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    Day 5 - Review of Women's Health Program

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    railibo-
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    Re: Day 5 - Review of Women's Health Program

    Post  railibo- on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 9:02 pm

    Sorry!!! I posted at the wrong page!!!

    railibo-
    Guest

    Synthesis

    Post  railibo- on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 9:00 pm

    Good evening Ma’am Nierras and classmates!
    I’ve been meaning to post the synthesis for this topic at an earlier date but unfortunately, I seem to keep on forgetting that I need to post my synthesis. So pardon me for the late posting.

    0-0-0-0

    This topic really caught my interests even before the start of this semester since my topic for my research proposal was about sensory deficits among mothers specifically those who are Deaf. So, I really had a great time reading your views about this topic. It gave me new insights about women who have sensory deficits. I would like to extend my heartfelt gratitude to Ms. Angel, Ms. Jenny, Ms. Ara, Ms. Tina and Ms. Meg and most especially to Ma’am Nierras. I just wish I could say my thanks to you through Filipino Sign Language. ^_^ (language of the Deaf Community).


    Here goes the synthesis…

    Having a sensory deficit seems to have a great impact on women specifically on the issue of how they will live, how they will learn as well as how they will communicate with others. It greatly affects their roles as a daughter, mother, wife and as well as a professional. It also has a great impact on the elderly people making them more at risk to accidents. Poverty seems to play an important role in the economic status of women with sensory deficits. With poverty, they can’t get any access to health services as well as get any assistance that would be of great help to them in protecting themselves as well as their rights as human beings. The stigma about having sensory deficits is crippling on the part of women. Usually, the community views them as those who are incapable, incompetent or worst, mentally challenged. In the end the, women with sensory deficits suffer social isolation. Overall the impact of having sensory deficits greatly affects the women, physically, mentally, emotionally and psychologically.


    A lot of initiatives are being done to provide assistance to these women who have sensory deficits. Organizations are set up to provide and help these women get the assistance they need like access to healthcare, empowering them in exerting their rights as a woman as well as a citizen, training them to help them cope up with their sensory deficiency and boost their morale and self-esteem (vocational trainings, sign languages). Centers are also being put up to provide protection for these women who were more at risk of experiencing violence.


    It’s nice to know that society is finally taking notice of the presence of these women as well as addressing their needs. True, they may have deficiencies but we must also remember that like us, they too are human women who need protection, assistance and understanding.

    This ends my synthesis. Thank you!


    Have a nice day and see you all soon!


    My sincere apologies again.

    Moderator:

    Raiza

    Maria Al
    Guest

    SYNTHESIS

    Post  Maria Al on Tue 30 Jun 2009, 10:01 pm

    Good Evening Mam Nierras and classmates,

    I thought the synthesis for Last Friday's discussion was na-post na, but hindi pala, (technical error). My apologies but i will repost again our synthesis for Last Friday's Discussion.

    So here it goes:

    1. We can see there are alot of programs on Women’s health that are being implemented here in our country and sure enough these programs will sustain health among women, but there are some barriers which hinder the success of these programs in sustaining health among women. Some of the barriers mentioned are low budget for the health, availability of the skilled health care providers, the health seeking behaviors of an individual, resistant to change, the traditions and practices that were handed to us by our ancestors which sometimes or most of the time affect the health of an individual.
    2. As mentioned earlier there are a lot of factors that can contribute to the failure and success of women’s health program. One of these is that, since there are a lot of existing women’s health programs in our country having their own goals and objectives. Each using different strategies in assessing, planning, implementing and in evaluating which lead to confusion on the part of the target population and wastage of resources as well since there is an overlapping of activities. Lack of funding, availability of health care provider, most of the people are resistant to change, traditions and practices.
    3. We can see that there are some changes that were brought by implementation of women’s health programs. These changes can be seen in the statistics done by the DOH. Ten Filipino women are said to die every 24 hours from pregnancy-related causes (SPPR 2002). The maternal mortality ratio (MMR), were reported to be 209 in 1993 and 172 in 1998 (NDHS 1993 and 1998). Although world statistics on MMR in 2000 show that the country’s MMR is less than the world average, the experience of Sri Lanka with a 32 MMR shows that developing countries can achieve rates that are close to that of developed countries.
    4. As mentioned by Ms. Ara we need to address the noted hindrances or barriers in order to enhance these programs for women’s health. In addition to that, the program should be evaluated after the implementation and to improve that area in which contributed to the unmet objectives or to do another strategy.
    5. Other health programs for women that are appropriate in the international and local scene as mentioned by Ms ara includes
    a. programs that are more sound/fitting with the culture of the target population.
    b. programs that involve the men – like in addressing participation to pregnancy and also in issues of gender based violence. “Efforts to end violence against women must address men. This notion is increasingly accepted in violence prevention circles. More generally, there is growing international support for the belief that we must involve men in efforts to build gender equality” (Flood, 2003).
    6. Through this reproductive health projects, it will help the women and her husband to have a proper spacing of children to meet the needs of their children and as well as for the woman to maintain healthy. Proper spacing of children will also increase the economic status of their household which will eventually lead to healthy family.

    Have a nice day!Smile

    See you soon mam and classmates!

    My apologies again. Smile

    Moderators:

    Tina, Lauren and Althea

    barriers to success of women's health care programs

    Post  megsenga_crown princess o on Sun 28 Jun 2009, 2:56 pm

    HEALTH CARE PRACTICES

    When women try to meet their needs for reproductive health care and other health care services, they often face a fragmentation in the health care system itself. Furthermore, women make more visits to the doctor than do men. Women are highly interested in, and informed about, health care issues. However, reliable information about health care has not been widely available. National studies have indicated that women may not be as satisfied with the information they receive from their health care providers as are men or with the level of communication with their provider. Furthermore, several studies have found that health care providers treat women differently than they do men. Compared with the treatment given to men, health providers may give women less thorough evaluations for similar complaints, minimize their symptoms, provide fewer interventions for the same diagnoses, prescribe some types of medications more often, or provide less explanation in response to questions.

    ACCESS TO HEALTH INSURANCE

    Although the health of the American economy has never been better, more women than ever lack health insurance coverage. The proportion of uninsured women under age 65 rose from 14 percent in 1993 to 18 percent in 1998. More dramatic still, the proportion of women under 65 who lacked health insurance for all or part of 1998 was a staggering 26 percent, according to the 1998 Commonwealth Fund Survey of Women's Health.

    The women who are most likely to have no health insurance are those who earn low or moderate incomes, women of color, and women with health problems. More than 8 in 10 uninsured women are employed or they are married to someone who is employed. Lack of insurance severely compromises both the accessibility and quality of health care.

    Seventy percent of women under age 65 had private health insurance in 1997, and 12 percent were covered by Medicaid. Almost all Americans aged 65 and over are covered by the Medicare program, including 92 percent of those who also have private insurance.

    Problems specific to access to care for women in rural areas include:

    * A higher rate of uninsured and underinsured populations than in urban areas.
    * Higher rates of poverty in rural areas than in urban areas, particularly among women.
    * Access to transportation barriers, such as geographical isolation, lack of public transportation, and lack of funds for individuals to pay for their own mode of transportation. This can disproportionately affect single women with children responsible for transporting their families.
    * Lack of providers, particularly obstetric providers due to the recruitment and retention problems in rural areas in addition to malpractice suits, which make obstetric care particularly expensive and risky for providers.


    source:
    http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8012&cn=176
    http://www.raconline.org/info_guides/public_health/womenshealthfaq.php

    railibo-
    Guest

    Re: Day 5 - Review of Women's Health Program

    Post  railibo- on Sat 27 Jun 2009, 5:59 pm

    RAIZA JOY S. LIBO-ON, RN
    EXEC 4 MSN-MCN

    Review of Women’s Health Programs

    1.Given the available programs on Women’s Health in the Philippines, do you think those are enough to sustain health among women? Why and why not? If not, what are missing and where do lapses surface?

    I agree with Ms. Ara and Ms. Angel. There are a lot of health programs for women that exist presently both in the international and local area. But despite all the efforts of these programs it seems that there are still mothers who are dying and more women all over the world who still experience abuse or violence. It’s so frustrating to realize that even though there are programs that cater to women’s health, it seems to be not effective if we look at it on a larger scale. You can’t help but ask “what seems to be the problem?”

    I would like to add another reason as to why these programs are not that enough to sustain the health among women would be because of lack of funding for areas of research and data collection and women’s participation in decision making. In the report about the implementation of the National Women’s Health Program in Queensland, Australia, the lack of funding for the areas of research and data collection and women’s participation in decision making resulted in significant gaps in these areas.
    Research and data collection about women’s health as well as empowering them to be involved in the decision making is of great importance. Research studies are needed to better understand how social and environmental factors affect women’s health and to develop effective ways of preventing and managing women’s ill health. On the other hand the need to strengthen women’s participation in decision making about their health and health services, both at government and community level is important because in reality, as what have Ms. Ara stated the change should always start with the woman herself.

    2.What are the factors affecting the success or failure of a health program?

    Existing barriers such as insufficient research studies, the health practices of women, and the accessibility of health centers that provides health services. It was observed that there is a widespread disparities in access to health insurance and health screenings, there is also the presence of racial and ethnic disparities in health status and health care in every state in the nation. Moreover social factors (e.g., income, education, occupation, neighborhoods, and housing) are found to be associated with health behaviors, access to health care, and health outcomes.

    In an August 2008 opinion piece in the Philadelphia Inquirer, Guttmacher Institute Board Chair Melissa Gilliam said of that there are a lot of causes to the high unintended pregnancy and abortion rates among African Americans which includes a long history of discrimination; lack of access to high-quality, affordable health care; too few educational and professional opportunities; unequal access to safe, clean neighborhoods; and, for some African Americans, a lingering mistrust of the medical community.

    Gender biases in health care systems is seen to as also one of the reasons that adversely affect the health care provided for many women; for example:

    • Providers may treat female patients disrespectfully.

    • Women may be offered les information and fewer treatment options than men.

    • Battered women may fear retaliationfor seeking health care and their health care providers may be unsympathetic.

    • Sex workers are particularly reluctant to seek health services because of cost,
    the need to take time away from their work, and the social stigma of their profession .

    • Religious or cultural restrictions prevent women from leaving their homes or communities or from receiving health care from male providers.

    Women also are discouraged from seeking health care services because of cost and family spending priorities an example of this is an Indian study that found out that only 8% of rural women had ever sought gynecological care, although 92% had one or more reproductive health problems, including reproductive tract infections, PID, genital prolapse, and urinary tract infections

    3.Do you see any changes today (locally or globally) after these programs were implemented?

    So far I there are positive changes that can be observed.
    The women's health initiative, a world wide program which was started by the National Institute of Health in the year 1991, had perform and conduct various research works related to womens health. They focused on health hazards that mostly effect women such as cardiovascular diseases, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, cervix cancer, osteoporosis etc. Clinical trials are conducted on these health problems and the findings on these issues have created new wave in the United States of America Such studies like Cancer prevention by low fat diet pattern and use of supplements of calcium and vit. D to prevent weight gain in women belonging to post menopause period.

    Globally, about 33 percent of women living with HIV received treatment to prevent mother-to-child transmission in 2007.

    As women all over the world becomes aware of their rights , more and more are now coming out into the open and getting involved in organizations/ programs that addresses their rights and be protected from violence and abuse. Such is the case of the African Young Women.


    4.What can you suggest to furthermore enhance programs for women's health?

    • One would be that the government will provide funds for research purposes as well as data collection.

    • Mobilize women to particularly those in socially marginalized groups, toidentify priority issues and empower them to advocate for change.

    • Provide comprehensive services that address a range of women’s
    needs inorder to achieve better participation rates and health outcomes, and to helpto reduce their vulnerability

    5.What other health program for women that you can think of that is appropriate in the international and local scene?

    • Programs that would be effective based on the culture of a specific group.

    • Programs that would involve the men. They too need to be enlightened with what is the present condition of women specifically about gender based violence and abuse.

    6.How does Reproductive Health Projects effectively influence the future of population/ reproductive health situation in the country?

    The concept of reproductive health is the outcome of an evolution in thinking about health and family planning. The experience of countries all around the world has shown that to meet the reproductive and sexual health requirements of individuals, family planning services need to be integrated into a wider framework that addresses their overall health and well-being.

    Reproductive health is a crucial part of general health and a central feature of human development. It is a reflection of health during childhood, and crucial during adolescence and adulthood, sets the stage for health beyond the reproductive years for both women and men, and affects the health of the next generation. The health of the newborn is largely a function of the mother's health and nutrition status and of her access to health care. A healthy mother will ensure a healthy child, a healthy family and in turn a healthy community because of decrease in newborn and maternal mortality.



    References:
    Breaking Barriers pdf retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.soros.org/initiatives/health/focus/phw/articles_publications/publications/breakingbarriers_20080802

    Gender Inequities and Women’s Health pdf retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.path.org

    Guidelines on Reproductive Health retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.un.org/popin/unfpa/taskforce/guide/iatfreph.gdl.html

    New Health Disparities Report: More Context for Higher Unintended Pregnancy and Abortion Rates Among Women of Color retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.guttmacher.org/media/inthenews/2009/06/11/index.html

    Women’s Health Initiative retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.fireworkszone.com/onlinebusiness/health/womens_health_initiative.html

    Women's Health Policy retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.womhealth.org.au/studentfactsheets/womenshealthpolicy.htm

    Young Daughters of Africa Speak Out retrieved June 27, 2009 from http://www.worldywca.org/World-YWCA/YWCA-News/World-YWCA-News/Young-Daughters-of-Africa-Speak-Out


    sorry for the late post...

    mfnierra
    Guest

    WHInitiatives/programs

    Post  mfnierra on Sat 27 Jun 2009, 5:25 pm

    Some observations:
    1. Jonnah, I wish you would site your sources so it does not appear like a personal opinion alone. I agree with you on the need to 'put in front' awareness of existing barriers in program implementation before talking about sufficiency of existing programs. However, the immensity of these factors may very well kill our desire to do something about the problems of women if we are not that committed. I suppose those who have participated in the programs we are trying to look into are keenly aware of these so called 'barriers.' And efforts to address these less than desirable health-seeking behaviors deeply rooted in tradition, culture and religion may be present in some of them.

    Would you like to offer suggestions on how these barriers may be lifted?

    2. Ara, I support your contention about the lack of intersectoral collaboration among existing programs and bodies concerned causing duplication/overlapping of activities, waste of much needed resources and effort, hence undermining the good intentions of these organizations/bodies. When can we ever unite?

    You also have a point there, when you said there is a need to focus efforts in making women recipients of care acknowledge deep within how important her own health is in the first place. Perhaps you can include that agenda in your own program?

    3. Angel, you made mention of a WHSMP2 objective "to strengthen the development in the DOH to create an environment conducive to LGUs . . .? What, I pray, do you mean by this?

    You pointed out one other impediment in the success of programs: the accessibility of health care services or the lack of it, the background of which is poor infrastructure, geographic terrain, poverty and the need for Philhealth coverage he he he. In my province, there is an intensive campaign initiated by a nun for the government to provide universal phil health coverage to all indigents. More power!

    Angel Ve
    Guest

    Review of Women's Health Program

    Post  Angel Ve on Sat 27 Jun 2009, 10:53 am

    In your overview, you made mention of the 3 persistent issues why despite the programs being implemented by the government, there are still prevailing problems on women’s health. I want to focus on the accessibility of health care and health services in the Philippines especially in rural areas where mostly poor people are the ones who suffer the consequences of poverty.

    Problems that may be included in access to care for women include a higher rate of uninsured and underinsured populations than in urban areas which is due to higher rates of poverty also in rural areas than in urban areas. There is also problem with the access to transportation due to barriers such as the geographical location, lack of public transportation, and lack of funds for individuals to pay for their own mode of transportation. This can disproportionately affect single women with children responsible for transporting their families.

    With regards to health care providers, we lack of providers especially obstetric providers due to the recruitment and retention problems in rural areas in addition to malpractice suits, which make obstetric care particularly expensive and risky for providers. The physician workforce needs to be expanded; physicians should be well trained to provide comprehensive health care to women.

    Programs to address these barriers to health care where instituted by the DOH. A project known as Women’s Health and safe Motherhood Project which was launched in 1995 aimed to improve the overall status of women particularly those in the reproductive age. The project expired in June 2002 but data showed that awareness on the delivery care services in targeted areas increased from 69% to 82%. Their projects promoting prenatal visits, postpartum care, iron, Vitamin A and Iodine supplementation, use of family planning methods showed an increase In utilization after the during the existence of the program for Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood.

    Another project that was launched by the Philippines is second Women’s Health and Safe Motherhood Project in 2005 which aims to support local governments in mobilizing networks of public and private providers to deliver specific services that focus in maternal care, STI/ AIDS and family planning. Another objective is to strengthen the development in the department of health to create an environment that is conducive to local government units. By being able to improve the environment inDOH, local government will be able to manage and sustain delivery of specific women’s health services.

    Based from the two projects, we can see that efforts are being done by the government to address not just the health problems of women but also barriers that can hinder the effectiveness of the programs they implement. Their programs and the improvements they make are all directed towards improving women’s access to services relating to health. With the increasing amount of the programs that they initiate, I am now wondering why there are still problems existing on women’s health.
    Factors such as tradition and beliefs which make other women resistant to change should also be given proper attention. We should not to impose our own health belief rather, we should make them realize their health condition and work in close partnership to empower them. Also another point to consider is the philosophy and concept of health that is solely based on the biomedical model which focuses on curative rather than holistic health. Health Programs should deal with the complexity of health, social and emotional wellbeing and cultural needs of women. In addition, research must also address the differences between men and women and how they respond to disease and treatment.

    References:

    Ogburn T., Voss C., Espey E., 2008. Barriers to Women’s Health: Why is it So hard for women to saty Healthy? Available at: http://www.medical.theclinics.com/article/S0025-7125(08)00087-4/abstract


    “Health, Nutrition and Population in Philippines.” World Bank Group. 2009. 29 Jan. 2009
    http://web.worldbank.org/WBSITE/EXTERNAL/COUNTRIES/EASTASIAPACIFICEXT/EXTEAPREGTOPHEAN/0,,contentMDK:20366022~pagePK:34004173~piPK:34003707~theSitePK:503048,00.html>.
    [/b]

    “Women in the Philippines speak on reproductive health services.” Article Archives. 2009. 29 Jan. 2009
    http://www.articlearchives.com/health-care/health-care-facilities-clinics/1068466-1.html


    Women’s Health. 2009. Barriers to Women’s Health Care.[url]
    Available at: http://www.mentalhelp.net/poc/view_doc.php?type=doc&id=8012&cn=176
    .
    [/url][url]

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Day 5: Evaluation of Existing Programs

    Post  ara_portillo on Sat 27 Jun 2009, 9:21 am

    1. Given the available programs on Women’s Health in the Philippines, do you think those are enough to sustain health among women? Why and why not? If not, what are missing and where do lapses surface?

    I think, the issue here would not really be “if there are enough programs to sustain health among women” because to date, there are many programs being implemented with regards to the promotion and protection of women’s health; the problem is that since there are many of these programs, the lack of inter-sectoral collaboration among the funding agencies, government and non-government organizations (who are the implementer) and even the legislative bodies results to wastage of efforts and even resources. Why? An example would be if there are around 10 groups working on programs for reproductive health. Each group has its own program goals and objectives. Each uses different types of assessment, planning, training and health education materials. The end result is that in many countries overlapping activities, technical confusion and waste of resources directly affect the implementation of the national safe motherhood programme. This is factor is also an answer to number 2 question concerning what affects the success or failure of health program. (According to WHO, this lack of communication among agencies is an issue in reproductive health.)

    Another point to consider is that, even if there are many programs, the goal of change in health status is along side with a change in one’s behaviour. So, for the programs to be sustain the health needs of women, change must start “within” them – acknowledging importance of one’s health.

    2. What are the factors affecting the success or failure of a health program?
    I agree with the post of Ma’am jonnah about the factors affecting the success/failure of these programs.

    >>> Just to reiterate what have been mentioned about the barriers and also to add some..
    • Limited funding granted/devoted by the government on reproductive health care. This commonly leads to excessive reliance on external funding which has in exchange of something. Like, some funding agencies will provide funds given that the programs they are implementing will also be implemented in the country.
    • Lack of skilled health care provider
    • Cultural Beliefs and practices – some cultures do not view birthing process as something “unusual” or requiring special attention. Also, in some societies, the role of women in decisionmaking about their own health care is minimal. Husbands and other family members determine whether or not a woman will seek care at a health facility
    • Lack of inter-sectoral linkages and collaboration with funding agencies, government and non-government organizations (who are the implementer) and even the legislative bodies.
    • Programs not considered as one of the priorities of the government/failure to integrate such projects into national programmes

    >>> Factors contributing to success:

    • Patterning of the programs within the cultural beliefs and practices of the country
    • Partnership with the key leaders/ grassroots within the community
    • Training and involvement of local government, the policy making bodies and health-care providers
    • Extensive information dissemination
    3. Do you see any changes today (locally or globally) after these programs were implemented?

    Yes, according to the WHO report on the current status of health among women in western pacific region, through the programs, policies, initiatives that have been implemented in the past two decades – there has been a change in terms of the health status of the population. There is decline in maternal and infant mortality rate; increased access to health care services; increased in public’s awareness of the pressing issues affecting women’s health like violence and inequity issues. But still, despite the said remarkable change, much is need to better improve the health status of women.


    4. What can you suggest to furthermore enhance programs for women's health?

    I think, if the noted barriers for the successful implementation of these programs will be addressed, then, that will lead to the enhancement of such programs.

    5. What other health program for women that you can think of that is appropriate in the international and local scene?

    >>programs that are more sound/fitting with the culture of the target population.
    >>programs that involve the men – like in addressing participation to pregnancy and also in issues of gender based violence. “Efforts to end violence against women must address men. This notion is increasingly accepted in violence prevention circles. More generally, there is growing international support for the belief that we must involve men in efforts to build gender equality” (Flood, 2003).

    6. How does Reproductive Health Projects effectively influence the future of population/ reproductive health situation in the country?

    A healthy women population reflects having healthy children and eventually healthy families; since families are the basic units of the society, then collectively, it will also imply healthy country. Maternal and infant mortality rates are crucial health indicators of the country. And given that the aim of reproductive health projects addresses the problems faced by both mother and child, it will pave way in developing a healthy population - less maternal and infant mortality rates, less deaths due to maternal conditions, equal access to health care services.. etc.

    References:

    Flood, M. 2003. Harmful Traditional and Cultural Practices Related to Violence Against Women and
    Successful Strategies to Eliminate Such Practices – Working with Men. Australian Research Centre in Sex, Health and Society (ARCSHS)

    WHO Publication : Health Status of Women in Western Pacific Region. PDF file.

    WHO Publication: Reproductive Health, Building Healthy Communities and Population. PDF file

    WHO Publication: Challenges in Women’s Health and WHO’s Strategy. PDF file

    jonnahro
    Guest

    Re: Day 5 - Review of Women's Health Program

    Post  jonnahro on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 5:41 pm

    The question on whether there is enough programs to ensure woman's health poses a dilemma for a person who believes that the world is in constant change and so is the needs of every Filipina. Let me present first the barriers considered during the review of Woman's health program in the Philippines.

    Barriers:
    1. Meager government resources – health budget is only 2-3% of GNP
    2. Skilled health workers are concentrated in the urban centers. The
    doctor to population ratio in the Philippines is 1:15,000; however, the
    majority of the doctors are found in the urban areas only
    3. Traditional/cultural/religious beliefs. The people’s health seeking
    behavior and attitudes are still widely dependent and influenced by
    traditional and religious beliefs.

    All of us has our own share of story on how constraint in health budget affects us. Some would share lack of facility in a government hospital or a lack of health benefit in a private institution. It is much appreciated that government hospitals or health centers make use of what they have but it without meaning to do so, mother and child's lives are at risk.

    With the launch of the program "Doctors to the Barrio", there became a better access to health care in rural areas. However, better doesn't mean enough. In the account of DOH, only 5 doctors were deployed to the Cordillera region (4 in Benguet and 1 in Abra). I empathize with doctors who cannot pledge his two years of service in a community where salary couldn't meet needs of a growing family. A blog posted by an MD in the site Pinoy.MD says [i]"very good. i reiterate my stand that incoming medical students must realize that it is preferable that they have vows of celibacy and poverty, otherwise economic pressures will force them to look for greener pastures."

    I do respect traditions and beliefs as some has a wisdom on it. But if these beliefs affects the health seeking behavior of an individual, it becomes a threat. In an article featured in Time's magazine, it says how Africans believe that death from pregnancy and child birth is inevitable. Now, this is something really bothering.

    I guess the barriers on implementing health programs outweighs the issue on whether we have enough program to sustain the health of women in the Philippines. It's a matter of addressing the root or cause of problem.

    ma. cristina arroyo

    Posts : 75
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Day 5 - Review of Women's Health Program

    Post  ma. cristina arroyo on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 1:03 pm

    Dear Mam Mae and classmates,

    Welcome to our 5th and last day of online classes. We will be moderating the whole discussion on “Review of Women’s Health Programs”. We made sure that we will have the whole view of both international and local picture of Women’s Health. As for your reference, you can click the following sites and some files will be uploaded in our exec4 yahoogroup.

    http://www.fhi.org/en/rh/pubs/wsp/casestudies/philippinescasestudy.htm

    As for the guidelines in our discussion, everyone is free to voice out their opinions supported by literature regarding the topic. Synthesis of the whole discussion will be uploaded after everyone has taken their share and thoughts. Posting of answers will be until 11am tomorrow (June 27, 2009, Saturday).

    These are the guide questions as we read the articles regarding the topic:

    1.Given the available programs on Women’s Health in the Philippines, do you think those are enough to sustain health among women? Why and why not? If not, what are missing and where do lapses surface?
    2.What are the factors affecting the success or failure of a health program?
    3.Do you see any changes today (locally or globally) after these programs were implemented?
    4.What can you suggest to furthermore enhance programs for women's health?
    5.What other health program for women that you can think of that is appropriate in the international and local scene?
    6.How does Reproductive Health Projects effectively influence the future of population/ reproductive health situation in the country?


    Thank you and Enjoy Learning!
    Ma. Cristina D. Arroyo
    Maria Althea Sabrina L. Perez
    Lauren Palma Guanlao


    Overview of different programs embracing Women’s Health:


    International


    •Where equality is lacking in law and practice, and where conflict breaks out and security is compromised, women and girls are vulnerable to violence often perpetuated with total impunity by regular armed forces and armed civilians. This legacy of violence can pervade society for generations.

    •National Democratic Institute an international organization promotes equitable participation of women in politics and government is essential to building and sustaining democracy. The Institute is committed to working with women as partners and participants in NDI programs and activities.
    •Comprising over 50 percent of the world’s population, women continue to be under-represented as voters, political leaders and elected officials. Democracy cannot truly deliver for all of its citizens if half of the population remains underrepresented in the political arena. Creative and wide-ranging programs – in both challenging environments where democracy is just beginning to flourish and in more established democracies – engage women in legislatures, political parties and civil society as leaders, activists and informed citizens. These programs create an environment where women can advocate on matters of policy, run for political office, be elected, govern effectively, and participate meaningfully in every facet of civic and political life.

    •South-to-South collaboration means many things to many people. It is a means of sharing know-how between individuals, agencies and communities of the South to improve on the success of efforts to address common problems. South-to-South is rooted in the norms of local cultures that share important common characteristics, many of which are determinants of the problems being addressed. This takes on particular resonance and significance within the context of the priority areas defined during the 1994 Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD), and outlined in the Cairo Program of Action (POA).

    •In the survey done by the United States Justice Department it revealed some statistical numbers declining due to implemented women’s programs but on the other areas, numbers were increasing.

    Lethal
    •Intimate partners committed fewer murders in each of the 3 years 1996, 1997, and 1998 than in any other year since 1976.
    •Between 1976 and 1998, the number of male victims of intimate partner homicide fell an average 4% per year and the number of female victims fell an average 1%.
    Nonlethal
    •The number of female victims of intimate violence declined from 1993 to 1998. In 1998 women experienced an estimated 876,340 violent offenses at the hands of an intimate, down from 1.1 million in 1993.
    •In both 1993 and 1998, men were victims of about 160,000 violent crimes by an intimate partner.

    •Planned Parenthood
    protect women's health by increasing access to reproductive health services and information.
    three strategic program priorities: preventing unsafe abortion and maternal mortality, protecting the sexual health of adolescents and youth, and advocacy to expand and protect reproductive rights.

    Local

    Women’s Health Programs: the Safe Motherhood Package, Screening Programs for Breast and Cervical Cancer, Family Planning Program & the Women’s and Children’s Protection Programs.

    Three Persistent Issues:

    1. Poor access to emergency obstetrical care has remained a major problem in the health care delivery system. Not all pregnant women have access to first level facilities where emergency obstetric care
    is within two hours travel time from their birthing places. The health department is addressing the issue by staffing and equipping strategic “first-level referral hospitals” and building maternity waiting homes.
    2. Health is not the priority of the local government. The health department has instituted a certification and recognition program so that local governments will make health a priority and begin investing in health infrastructure and the human resources development.
    3. Nutritional problems (anemia, malnutrition, iodine/vitamin A deficiency) The high incidence of nutritional deficiencies among pregnant and lactating women remains one of the pressing problems of the public health sector. Mass supplementation is being resorted to at present until the Food Fortification Program is developed.

    1. Women's Health and Safe Motherhood Project 2
    Among the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) is the reduction of maternal mortality ratios by three-quarters and under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. This stems from the fact that pregnancy and childbirth are the leading causes of death, disease and disability among women of reproductive age in developing countries.
    At least 40% of women experience complications during pregnancy, childbirth, or after childbirth, and about 15% develop potentially life-threatening problems. In fact, more than 1/3 of the global burden of disease for women aged 15-44 and over 1/5 for women aged 45-69 is caused by conditions that affect women. The first month of life or the newborn period, is just as critical since it sets the quality of life of the individual. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that every year more than 8 million infants die before their first birthday, while more than half survives for leass than a month.
    Performance Evaluation Report:
    • DOH capacity and its internal administration and management systems remain important constraints for the success of future projects.
    • The policy shift to facility-based delivery that DOH is poised to implement nationwide undermines the project approach of reducing the maternal mortality at local levels via investment in safe home delivery and risk monitoring, coupled with strengthening the referral facilities and services.
    • The provision of adequate maternal health care to poor women, especially those in remote areas, remains a challenge. As with other public services, the provision of maternal health care in remote areas will involve higher cost per person than in more accessible areas.
    • The Project is assessed “relevant” (score 2 on a 0 to 3 scale), “effective” (score 1.7), “less efficient” (score 1), and “likely” sustainable (score 1.6). Overall, the Project is assessed “partly successful” on a four-category scale of highly successful, successful, partly successful, or unsuccessful.
    • Responsibility for operating all health facilities supported by the project still lies with the respective local government units/LGUs in charge.
    • While infant mortality between 1998 and 2003 altered only marginally from 35 to 34 per 1,000, maternal mortality reportedly remained unchanged at the relatively high figure of 200 out of 100,000. The fertility rate between 1998 and 2003 as well only declined from 3.7 to 3.5 children per woman, which is still high by regional standards. So the indicators for the overall objective attest to small improvements only.
    2. National Family Planning Policy of the DOH
    • Family planning is seen mainly as a health intervention, specifically as an element of reproductive health. In implementing the Program, emphasis was placed on the promotion of modern Natural Family Planning (NFP) Methods as away to provide balance in the provision of information and services of the various methods since in the past artificial methods have been given greater emphasis than the NFP.
    3. Women's Health Care Foundation
    • Health services should address women's needs throughout the life cycle, from infancy through old age, and that gender perspectives should be incorporated into both program design and service delivery.
    • Affordability and accessibility were the hallmarks of the WHCF when it was founded in 1980, and they continue to be important elements of the service delivery today. Client fees have been kept low, and staff have been trained to perform multiple tasks to make efficient use of limited resources. The WHCF currently operates three fixed-site clinics in the metropolitan Manila area, plus an extensive outreach program designed to provide information, education and services to women and their families in rural and underserved communities near Manila.

    4. Planned Parenthood Federal of America in the Philippines
    • works to improve contraceptive use among adolescents and youth through peer education and outreach programs, and reduce the rate of maternal death and disability by increasing access to comprehensive and quality post-abortion services.
    • Reproductive Health Program for Street Children and Yo! LEAD, which are dedicated to reproductive health peer education and peer leadership programs for underserved and out-of-school youth in areas like Metro Manila
    • The Prevention and Management of Abortion Complications project, implemented by Likhaan — one of the country's key women's rights organizations — trains private and public health care workers to provide comprehensive post-abortion care services for women suffering from complications from unsafe abortions. The project also enables the provision of gender-sensitive and rights-based quality information and services to Filipina women, and thereby serves as an important vehicle for reproductive rights advocacy in the Philippines.

    • Health action information network in was established in 1985 to serve the information and research needs of community-based health programs (CBHPs) in the Philippines. These CBHPs were established as an alternative health system for marginalized rural and urban communities. Through the years, HAIN's work with the CBHPs has expanded to include training and education activities.
    Furthermore, HAIN's constituency has expanded beyond the CBHPs to include development organizations and groups working with specific populations such as women, students, consumers, cultural minorities, peasants and workers, sex workers and men who have sex with men. HAIN also works with media practitioners, academicians, government officials and donor agencies in promoting health and development.
    • Reproductive health Advocacy Project – “Enhancing Communication Strategies of NGOs Working on Population Issues in the Philippines”
    In 2005, HAIN signed a project with the David and Lucile Packard Foundation which intends to enhance the capacity of NGOs and other advocates to promote population and reproductive health issues. Entitled “Enhancing Communication Strategies of NGOs Working on Population Issues in the Philippines”, the project also aims to develop effective capacity in information exchange, analysis and utilization among organizations working on population issues.
    The project is aligned with HAIN’s mission to contribute to the empowerment of people and communities by making available and accessible objective, accurate and timely information on health and health-related issues, which includes family planning and reproductive health. In doing this task, HAIN takes an anthropologic approach to illustrate how culture, gender, socio-economic conditions and religious influences factor in on population concerns. HAIN also implements the project by transforming information into local knowledge and into more targeted and strategic message delivery. Another strategy is by integrating the issue of family planning in the context of whole reproductive health perspective, broader health concern and rights-based approach.
    • Women’s Health Care, Quezon City, Philippines
    The Women's Health Care Foundation seeks to expand women's health care services "beyond the womb." Established in 1980, the Foundation works to meet the diverse health needs of Philippine women throughout their life cycle, broadening services beyond the traditional maternal-child health programs to include services for adolescents and postmenopausal women; counseling on sexually transmitted diseases and AIDS; information on breast cancer screening and domestic violence; and information for couples seeking contraception as well as couples seeking counseling on infertility. The Foundation operates three health clinics, plus numerous community outreach programs. In addition, the Foundation is involved in advocacy efforts to promote improved reproductive health rights for women.
    Mission: The founders of the WHCF began the program with a philosophy that health services should address women's needs throughout the life cycle, from infancy through old age, and that gender perspectives should be incorporated into both program design and service delivery. All women should have access to health services and information; services should not be limited to the time before, during and immediately after pregnancy, or to pregnancy prevention.
    One of the greatest strengths of the WHCF is that when designing and delivering services, staff consider gender dynamics -- the roles prescribed for women and men by society -- as well as women's biological needs. Staff recognize the multiple roles of women and also the need to offer health services that are comprehensive and holistic.

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