and Classmates,

    Welcome to our 2nd online asynchronous discussion. This is Ara and I will be your moderator on the issue on “Gender Perspective of Migration” for the suggested reading material “Women, Migration and Development” by Susan Martin.

    As I tried to find other readings for this, I browsed over the United Nations publication last 2004 on World Survey on Role of Women in Development which you can also read on (a PDF File you can access via the net, I’ll try to upload it). It is a more comprehensive discussion of what is presented in the suggested reading article.

    For this discussion, the following are the points to consider:
    • Everyone is free to express their views and answers with regards to the guide questions posted. However, these questions are not meant to limit the extent of the discussion.
    • To support your views, back them up by claims of other authors. Let us strive to make it a research based, healthy discussion.
    • The gist of the article “Women, Migration and Development” is given below and it is followed by the guide questions.
    • All answers will be taken in consideration as I make a summary of the discussion. Deadline for your postings will be until tomorrow, June 24, 11:00 am.
    • I will try my best to answer your other questions and arguments, but I am not on-line 24/7 so I might not give the answers/replies immediately.

    To start, here is brief overview of the discussion. Nice day to everyone!
    World Survey on the Role of Women in Development in early March 2005 focuses on women and international migration and reflects the growing interest in migration trends and dynamics in an increasingly globalised world. Ninety million women currently reside outside their countries of origin and according to the report, it is not the presence of women in migration streams that is unusual, but the scale of the migration and the entry of women into previously male migration streams that is notable. Women's representation among all international migrants has risen from 46 percent in 1960 to 49 percent in 2000 (World Survey on the Role of Women in Development: Women and International Migration, 2004).

    Understanding the gender perspective of migration is essential to undercover both the causes and consequences of international migration. Still, the prime reason identified for more women into migration is gender inequality when they have economic, political and social expectations that opportunities at home do not meet. Other reasons vary: to be with a family member and to earn a living. Thus, connections between the two – migration of women and development are also established. “Women are increasingly migrating on their own and are the principal wage earners who remit money to their families in their countries of origin”.

    One of the impacts of migration among women is that it is empowering on their part. It gives them the lesson of leaving the patriarchal nature of their homes and earning a living for the family. However, the phenomenon also creates vulnerabilities for them since it still makes the women often the subject of gender-based violence and exploitation. Whether labor migrants, family migrants, human trafficking victims, or refugees, they face the double problem of being female and foreign. Likewise, there are still many discriminatory laws on emigration and immigration of voluntary migrants that affect the protection of migrant women.

    The article ‘Women, Migration and Development” shows that dearth of data relating to women and migration in terms of availability, quality and comparability exists. So to address this, policy recommendations was suggested by the author. This includes policies and programs to empower migrant women’s rights, to protect their safety and security; to reduce the cost of remittance transfers; to provide financial literacy information and to improve research and data gathering with regards this concern of the 21st century.

    The following questions will help us further our discussion on this topic:

    • What is your “gender perspective of migration?”
    • How does the author threaded the inter-relationship among the concepts women, migration and development?
    • How does an increase in migration among women affects global migration streams and its consequences? What effects does this migration creates to the woman’s health, familial and social relationship?
    • What lapses do policy makers must seek in order to make migration a win-win situation for the host countries, source countries and female migrants themselves?


    Thank you very much!

    -ara
    Smile

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    Re: Day 2: Gender Perspective of Migration

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      Current date/time is Tue 24 Oct 2017, 4:26 am