E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning

    E-learning: Isthisteachingatstudentsorteachingwithstudents



    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2010-04-07

    E-learning: Isthisteachingatstudentsorteachingwithstudents

    Post  FELIXAQUINO on Sat 10 Apr 2010, 1:35 am

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    Group 6
    Aquino, Felix
    Magdael, Kaye
    Sarmiento, Noel
    Vallarta, Aldrin

    E-learning: Is this teaching at students or teaching with students?
    Robert John Muirhead, BN, RGN, RSCN

    Today, education has become a commodity in which people seek to devote for their own personal gain, to ensure equality of opportunity and as a course to a better life.

    According to Goddard (2001) the demand for higher education is expanding exponentially throughout the world and by 2025 as many as 150 million people will be seeking Higher Education. This increase in demand is widely attributed to the changing culture of employment, where a job for life is no longer the norm and to the advent of the so-called ‘knowledge-driven society’ (Katz, 2001). Society requires higher levels of skills and qualifications to fill the same ‘worthwhile’ jobs, and individuals see education as a status provider. Volery and Lord (2000) point to the capacity constraints and resource limitations that can be overcome through the implementation of eLearning, creating a new opportunity to satisfy this growing demand.

    In higher education, a combination of pedagogical and andragogical principles are utilized to fully develop ones potential. According to National Comittee of Enquiry into Higher Education (2001), more than 50% of higher education students are mature students (someone who starts a degree aged 21 or over). Knowles' theory of andragogy is an attempt to develop a theory specifically for adult learning. Adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. (Reischmann, 2004). They need to know why they need to know something, for what purpose, and they learn best when the topic is of substantial value. Adult learning programs such as higher education must accommodate this fundamental aspect. However, pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education. In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, and when it will be learned. (Learning and Skills Improvement Service, 2010).
    However, development of e-learning solely relies on the theory of pedagogy because some of andragogical strategies cannot be transferred to e-learning (Muirhead, 2007). According to Muirhead (2007) pedagogy alone is associated with vocational learning and not with higher education. . Therefore, pedagogy of e-learning will may provide a strong grasp on a subject matter but may also limit development of students’ critical thinking.

    There is, however, another revolution taking place in educational circles that could aid in developing a greater e-learning for higher education, with its new set of principles and practices that may have application across the whole spectrum of the education and learning lifespan. Heutagogy comprises self-determined learning as a process. It is seen to provide a twofold opportunity to learner’s, which means they can simultaneously focus on their learning, their experiences and the process itself. Heutogogy is seen to go beyond the levels of problem-solving, extending the learning proactively and action learning, giving the learner the opportunity to develop self-efficacy and capability, using skills such as: reflection; environmental scanning; value experience; and, interact with others. As a relatively new theory, it adds to andragogy by giving special emphasis to one of its cardinal principles, self-directed learning. Heutagogy follows principles that aid in student learning. These principles include learning how to learn, double loop learning, universal learning opportunities, nonlinear process, and true learner self-direction (Isenberg, 2007). It provides a context for e-learning that puts the adult in charge of “much more than whether they press the forward or back button. Heutogogy puts the learner truly in control of what they learn and when. However, the vast majority of e-learning still does not even approach being self-¬directed.

    In conclusion, truly e-learning answers the need of society in terms providing a new teaching style for higher education. Though utilization of e-learning is world renowned, inadequacy of theory that should support this new kind of teaching exist such as andragogical principles that are needed for it to more become suitable to the adult students who will enrol the course in higher education . The new learning theory heutogogy emphasizes andragogy’s self-directed learning principle and is advancing the thinking for e-learning. The learner must be in charge of what they will learn, when they will learn, and how they will learn it.

    Due to the weakness of eLearning as a new style of teaching, educators can compensate through combining eLearning and face-to-face education. Foundation courses should be provided locally and delivered face to face for those who need them. Through this combination, higher learning can be acquired by the students. The results of this higher learning would be very beneficial to students, to the patients and even in the nursing profession.

    Guide questions:

    1. With increase demand for higher education, is there any other way of answering this demand other than using e-learning?
    2. What is/are advantage of using e-learning as a medium of teaching?
    3. What is/are the teaching techniques that can be used in delivering e-learning courses?
    4. What is/are the implications that e-learning poses to the students, faculty staff, and the institution offering e-learning courses
    5. How can a combination of pedagogy and andragogy style of teaching prepare nurses in their practices?
    6. Explain each principle under heutagogy.


    Goddard, A. (2000, June 16). Big brands key to e-university. Times Higher Education Supplement.

    Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. Retrieved October 31, 2006 from http://ultibase.rmit.edu.au/Articles/dec00/hase2.htm.

    Isenberg, S. (2007).Applying Andragogical Principles to Internet Learning. Retrieved on April 8, 2010. http://www.cambriapress.com/camber/camber.cfm?bookid=9781934043196&page=xxxiv
    Learning and Skills Improvement Service.(2010). Pedagogy and Andragogy. Retrieved on April 8, 2009 from http://www.excellencegateway.org.uk/page.aspx?o=135534
    Katz, R. (2001, May 18). Campus champs tackle heavies. Times Higher Education Supplement.

    National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education. (2001a). Report of the National Committee. Retrieved October 26th , 2003 from www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ncihe/natrep.htm

    Reischmann, J. (2004).Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function. . Retrieved on April 8, 2009 from http://www.uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/andragogik/08 /andragogik /andragogy /index.htm

    Volery, T. & Lord, D. (2000). Critical success factors in online education. The International Journal of Education Management, 14 (5), 216 – 223.

    Posts : 20
    Join date : 2009-06-21
    Age : 33
    Location : Quezon City, Philippines

    Re: E-learning: Isthisteachingatstudentsorteachingwithstudents

    Post  melissa.juco on Sun 11 Apr 2010, 3:21 am

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    "E-learning: Is this Teaching at Students or Teaching with Students?"
    Robert John Muirhead, BN, RGN, RSCN

    Journal Response by GROUP #3:
    JUCO, Melissa Frances R.
    MANANQUIL, Ann Marby C.
    MARASIGAN, Iza Therese C.
    MEDALLA, Jerrick Y.


    What is/are the advantages of using e-learning as a medium of teaching?
    What is/are the implications that e-learning may bring to the students, faculty staff, and the institution offering e-learning courses?

    The 21st Century signifies the birth of diverse and bold developments in Science and Technology. Our mode of living is gradually being taken over by various technological advancements in communication, innovation and research, science and health among others. In fact, the field of Education is also in the process of gradually coping up with the rapid changes and demands of society. Everyday, new devices and other unique pieces of technology are invented, either for entertainment, business, domestic and multitasking purposes. E-Learning is one of them. Gone were the days when teachers would rely on traditional forms of instruction to deliver their lesson plans --- the use of chalk/whiteboards, overhead projectors, etc. Nowadays, schools have maximized technology by revamping their ancient ways of teaching through the introduction of high technology instructional devices such as the use of multimedia, digital videos, powerpoint presentations, LCD projectors, etc. Students, through e-learning, have explored the internet not only for educational research but also for peer interaction. E-Learning has thus created a virtual classroom where students are given full access to the course content. Besides the contemporary teaching devices that were just mentioned, 'Game-based learning has also become a trend in innovative instruction. Game-based Learning uses competitive exercises, either pitting the students against each other or getting them to challenge themselves in order to motivate them to learn better; games often create a fantasy element that engages players in a learning activity through a storyline (Teed, R. 2009)'. A shining example of this game-based strategy where the 'players' / 'learners' gain knowledge by virtual experience is the "Multi-Patient Approach" Program developed by The Faculty of Medicine in Imperial College London. They devised complex game-based learning activities for delivery of virtual patients that can drive experiential, diagnostic, and role-play learning activities supporting patients' diagnoses, investigations and treatment (Imperial College London. 2008). The GBL technology is a far out strategy that is yet to be tested in other universities, particularly in schools in the Philippines. It is a phenomenal invention. However, the virtual experience does not transcend the personal gain and fulfillment that one appreciates in face-to-face environments. 'The lack of face-to-face interaction is a clear disadvantage of the virtual classroom. Another disadvantage of the virtual classroom, which closely relates to this lack of human qualities in the virtual classroom, is the difficultly in establishing trust in the absence of face-to-face contact (Burbles, N. 2004)'.

    Indeed, the swift advancements in technology has brought the society to an entirely different arena where individuals compete to get better, high paying jobs. And just like what this journal topic reflects, more and more people recognize the value of investing in higher education. Through E-Learning and/or Distance Learning, education has catered to students abroad, those without fixed schedules, those with job and family constraints, those who are disabled (Lau, L. 2000) --- making learning more accessible and convenient in these aspects. Furthermore, allowing the students to interact virtually prepares them to future business practice of e-commerce making them independent learners in a lifelong learning process (Lau, L. 2000).

    The implications towards this method of instruction are endless, and advantages / disadvantages about this technique is imperative. However, we must face the fact that the market will continue to progress. E-Learning will gradually evolve and be standardized. Eventually, E-Learning will require a learning curve making automated correspondence course a marketable strategy in universities (Lau, L. 2000). This combination, according to Linda Lau's book on "Distance Technologies", 'will undoubtedly revolutionize the education process along with the rest of society'.



    1.) Burbles, N. (2004). Navigating the Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Pedagogy. Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education: Research and Practice, New York: Peter Lang Publishing, pp. 1-17

    2.) Kruse, K. (2004).The Benefits and Drawbacks of E-Learning. Lifted from http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art1_3.htm. Accessed on April 11, 2010

    3.) Lau, L. (2000).Distance Learning Technologies: Issues, Trends & Opportunities. IDEA Group Publishing. Hershey, USA.

    4.) Teed, R. (2009). Game-Based Learning. Lifted from http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/games/. Accessed on April 11, 2010

    5.) Faculty of Medicine; Imperial College London. (2008). Game-Based Learning for Virtual Patients in Second Life. Accessed from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhQ8MjdRq_4&feature=related on April 11, 2010


    Posts : 14
    Join date : 2009-06-21

    RE: E-Learning...

    Post  lynnmonterozo on Sun 11 Apr 2010, 5:42 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    Aurora Boulevard, Quezon C

    Group 5
    Alvarez, Efren Jr. F.
    Facto, Christian Jay J.
    Monterozo, Mary Lynn R.
    Nidar, Joy H.

    As our world welcomed the 21st century, was the same as we faced and equipped ourselves with new technologies. These new technologies brought innovative instructional changes to learners and in the one who facilitates learning as well. Both were implicitly and explicitly adjust themselves to adapt in these new ways of teaching and learning.

    One of these new technologies which until now, has been a great issue was through utilization of the E-learning as a medium of teaching. Today, it was still in the brink of research whether this new approach is effective for the students to learn or not.

    Masic, Izet (2008) & Milic, D., et al., (2009) stated that E-learning enables permanent or lifelong learning and can help students on improving themselves professionally and independently. Masic also presented a comparison between using traditional way and e-learning. Various advantages were obtained and some of it were (1) economical factor (2) fosters independence (3) distant communication is possible and (4) learners can choose the place and time of education for themselves (Hugenholtz, N. R., et al., 2008 & Milic D., et al., 2009). However, obtaining contacts with the professors (Masic, Izet 2008) and as well as easy to transfer and upload standard teaching materials without considering the pedagogical requirements of good teaching (Rogerson-Regell, P. 2007) are considered as its main disadvantages.

    Meanwhile, Choi, S., (2007) suggested different strategies for e-learning benchmarking which are found on 3 different case studies presented. These include (1) data collection, (2) data interpretation and (3) implementation of the e-learning.

    Although some researchers showed numerous advantages of e-learning as a new medium tool for learning; in the study made by Diaz, L., et al., (2009), Hugenholtz, N. R., et al., (2008) & Kulier, R., et al., (2009) revealed that e- learning is just as effective in enhancing knowledge as lecture-based learning.


    Masic, Izet (2008). E-Learning as New Method of Medical Education. Review. Vol 16. No. 2. pp. 102-117. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Rogerson-Regell, P.( 2007). Directions in e-learning tools and technologies and their relevance to online distance language education. University of Leicester School of Education, 21 University Road, Leicester. Open Learning.Vol. 22, No. 1. Pp.57-74. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Milic, D., et al., (2009).E-Learning: Situation and Perspectives.UDC/UDK 378.14:004.738.5. Technical Gazet. pp. 31-36. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Diaz, L., et al., (2009). Are the Functions of Teachers in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Learning Environments Really Different?. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 331–343. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Kulier, R., et al., (2009). The effectiveness of a clinically integrated e-learning course in evidence-based medicine: A cluster randomised controlled trial.BMC Medical Education 2009, 9:21 doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-21. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Hugenholtz, N. R., et al., (2008). Effectiveness of e-learning in continuing medical education for occupational physicians. Occupational medicine. 58(5): 370–372. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493067/?tool=pmcentrez


    Posts : 7
    Join date : 2009-06-21

    Re: E-learning: Isthisteachingatstudentsorteachingwithstudents

    Post  arneljamolangue on Sun 11 Apr 2010, 9:01 pm


    Learning through the internet has been proven to be very useful. Knowledge is accessed by our fingertips. Needed information is acquired fast. For the past decade, technology has been accessible to everyone, in doing business, for studying and more importantly, for keeping in touch with our loved ones.

    In order to be competitive with the rest of the world, students nowadays strive to be at par with the latest trends. Many students are engaging in post graduate programs, pursuing their master’s degree and even enrolling for online courses offered abroad. By completing such courses in a few weeks, they are able to acquire a certificate to add to their lists of credentials. With this, they now have the edge among others who just have the ‘so-so’ degrees. Other employees engage in this so-called ‘lifelong learning’, where they are encouraged to pursue continuous improvement in skills through trainings and workshops. These are made available to adults who want it. Higher education is important to evaluate the association between learner retention and good career guidance. As employees are adults, they are able to make sense of what they are learning by relating it to their past life experiences. False assumptions are also clarified through good career guidance and they are given a better picture of the reality of their jobs (Dodgson & Bolam, 2002; OECD, 2004). Lifelong learning was first introduced in the 1990’s in relation to the rise in global competitions, innovations and ICTs and a desire to compensate for the socio-economic short-comings (Kreber, 2005).

    A method of accessing higher education is, E-learning or Distance learning enables student to study at their own time at their own pace because it doesn’t follow the rigid schedules of face-to-face traditional teaching. It is for those tied with the demands of work, those with families, those with disabilities and those abroad (Lau, L. 2000).

    During our undergraduate years, we are able to experience e-learning in a certain degree. We are tasked to go in a room where there are a lot of computers that have programs for modules that would teach us nursing procedures, nursing concepts and at the end, we are to answer tests pertaining to each topic. Our scores were accounted to be part of our final grades. It was quite enjoyable at first because we are able to see how procedures are done ideally and listen to renowned speakers in certain fields, however if you’re asked to sit in front of a computer and be attentive for 4 hours, it could be very tiring. Most of the students would cut their time, others would let the modules continue playing but they would get out and eat. Since monitoring of students is not strict most would not finish the whole e-learning

    Distance Learning/E-learning is for adult learners of the 21st century. According to andragogy, adults need to know the significance and implications of what they are learning. If they remain clueless of the value of the information presented to them, then nothing would ensue.


    Lau, L. (2000).Distance Learning Technologies: Issues, Trends & Opportunities. IDEA Group Publishing. Hershey, USA.

    Allan, B. & Lewis, D. (2006). The impact of membership of a virtual learning community on individual learning careers and professional identity. British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 37 No 6.

    Freitas, S. & Harrison, I. (2006). The development of a system for supporting
    the lifelong learner. British Journal of Educational Technology Vol 37 No 6

    Reischmann, J. (2004).Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function. . Retrieved on April 11, 2010 fromhttp://www.uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/andragogik/08 /andragogik /andragogy /index.htm


    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2010-04-07

    discussion synthesis

    Post  FELIXAQUINO on Mon 12 Apr 2010, 1:12 am

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    Aquino, Felix
    Magdael, Kaye
    Sarmiento, Noel
    Vallarta, Aldrin

    E-learning: Is this teaching at students or teaching with students?
    Robert John Muirhead, BN, RGN, RSCN

    synthesis on the discussion thread

    E-learning is easily embraced by the 21st century learners as a new media for instruction. As our generation evolves, technological innovations are observed to affect our daily living. In utilization of e-learning, ones realize that learning can be more convenient because of availability of computers and internet. However, It was stated by Muirhead that e-learning has little research to support the andragogical and pedagogical principles in teaching and learning. furthermore, some of the students enrolled in e-learning do not have the skills to learn independently thus they are unlikely to be successful in an eLearning environment. That’s why, the idea of combining e-learning and face to face was raised to compensate in this weakness of e-learning.

    However, utilization of e-learning as an instructional media may bring innovative changes in disseminating knowledge from instructors to students. The advantages of e-learning as the medium of instruction includes increased student autonomy, facilitation of a realistic balance between learning and personal and professional commitments and elimination of potential student concerns such as embarrassment public mistakes and working at a slow pace. There are different techniques used in delivery of e-learning courses which includes online discussion, questioning, tutorial support, content structure, and information technology support.

    In conclusion, one can’t deny the fact that our world evolves, and as it evolves it bring changes. Despite the benefits that e-learning offers to its learners, one must consider the effectivity of this instructional media on his/her enrolled course.

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    Re: E-learning: Isthisteachingatstudentsorteachingwithstudents

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