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    CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

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    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 2:25 am

    To Mr. Medes:

    We appreciate your shared information regarding Jesus Christ as a servant-leader. Sr. Agravante set Jesus an example because as we all know Jesus is a good servant-leader of GOD. By knowing this, we nurses will have an understanding and a background what a servant-leader is all about.

    Question:
    If you will become a nurse administrator, transformational leadership can be a daunting prospect because of different criticism like abuse of power. How will you become more confident and better equipped to stop abuse of power?
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    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 2:09 am

    Klarisse Esteban wrote:
    In the nursing academe, most of the students taking up nursing nowadays are the ones who do not have the passion for the profession but they perceive it as opportunity to have a good future. With the utilization of the CASAGRA Transformational Leadership Model, these kind of students will be able to have a deeper view on what nursing is all about and thus, they may be able to be good nurses. Students who are less interested in the course that they are taking tend to be less motivated; thus, they tend to give low quality output in terms of academic performance and professionalism.


    TO KLARISSE ESTEBAN:

    I think it is great that such a great number of people want to go into nursing in the Philippines. Shows that they are a caring society. I would suggest that before taking up NUrsing, the students must understand the situation that graduating as a nurse is not a ticket to USA. And must realize the true meaning of nursing.

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    markpradow

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  markpradow on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 2:04 am

    casagramoderators wrote:To Mr. Prado:

    It is good that you have experienced one sample of a good leader through your undergraduate school. You mentioned fear to instructors and dean. It seemed that because of fear the students were forced to do the tasks because of some consequences thereafter.

    Question:

    Through your experience, are the students became a good leader in different ways?

    Our current dean has been holding the position for about a decade now and so far most of the alumni are successful in their field of practice. Her type of leadership is unusual for this generation's nursing education but her ways proved to be more effective on the type of students in the school. She makes unpopular decisions but with good results. Like what I said on my previous post, educators adjust their rules based on their perceived needs of the students. Like what Mr. Enrile said, nursing schools should be governed with iron fists. I think it would be better if all nursing schools adapt the way of teaching of the older generations. Theirs was a less complex type but their discipline and dedication were impeccable. What we need are more strict clinical instructors. What I want to advocate is a more stringent and unified screening for prospective nursing students besides a college entrance exam.

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 1:41 am

    To Mr. Prado:

    It is good that you have experienced one sample of a good leader through your undergraduate school. You mentioned fear to instructors and dean. It seemed that because of fear the students were forced to do the tasks because of some consequences thereafter.

    Question:

    Through your experience, are the students became a good leader in different ways?

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 1:24 am

    TO MS. CEE MENDOZA:


    i agree that the measurement on how a leader is transformational is in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the transformational leader are more willing to work harder than originally expected.

    A key criticism is that within it transformational leadership has potential for the abuse of power (Hall, Johnson, Wysocki & Kepner, 2002)

    If you will become a nurse administrator in the future, what will you do to prevent this potential abuse of power?
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    melvin medes

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  melvin medes on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 1:23 am

    When I googled the compound word "servant leader" in the google images, this picture was among the results:



    Agravante used the Servant Leader Model on the leadership behavior, revolving around the care complex, and Jesus Christ as the core.

    I don't want to focus about the weakness/limitation of Agravante's theory in the context of religion, but may I take a further step in explaining why she used Jesus Christ as a model for servant-leadership. These explanations might give us a deeper understanding to know the proponent's background and ideals that can lead to a different perspective of the theory.

    1. In Jesus Christ we see the marks of the LEADER.

    Jesus led by example

    Jesus set the standard by which all future leadership is to be assessed. He was the natural leader. He did not have to raise His voice to be heard. He didn't need to strike the synagogue pulpit to be heard. When He entered the room, a hush fell over the people. He was a born leader.

    Pilate wanted Jesus to accept the designation of King of the Jews. Jesus would have none of that. He needed no human title to establish his leadership. His leadership was inherent within Him. He sets an example of strong, sensitive leadership for all who presume to a leadership position.

    Jesus led by action

    When decisive action was needed, Jesus acted. When the Temple was despoiled by manipulative, unscrupulous commercial interests, Jesus overturned the money changers' tables (Matthew 21:12) When the howling wind and raging sea threatened to overturn the boat, Jesus cried out, "Peace be still" (Mark 4:39) and a great calm came upon the sea.

    Jesus was a strong man, a decisive leader. He confronted what was wrong or harmful and led by action.

    Jesus led by the quality of His life

    Jesus grew in favor with God and with men and women (Luke 2:52). He went around doing good (Acts 10:38). The common people heard Him gladly. He spoke with authority, not like the Scribes and the Pharisees (Matthew 7:29). The apostle Paul often wrote about the "grace of our Lord Jesus Christ" (2 Corinthians 8:9). Jesus was loved by-and loved and prayed for-his friends (John 17). He was such an attractive person that people were drawn to Him like iron filings to a magnet (Luke 4:15).

    Jesus led by the depth of His compassion

    Jesus wept over the city of Jerusalem (Luke 13:34). When his friend Lazarus was declared dead, the Scriptures tell us that his strong leader, Jesus, wept for His friend (John 11:35). When the sister of Lazarus was under pressure from her activist sister, Martha, Jesus came to her defense (Luke 10:42). Leadership without compassion is arid and sterile. Jesus, a strong, bold leader, revealed a sensitivity and compassion that enhanced and balanced His strength of character and dynamic leadership.

    Jesus led by making the ultimate sacrifice

    Only a person of immense strength could look death squarely in the face and walk serenely towards it. Only a person of absolute conviction could have endured the lashes, the nails, the thorns and the spear and accept the loneliness and agony of the Cross of Calvary. Many followers of Jesus have carried their cross to Golgotha and accepted martyrdom in the name of Jesus Christ. They followed the slap of His sandals to the Cross-following the example He set.

    Jesus was a born leader. Within His human experience, Jesus sets the example for leadership and calls us to follow.

    2. In Jesus Christ we see the marks of the SERVANT.

    Jesus was a servant because:

    a) The prophets predicted that a servant would come and suffer.

    "He was despised and rejected by men, a man of suffering and acquainted with grief" (Isaiah 53:3).
    "Like a lamb led to the slaughter and like a sheep silent before its shearers, He did not open his mouth" (Isaiah 53:7).
    The New Testament takes up this theme, quoting Isaiah, "Here is my servant whom I have chosen, my beloved in whom my soul delights" (Matthew 12:18).

    b) He offered us a powerful model of servanthood.

    When not one of His disciples was prepared to wash the accumulated dust off the feet of the disciples (even of Jesus), it was Jesus, the Lord of glory, who took up the basin and towel and washed the feet of his friends (John 13:5).

    c) He understood the blessing that accompanies meekness.

    In Matthew 5, when Jesus taught from a mountain, he set down for posterity the demeanor of the servant.
    "How blest are the poor in spirit because the Kingdom of heaven is theirs" (5:3).
    "How blest are the gentle because they will inherit the earth" (5:5).
    "How blest are the merciful because they will obtain mercy" (5:7).
    "How blest are the peacemakers because they will be called the children of God" (5:9).

    d) Jesus taught the obligation of servanthood.

    In the most radical way Jesus continued this theme in Matthew 5.
    "Don't resist an evil-doer.if anyone slaps you on the right cheek, turn the other to him also (5:39). if anyone forces you to go one mile with him, go an extra mile" (5:41).
    "Love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you" (5:44).

    e) Jesus exhibited humility.

    When well-meaning but misguided disciples tried to protect Jesus from children pressing to be near Him, Jesus said, "Let the children come to me. The Kingdom of God is made up of children like these" (Matt. 19:14). He was the good shepherd caring for the sheep (Hebrews 13:20).

    f) Jesus went to his death at Calvary as the "suffering servant."

    Jesus was the Lamb of God who laid down His life for His sheep (John 1:29, 36). He submitted to the shame and ignominy of a very humiliating death on a rough wooden cross. He died, the just for the unjust. He served God and God's people right to the end.

    Let us all accept the opportunities of LEADERSHIP that the Lord and His people offer us. However, guided by the Holy Spirit, let us lead with the spirit of the servant and in so doing we will walk in the steps of Jesus the Christ.

    This is actually an excerpt from an article I found online about Jesus as a servant leader. I was somewhat inspired to share the article so that we may have a deeper understanding and realization about the essence of this specific transformational leadership.

    I feel that Agravante's theory instills unto us that transformational leadership is about a deep sense of caring, and a deeper sense of selflessly helping others because true leadership emerges from those whose primary motivation is a deep desire to help others (Spears, 2004).

    I might be wrong, but I think Jesus Christ was used not as a representative of any religion (Roman Catholicism or Christianity) but rather, as a separate and independent entity and was just used because He is worthy of emulation. I strongly agree with the moderators that this might pose conflict/resistance among the members of other religions since they have their own set of beliefs.

    Jesus Christ's character has already set the example of a real transformational leader, as the focal point of Agravante's theory. My one-liner reflection is that, emulating Jesus Christ will lead us to be better transformational nurse leaders, which will effectively and consequently transform nursing education and practice to a higher, more realized and meaningful level.

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 1:16 am

    To Ms. Liongson:

    We would like to commend you about the factors that you believe may contribute to the development of a nurse leader. Having a good self esteem can be a good contributing factor for a person to be good leader. Once a nurse is very dedicated to his profession, he will not have a difficult time to lead others in the profession because he loves what he’s doing. By this, he will be effective as a leader to his co-workers. A leader should also be minded of establishing a good relationship to others for him to be effective and respected. And most importantly, a good leader must have an understanding of leadership. We have a saying that “a good leader must be a good follower”, this entails within an organization a leader should also be open minded. He listens to the concerns of the member and have a collaboration for as the organization will be strong.

    Question:

    Using these additional factors, what will be the effect of these to the nursing profession?
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    Klarisse Esteban

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  Klarisse Esteban on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:47 am

    The CASAGRA Transformational Leadership Model is an excellent approach to the teaching strategy not only in the nursing academe but also in other academic fields as well. It is a good approach in teaching since not only do the students learn the ways of the profession itself but also they tend learn to utilize it in their own lives.


    In the nursing academe, most of the students taking up nursing nowadays are the ones who do not have the passion for the profession but they perceive it as opportunity to have a good future. With the utilization of the CASAGRA Transformational Leadership Model, these kind of students will be able to have a deeper view on what nursing is all about and thus, they may be able to be good nurses. Students who are less interested in the course that they are taking tend to be less motivated; thus, they tend to give low quality output in terms of academic performance and professionalism. If the teachers would be able to provide proper motivation and encouragement, scenarios like this will be avoided (Bengtsson M and Ohlsson, 2010). With the CASAGRA Transformational Leadership Model, the students see a concrete example of what they are supposed to do. This method of teachoing, is very beneficial since they are able to see the type of people they are likely to become in the future and they would be motivated to do what it takes for them to achieve that goal.


    I agree with this model since it provides significant improvement in the strategies of teaching. This will make learning easy while providing an efficient way for the student to increase his passion and competence in the field of nursing.

    Reference:
    Bengtsson M, Ohlsson B; The nursing and medical students motivation to attain knowledge; Nurse Education Today (NURSE EDUC TODAY), 2010 Feb; 30(2): 150-6 (37 ref)
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    markpradow

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  markpradow on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:46 am

    Being a nurse educator, or simply a teacher, is a very noble and transformative job. Educators shape the future of their students. Educators are a big influence in decisions that students make. They play a role that no other profession can do so well, cultivation of knowledge. They are the prime movers in future building. If not for good acedemic professionals, there will never be a good president or good nurses. Educators are also our second parents. They play a vital role in morality. They nurture us and provides us with a sense of security. They are indispensible to our lives.

    Nurse educators are not so different from basic teachers. The only difference between the two is the level of knowledge on their field of expertise. Nurse educators are, of course, more inclined in allied health teachings specifically nursing concepts. They also differ in strategies on doing their jobs. Nurse educators have a difficult and tedious task of instilling the basic and complex knowledge, skills and attitude to nursing students in 4 years. They have to imbibe a more “real life” approach to teaching.

    Different styles of learning and teaching are also implemented by different schools. My undergraduate school for instance has a very strict and semi-autocratic style of teaching. We are trained to be submissive and to be good subordinates while being assertive at the same time. The culture that we were accustomed to was a high degree of respect and fear to our instructors most especially the dean. It was her way of maintaining discipline and compliance to the strict training that she imposes. If you look at it, it would seem like its hard to cope with very stringent rules but after graduating, we were glad that we were trained that way. Nurse educators adjust to the perceived needs of the students that they are teaching.

    In CASAGRA, the servant leadership role for me is the core of the thoery. It encompasses the whole aspect of nursing education by pointing out important characteristcs of an education that will lead to a more caring, skilled and refined nurses. Nurse educators can shape the future of nursing by empowering its students (Kalb, 2008). Nurses become what their mentors envisioned them to be by training them with what they think is the best for them. I think that the one factor that educators must posses is the most basic trait of a nurse, caring.

    It is time to train our students be aware of their identity as nurses. Nurses' primary role is to care by means of intimate bodily contact and with different degrees of involvement by physicians and social work (Hall, 1963).

    In clinical practice, CASAGRA can be applied to novice nurses. They can be what their hospitals' vision of how a nurse should be given the proper education and training. But the issue of understaffing still lingers. Senior nurses cannot mentor their juniors because of the high demand of tasks that they have to accomplish because of understaffing (Canadian Nurses Association, 2009). CASAGRA can be applied by instilling a servant leadership role through mentoring. Nursing Education and Training departments should set a goal for novice nurses so that they can plant a good seed that will bear fruits of a more caring and compassionate nurse.


    Last edited by markpradow on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:54 am; edited 5 times in total

    gelatin

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    By Angeline Mosquera

    Post  gelatin on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:39 am

    To the moderators. Thank you for commending my perception about the theory. In response to your question:
    "Would it be possible nowadays when the CASAGRA transformative leadership model apply to other study group with different religious views would be effective?"

    I believe that religion should not be a barrier in improving leadership behaviors using CASAGRA theory. As I mentioned earlier, the very foundation of this model is based from caring behavior. And that value encompasses any religion especially in nursing profession. As Jean Watson's theory of human caring explains that it is the very essence of nursing. It should be something innate to us and that is not exclusive to catholic religion alone.

    About using Jesus Christ as an example, this may be a sensitive topic to nurses with different beliefs. So I agree with Ms. Mendoza that using "supreme being" will be more appropriate.

    I acknowledge that there's a possiblity of bias in the study since it was used in one faculty only. Thus, further research should be done to test its effectiveness. Smile

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:25 am

    Raphael_Desoyo wrote:Nurses now are too consumed with themselves and forgot the real essence of nursing, most of them are bluntly going on with their lives as a nurse. No one’s there to lead them and inspire them to be better nurses thus providing better care and live a better experience as a nurse.

    Most of the nurses today have less opportunity to enhance their leadership qualities due to the poor employment status of the profession today. There is a surplus of nurses everywhere, so enhancing their leadership qualities thru the clinical setting is very hard. For the nurses who are fortunate enough to get to the clinical setting, they the opportunity be led by nurse manager. The factors that can influence the growth of nurses basically is their environment, experiences and their personal beliefs and ideals. For the nurses who aren’t employed as a nurse, mainly their influence for nursing growth would be the fire in their heart to pursue nursing.


    There's been a lot of forums about the over abundance of nurses in the Philippines. Most countries look at the Philippines to ease THEIR nursing shortage. Nevertheless, because hospitals in the Philippines aren't able to hire all the new grads, there were a lot of new graduates who can’t obtain the experience they need. The surplus of nurses in the Philippines is a reality. A lot of nurses were unemployed. Many are depressed and disappointed why they took nursing which led them to take up other jobs such as call center agents and medical representatives.
    Sometime during a nurse conference, a nurse asked a question: why you took up nursing degree? Some will say “I wanted to serve humanity!” Some would not hesitate to say, “ I wanted to earn $$$!”

    Funny, but there's a reality in it. The Philippine schools of nursing modified its perspective now days but for some who retains their mission and vision.


    If you will be given a chance to become a nurse educator, how will you re-define the role of nurses in our society's current trends and how will you imply this to your students?

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:25 am

    To Mr. Desoyo:

    We appreciate your understanding about the CASAGRA transformative leadership model. Through experiences we nurses can be a good leader. You focus on the spiritual side of the study which is effective to the Roman Catholic based on the result of Sr. Carolina Agravante’s findings.

    Question:

    In your opinion, is the leadership behavior of the nurses will improve when spiritual aspects is not present?
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    markpaoloenrile

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  markpaoloenrile on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:24 am

    casagramoderators wrote:TO MR. MARK PAOLO ENRILE Smile

    When I read about the special techniques you mentioned on how nursing educators should be, I wish sister Carolina Agravante included those. You also mentioned the quality of the nurses’ graduates has declined as the passing rate slowly goes down. What effective means would you suggest to the nursing association that will address the concerns of repeaters and avoid waste of resources of the graduates and their parents?

    Thank you so much for the comments fellow scholars. In terms of securing an more effective measure against low passing rate, I would go back to my earlier statement regarding quality education. Quality education would provide a very strong framework from which students would base their answers on the board examination and even when they are practicing nurses. Resources of both the school, the government and the students with their parents will not be in vain given that quality education is assured.

    A more stringent and anal perusal of qualified clinical instructors, lectures and of course passing rates of the different nursing schools we have will definitely contribute to the renaissance of our nursing education system.
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    camreyes

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  camreyes on Thu 01 Jul 2010, 12:21 am

    A leader for me is like a horse driven carriage. The passengers and the chauffer symbolize the members of the group or a team and the horse is the leader. The horse carries a big responsibility since it leads the way to the right path and following the chauffer to the right way going to a particular destination. The horse at the same time serves the passengers since it is carrying the carriage where the passengers are. Like a horse, a leader carries big responsibilities for a team or a group, and at the same time serving the members of the group. It is important for a leader to be a servant-leader for him/her to know the feelings and opinions of the members and at the same time value their opinion for the task to be accomplished. A leader should influence a group of individuals to finish a certain task. A leader is defined by Northhouse as a process whereby an individual influences a group of individuals to achieve a common goal. (Cummings et al., 2008)


    According to a study conducted to examine the factors that contribute to nursing leadership and the effectiveness of educational interventions in developing behaviors among nurses, twenty leadership factors were examined and categorized into four groups: behaviors and practices of individual leaders, traits and characteristics of individual leaders, influences of context and practice settings and leader participation in educational activities. (Cummings et al., 2008) Among these factors I believe that behaviors and practice is the most significant. Experience or practice particularly influences the development of leadership since through it leaders are molded and enhanced. I also agree to what Mr. Enrile and Mr. Mosquera regarding the importance of education and experience into developing leadership. With education, a leader or a teacher may gain more knowledge and at the same time will be able to share their skills to others.


    CASAGRA transformative leadership model is all about molding leaders, educators and staff nurses, to become a competent and committed individual through the three concepts identified which is focused on the psycho-spiritual view. CASAGRA transformative leadership model can be applied to different settings. As a staff nurse in a hospital setting, the CASAGRA leadership can mold them into becoming a better and more efficient in delivering health care to patients. It is the same way to nursing educators to their student nurses through delivering the concepts of nursing in a way that the students will understand them easily and put them into practice.


    The theory of Sister Carolina Agravante focuses mainly on the psycho-spiritual aspect of leadership. I agree and commend with what Mr. Desoyo said that Jesus Christ is a great leader and a great nurse in the history. To be able to develop the skills and characteristics of being a leader, we should center our reflection and analysis on the teachings and practices Jesus Christ, our Creator had done. Through the retreat workshop concept formed by Sister Carolina, nurses, nurse educators and other nurse managers and administrators can reflect and have time to build and mold their values as an individual and through this they will be able to share and live it up to their students and colleagues as well. It is also a good analysis that leaders can only be leaders if they are able to influence others.


    In Conclusion, I truly advocate the theory of Sister Carolina because through this theory health care team will yield to a successful collaboration thus delivering an effective health care and health education. I also believe as a Paulinian in the quote, “MAKE A DIFFERENCE”. I believe that in your own little way we can already change and make a difference in our life. This difference maybe the start of something we can develop or build today. Through this theory made by Sister Carolina Agravante, the health care organization will be able to create not only good educators but also good nurses thus making a difference in delivering health care to patients.


    Reference:
    Cummings, G., Lee, H., Macgregor, T., Davey, M., Wong, C., Paul, L., et al. (2008). Factors contributing to nursing leadership: A systematic review. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy. 13, 240-248.
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    joxliongson

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    Post  joxliongson on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 11:57 pm

    I appreciate how Mr. Enrile painted us a picture of the current status of nursing education and the “substandard” graduates that it produces. This can be attributed to the fact that nowadays Nursing is hardly ever viewed as a noble vocation, but merely a ticket to greener pastures. Nursing schools have sprouted even from Computer Science schools because of this demand. I do believe that the quality of education given to Nursing education is no longer rooted on the very values of a caring profession since the goal is to produce board passers. The attempts to meet the goal are centred on knowledge and procedures. This is problematic since nursing care is supposed to be holistic and not merely physical.

    It is given that a good education, training and life experiences regarding care are basic requirements for the development of leadership characteristics, skills and expertise among nurses. But there are other factors that I believe may contribute to the development of a nurse leader.
    1. ORGANIZATION-BASED SELF ESTEEM (OBSE). OBSE refers to a person’s assessment of his adequacy and worth in his place in his institution of employment. A high OBSE is characterized by a person’s view of himself as significant, effective and a contributing member of the work force. This attitude elicits support from supervisors and colleagues. (Schultz,2002)
    2. PERSONAL VALUE FOR THE PROFESSION. A nurse who genuinely enjoys Nursing, is genuinely interested in patients and has confidence in his professional know-how has high potentials as a leader and teacher (DeYoung, 2003). He strives for excellence by expanding his knowledge and polishing his skills throughout his career path. This can be done not just by continuing education, but also by up trainings, continuously reading and doing research. In this way, he serves as a role model.
    3. WILLINGNESS AND APPRECIATION FOR SELF-GIVING. Henderson posited that Nursing is different from other professions because it entails going beyond one’s self (Tomey, Alligood, 2002). This does not only apply to nurse-patient relationships. It also trickles down to nurse-colleague relationships. Simply being responsive to one’s colleagues and the readiness to give assistance is leadership. It also shows confidence in one’s competence.
    4. UNDERSTANDING MEANING OF LEADERSHIP AND MANAGEMENT AND SUPPORTING THEORIES. Becoming a leader needs basic understanding of the essence of leadership and how leadership skills are developed and practiced. Leadership is focused on empowering people and groups to achieve the common organizational goals. Management is the coordination of activities and people to meet organizational desired outcomes. Leadership and Management theories give guidance on how to be an effective leader. An example is the behavioural leadership theory of White and Lippitt which identified three leadership styles: authoritarian, democratic and laissez-faire. All of which are models for leading.(Masters, 2005)

    Agravente’s transformative leadership model, focussing of psycho-spiritual change in leadership behaviours, can be applied to the staff nurses, nursing administrators and to patients. To begin with, Filipinos are generally spiritual and religious, regardless of religion and practice. We are also service-oriented, traced back from the old days of “bayanihan”. Spirituality is one’s belief in a higher power that exists in all things (Bastable, Trese). As human beings, we are able to open up to more effective communication and possibilities of choice in changing what is not right through critical spirituality or awareness of one’s internal being (Burke). Nurses and Nurse Administrators are also educators who bank on communication to alter what is wrong in our patients’ health. We do health teaching for our patients and their families. It is also our advocacy to disseminate health information to the public in all ways possible. More important than imparting knowledge is to reflect on the reason why we are doing it. Reflection increases the nurse’s self awareness which is the first step in establishing a therapeutic relationship. It also paves way to collaboration among staff members (Vessey, DeMarco, et, al, 2009). On the other hand, patients’ spiritual and religious beliefs have been found to influence healh beliefs and improve health status (Bastable, 2008). The spiritual exercise of contemplating on Jesus Christ’s suffering as a servant leader gives hope and renewed strength to endure.


    CASAGRA may positively affect nurses’ job satisfaction and performance. Agravante proposes that a person’s psycho-spiritual dynamics affects a nurse’s leadership behaviours. Spirituality allows a nurse to open himself to people more easily, widening channels or communication (Burke). This improves performing caring tasks since interacting with patients is our means of determining their needs, as Travelbee suggested, and allowing them to gain insight of their condition, as proposed by Peplau (Tomey, Alligood, 2002). With this positive performance, a nurse may gain satisfaction with his work. According to Herzberg, job satisfaction is gained when a person completes his job satisfactorily and gains recognition for it (Masters, 2005).


    Nurse educators should respond to the changing times with different approaches. Primarily, with preservation of good character, values and ethics because it leads to enhanced competency (Vessey, DeMarco, et, al, 2009). Competency allows an educator to be committed to others (Vanaki, Memarian, 2009). It is also important for and educator to be constantly socially aware to determine the emerging problems of the times. Nurse educators should be innovative, creative and stimulating to gain the confidence of their learners as they integrate nursing principles with nursing knowledge.


    Being a good Nurse educator and leader does not happen just by imitating former educators and leaders, even though it may be helpful. It involves knowledge, educational theory and research, openness to continuous development and reflection. Leading and teaching qualities may be inherent, but they may also be developed through time. There is always room for growth for everyone.


    SOURCES:
    -DeYoung, Sandra (2003). Teaching Strategies for Nurse Educators. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    -Bastable, Susan B. (2008). Nurse as Educator. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publisher, Inc.
    -Trese, Leo J. (1965). The Faith Explained (3rd ed). Manila: Sinag-tala Publishers, Inc.
    -Tomey, A.M. & Alligood, M.R. (2002). Mosby, Inc.
    -Masters, K. (2005). Role Development in Professional Nursing Practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publisher, Inc
    -Burke, Robert. Leadership and Spirituality..http://www.metafuture.org/articlesbycolleagues/RobertBurke/Leadership%20RBurke2.pdf
    -Vanaki, Z. & Memarian, R. (2009). Professional Ethics: Beyond the Clinical Competency. Journal of Professional Nursing (Vol. 25)
    -Vessey, J. & Demarco, R. Et. Al (2009). Bullying of Staff Registered Nurses in the Workplace: A Preliminary Study for Developing Personal and Organizational Strategies for the Transformation of Hostile to Healthy Workplace Environments. Journal of Professional Nursing (Vol. 25)

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 11:48 pm

    To Ms. Allas:

    We commend your perception about the concepts of CASAGRA Transformative-Leadership model that these are extraordinary factors in developing the leadership qualities of nurses. But this will somehow be a complicated means of transforming others because Agravante focus on the psycho-spiritual aspects. Sr. Carolina only limits her study in one faculty and school which will make it bias when used to other.

    Question:
    Would it be possible now a days when the CASAGRA transformative leadership model apply to other study group with different religious views would be effective?
    Very Happy

    ronna_sarmiento

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  ronna_sarmiento on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 11:41 pm

    The unstable health care environment is influencing each and every nursing responsibility. From staff nurses at the point of service to nurses in expanded and management roles, nursing practice has turned into more multifaceted aspect. Nurses in all roles must understand and be able to plan in the new managed care environment.

    It is important to understand the factors that contribute to the development of nursing leadership for the reason that it is fundamental in ensuring a future supply of nursing leaders who can positively influence outcomes for health care providers and patients (Cummings et al., 2008). In order to develop expertise in leadership, it is an initial step to have the motivation, self-confidence, and the innate feeling of being a leader. These may improve nurses’ professional practice behaviors because individuals not only react to environmental influences, but also have the ability to exercise self-influence to shape their social systems. Aside from these motivational factors, educational factors play a significant role when nurses have entered nursing leadership. The educational requirements for nurse leaders and recruitment to nursing management positions need serious attention in order to develop a competent nursing leadership.

    If this theory will be applied to staff nurses, nursing administrators and to the patients, nurses may be able to practice more professionally when they perceive strong nursing leadership. It is like a process in which if nurses are managed well by the nursing administrators, its desirable outcome can be seen by the patients such as their satisfaction, physiological and psychological changes and other perspectives that are directed to them. However, it is significant in taking into consideration the spiritual perspective of these individuals as it varies by their preferences.

    Transformational leadership can improve cooperative climate within the health care team which, in turn, improves task consistency. In a study by O’Brien et al. (2008), they suggested that doctors and advanced practice nurses should consult appropriate levels of supervision in their working relationship. Also, education imposed mutual learning on the health care team acknowledging the possibility of learning from the other and being sensitive to the value of what the other contributes to the working relationship .CASAGRA Transformational Leadership Model could help in promoting a successful collaboration as it will develop a reciprocal communication between the nurses and health care team in which thoughtful feedback will facilitate appropriate adjustments on the management of patients. This is vital because it provides not only direction, but it also creates opportunities for professional development. It was concluded by Weberg (2010) that transformational leadership was significantly related to increased satisfaction, increased staff well-being, decreased burnout, and decreased overall stress in staff nurses. This is effective as it will lead to a better care management to the patients.

    Nurse managers in view of the psycho-spiritual perspective may want to offer opportunities for enhancing their motivation, such as role modelling and verbal persuasion, recognizing that through improved self-efficacy, practice behaviors may progress that may lead to better management (Manojlovich, M., (2005). It is a good initial approach because several nurses are experiencing dissatisfaction on their work in which they perceive this as a burden in their career. Also, it is significant to implement specific educational activities and practicing leadership competencies which can mold the nurses to develop their capability in leadership and management skills.

    References:
    1. Cummings G., Lee H., MacGregor T., Davey M., Wong C., Paul L. et al. (2008). Factors contributing to nursing leadership: a systematic review. Journal of Health Services Research and Policy, 13, 240-248
    2. Manojlovich, M., (2005). Promoting Nurses’ Self-efficacy: Leadership Strategy to Improve Practice. Journal of Nursing Administration, 35(5), 271-278
    3. O’Brien J.L., Martin D.R., Heyworth J., Meyer N.R. (2008). Negotiating transformational leadership: a key to effective collaboration. Nursing Health Science, 10(2), 137-143
    4. Weberg, D. (2010). Transformational Leadership and Staff Retention: An Evidence Review With Implications for Healthcare Systems. Nursing Administration Quarterly, 34(3), 246-258

    casagramoderators

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 11:27 pm

    TO MR. MARK PAOLO ENRILE Smile

    When I read about the special techniques you mentioned on how nursing educators should be, I wish sister Carolina Agravante included those. You also mentioned the quality of the nurses’ graduates has declined as the passing rate slowly goes down. What effective means would you suggest to the nursing association that will address the concerns of repeaters and avoid waste of resources of the graduates and their parents?
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    Raphael_Desoyo

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  Raphael_Desoyo on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 10:50 pm

    “Focus on the type of leadership in nursing that can challenge the values of the changing world…”

    I really admire the theory of Sister Agravante since it helps the nurses of today have a ideology that is centered on one of the greatest nurses in history; JESUS CHRIST. Jesus Christ’s ideology is mainly treating others with care and with respect. He clearly emphasized this all thru out his life. This ideology has been with us ever since and has guided our history as a being in this earth; I feel that we survived and became the way we are because of him.

    Nurses now are too consumed with themselves and forgot the real essence of nursing, most of them are bluntly going on with their lives as a nurse. No one’s there to lead them and inspire them to be better nurses thus providing better care and live a better experience as a nurse.

    Most of the nurses today have less opportunity to enhance their leadership qualities due to the poor employment status of the profession today. There is a surplus of nurses everywhere, so enhancing their leadership qualities thru the clinical setting is very hard. For the nurses who are fortunate enough to get to the clinical setting, they the opportunity be led by nurse manager. The factors that can influence the growth of nurses basically is their environment, experiences and their personal beliefs and ideals. For the nurses who aren’t employed as a nurse, mainly their influence for nursing growth would be the fire in their heart to pursue nursing.

    The Theory’s results would affect the nursing administration, staff and patients because they would feel the change. The change would refer to anything that is connected to providing quality of healthcare. The theory would facilitate change and reform to everyone that it encounters, It is centered around Jesus Christ, promoting his morals and ideals. The roman catholic belief revolves around loving others as yourself so having this as an ideal is a positive for everyone who is involved. The theory would help the nurses have a more carative attitude towards nursing. This would help nurses provide care more effectively and holistically.

    If given a chance to lead a team, I would use the Casagra Leadership transformation theory as the basis because it revolves around Jesus Christ and his ideals. As a devout catholic, I believe in what he believes and died for and I believe it would be an effective ideology. Since the theory is centered around love and respect for others. It would be a way of breaking the barriers the between the team.

    To end my reaction, I believe that the CASAGRA theory would be beneficial to our nursing leaders today and their team because in our modern times. Having a theory that addresses our spirituality and beliefs would be helpful since most nurses too inclined with the scientific aspect of life and nursing. This would bring our nurses a perspective that their life has a purpose and destiny for all of us.
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    ceemendoza

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  ceemendoza on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 10:36 pm

    Leadership is a social transaction in which one person influences others (Roussel, 2006). Leadership is crucial to achieve success in an organization. In order to sure a success, a leader must possess the necessary skills to make it happened. Several factors may influence the development of leadership traits among nurses. It all must start on how nurses acquired the characteristics, skills and expertise on leadership. Behaviour, as an indicator must clearly be visible to nurses. It can all start on the educational environment on which the nurse came from. Empowering the students to be a leader can help them to be one.

    The importance of leadership can be viewed in a lot of angles. A leader must be an initiator, advocate, assertive, encourager, intrepretor, analyzer, and harmonizer. Transformational leadership is called for to address challenges in creating safe environments for the patient and staff particularly as the weakening of clinical leadership has been cited as a cause of organizational concerns and issues. It can improve quality outcomes for patient and staff, and to heighten overall organizational effectiveness (Roussel, 2006).

    As nurses significantly increased in number, numerous graduates do not possess leadership skill necessary to be a leader. But the true problem is, before a student can be a true leader, their teachers must possess all the given characteristics. Sister Agravante proposed Jesus Christ as the best example of a leader. As like what Jesus is, He is influential and disciplined. He has integrity, and a vision. Thus, He is intent on carrying out that vision. It is vital for a nurse to have a vision and carry out that vision using his initiate leadership skills and behaviour. Though what the group imposes, it is really a limitation to mention a specific spiritual belief in this example. We cannot declare something like this example on a basis that a lot of religion are rampant and not all nurses are Roman Catholic. I suggest mentioning Supreme Being instead of specifying only one spiritual belief.

    Transformational leaders can create something new from something old. Traditional teaching strategies on leadership can evolve in something new, acceptable and flexible principles. Burns (1978) reasoned that moral values were important to leadership. For Burns (1978), the transforming leaders focused on ends, while the transactional leaders negotiated and bargained over the means. Burns studied the historical, social, economic, and political context of the stories of great leaders to develop subcategories of bother transactional and transformational leaders.

    The measurement on how a leader is transformational is in terms of his influence on the followers. The followers of such a leader feel trust, admiration, loyalty and respect for the leader and because of the qualities of the transformational leader are more willing to work harder than originally expected. This occurs because the transformational leader offers followers something more than just working for self gain, such as an inspiring mission or vision. The leader transforms and motivates followers through his or her idealized influence (earlier referred to as charisma), intellectual stimulation and individual consideration. In addition, this leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo and to alter the environment to support being successful.

    References:
    Burns, James MacGregor (1978) Leadership. NY: Harper & Row, Publishers.
    Roussel, L. (2006). Nursing Management and Leadership.Jones & Bartlett Publishers. Fourth Edition.

    gelatin

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    RE: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership. -Angeline Mosquera

    Post  gelatin on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 7:52 pm

    People have been debated for centuries whether leaders are born or made. But I will not dwell much on this question because for me, leadership characteristics can be developed over time given adequate amounts of intelligence and motivation to learn. Being a leader is not for exceptional people alone. Each one of us can be a leader if we allow ourselves to become one.

    Mr. Enrile pointed out the value of education as one of the factors for leadership development. I couldn’t agree more about what he mentioned on why the quality of nurses’ graduates declined over the years because the foundation of most of the students nowadays is deficient. It’s such a sad reality indeed. Education should cultivate our learning. By being educated, we can gain more knowledge, better thoughts and wide understanding about our nursing profession and about our patients. That’s how education plays a big role in the quality of nurse’s life and everyone else for that matter. Moreover, it prepares us to properly utilize our skills and knowledge so we are prepared to share our abilities to our society. Experience on the other hand, is the extension of what we have learned from school. Thus, to study is to learn or gain knowledge by means of books, observation, or experiment. To experience is to live through something, to act, to do, to respect, to suffer the consequences of, to feel, to internalize something (Hansen, 2000). Education and experience go hand in hand in the development of leadership skills among us.

    CASAGRA transformative leadership model focused on the psycho-spiritual point of view in improving the leadership behavior of nurses. The identified concepts namely, the care complex primer, a retreat-workshop on Servant-leadership, and a seminar-workshop on Transformative Teaching for nursing faculty are very interesting for me because these are extraordinary factors that are different from the normal means of developing the leadership qualities of nurses. To the extent of its effectiveness, I believe that the very essence of having a caring attitude can significantly improve the behavior of nurses . This can also contribute to the administrators in motivating their staff because of the attitude to unite for a greater good. What’s admirable about this theory is the incorporation of values that are also acceptable to non catholics. For example, this theory exemplifies the life of Jesus as the paradigm of peace. All races, I believe will not argue that what is needed now is a community that is build in love, freedom, justice, and truth. Bridging the gap in the leader-servant role by means of transformative leadership model can promote two way process of communication which will result to understanding of both parties. I believe that this will be effective especially for the new nurses to voice out their ideals.

    As a nurse, I have experienced “seniority system” in my workplace. That is, those who work longer in the hospital have more privileges like authority over the new nurses. It was evident that new nurses’ role was just to follow what the senior nurses told us to even if it seemed unfair. In relation to applying CASAGRA transformational theory in this kind of situation, I believe that it can significantly institute methods in providing new nurses in taking active and participatory role in policy within new nurses’ jurisdiction and power (Sullivan, E.J. & Decker, P.J. (2001). Collaboration in the healthcare team will definitely be successful because each other’s right is maintained in the process, and there is room for everyone to practice their leadership skills.

    I believe that the right approach that nursing educators should do is to “develop staff self-direction rather than giving direction" (Porter, 1999). This will help facilitate enhancement in leadership skills which is relevant to the challenge of change in our time.

    REFERENCES:

    1.Hansen, R 2000Journal of Technology Education Vol. 11 No. 2, Spring 2000 pp23-32
    2.Porter-O’Grady, T. (1999). Quantum Leadership: New Roles for a New Age. Journal of Nursing Administration, 29(10), 37-42.
    3. Sullivan, E.J. & Decker, P.J. (2001). Effective Leadership and Management in Nursing (5th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
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    markpaoloenrile

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    Re: CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  markpaoloenrile on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 5:39 pm

    The quality of the nurses’ graduates has declined as the passing rate slowly goes down – from 54 % in 2004 to the present 42% and while the number of nursing schools has doubled to 400 many of these graduates are not performing well. These schools produce poor graduates and do anything including leakage just to evade the closure of their profitable nursing schools. (Lorenzo, 2007)

    In a time when the reputation of nursing education in the Philippines is at an all time low, the CASAGRA Trasformative Leadership theory is a very timely model. Given the numerous nursing schools that have mushroomed for the past few years thereby explaining the hundreds of thousands who fail the local board examinations and thousands of unemployed registered nurses in the country today. Education never stops, it is as dynamic as change and there will always be room for improvement as the years go on.

    Agravante's theory focuses not on what educators should teach, but rather what make people good educators. She primarily focused on nursing educators as this is her line of field and established that there are there concepts important to being effective nurse educators: the care complex, servant-leadership and transformative teaching. This study was empirically proved to be effective with tests conducted to examine the effectiveness of the theory.

    On a more personal note aside from the interventions designed by Agravante, I believe some of the following are very much necessary in order to become effective nurse educators:

    1. Good Basic and Advanced Nursing Education

    A quality BSN degree will serve as the backbone or foundation of the education when dealing with students. It is important that the foundation is sound and of good quality. A teacher cannot teach what he does not possess. An advanced nursing education is also necessary as this what sets teacher apart from the students. A higher form understanding, learning and comprehension is needed when one desires to be an educator. This kind of mind set can only be acquired through a course of higher learner in the form of a masters degree or doctorate.

    2. Experience

    They say that the best teacher is experience. In every essence of the cliche', it remains true to this day. In order to be effective in teaching your students, you have to know how to exemplify what you teach through examples of what you have experienced in the past. It is not only imperative to prevent boring teaching methods, but also important in making sure that the students understand what you are teaching.

    3. A heart for teaching

    This pretty much is where the theory in discussion comes in. No matter how intelligent a person is, if he does not have passion for teaching, if he does not care about the students he teaches, then he will never be an effective teacher.

    Nurses are one of the most unique professions in the world. We have so many roles in the lives of the people we touch. One of these extra ordinary roles is that we are educators in our own right. Sadly, this role is pretty much forgotten most of the time. One aspect of nursing that is performed daily and rarely acknowledged is teaching. Nurses are known for their ingenuity, sixth sense, and ability to do many tasks at once, but they rarely are recognized as educators or given the time or training to take on the large responsibility of educating the public (Gant, 2003). All nurses are, even those without education degrees or masters degrees. Whenever we teach our patients the proper attitude and health teachings towards the elimination of a disease, that already marks us as educators. The theory of Agravante applies so aptly as no nurse would be effective in educating his patients without caring, selflessness and of course competence in the profession. Administrators are educators as well, as they are the ones designing and preparing the plans for training of our staff nurses. Without the factors conceived by CASAGRA, then all of our nurses in the hospitals would not be effective teachers.

    Reflection is the essence of learning. Without reflection, learning is useless. In the same way, it is important for nurses to reflect the reason of why they are taking care of these patients. Through the CASAGRA transformational leadership model, nurses are able to understand this reason. They are able to be more empathic towards patients and understand the importance of their role as servant leaders in the transformation of people they want to change for the better through proper education. Being a good teacher would also make you understand what makes a good student. It is important for nurses to remain humble and understand that they can learn from everyone around them. Constant reflection will make us aware of what we are lacking and what he need to learn more of. We must, in other words, become adept at learning. We must become able not only to transform our students, in response to changing situations and requirements; we must invent and develop institutions which are ‘learning systems’, that is to say, systems capable of bringing about their own continuing transformation through constant reflection (Schon, 1973). From patients, medical technologists, doctors and fellow nurses, we can all learn something from these people. Education, like i said, never ends and is always very much ever changing - WHAT YOU KNOW NOW, MAYBE DIFFERENT FROM WHAT YOU SHOULD KNOW TOMORROW.


    In the current situation we have in the Philippines, I believe a more iron fisted form of leadership is needed in order to assure quality education for nursing students. It is a shame that although we have so many nursing graduates, our education is not recognized in majority of the first world. We are even asked to take english exams and bridging courses just to prove our competency, unlike some of our neighbors in the region like Singapore and Hong Kong, where graduates enjoy reciprocity of licensure with most western countries. Given this problem, the PRC-BON alongside with the CHED and of course all recognized associations that help form quality educational institutions in the the Philippines must join together, hand-in-hand, in order to start solving this problem.

    I have read so many times of how the CHED plans to close down nursing schools which are of poor quality, but this is yet to be a reality.

    It is also important for all nurses to be vigilant and have the highest respect for education. Education is a hard and grueling process, but what you sow today, you will reap the fruits of tomorrow.

    Although universally the art of teaching is the same, the process by which Agravante carried out her study was focused on the Roman Catholic religion. Retreat workshops may be effective for Catholics, but perhaps a parallel activity in other religions need to be proved as well for the theory to be more accessible and useful to other cultures.

    Agravante also focused more on the attitude of nursing educators to be effective at teaching their students. Knowledge and Skills as instructors are also very important and I believe was left out in the discussion. Also in terms of empirical soundness, as what the moderators already mentioned, it would have been more effective if the study was done in a more diversified faculty and school in order to prevent biases in the results.

    Over all, Agravante's theory is a timely theory with very noble objectives. It provides nurses a hindsight of what makes teachers good teachers. In a time when there is so much information, so much technology and so many intelligent, competent and idealistic teachers, it is also important to reflect and be aware that our students are human beings. They need to be taught holistically and be able to understand more effectively if they are understood as well by their teachers.

    casagramoderators

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    CASAGRA Transformational Leadership by Carolina Agravante

    Post  casagramoderators on Wed 30 Jun 2010, 2:20 am

    Sister Carolina S. Agravante
    - Has Bachelor’s Degree in Nursing in St. Paul Collge Manila in 1964
    - Has Master’s Degree in Nursing Education in Catholic University of America in 1970
    - Has Doctoral degree in nursing in university of the Philippines manila on April 2002
    CASAGRA transformative leadership model
    -derived CASAGRA theory from her name

    “Focus on the type of leadership in nursing that can challenge the values of the changing world…”

    Main Propositions
    - CASAGRA transformative leadership is a psycho-spiritual model, was an effective means for faculty to become better teachers and servant-leaders.
    - Care complex is a structure in the personality of the caregiver that is significantly related to the leadership behavior.
    - The CASAGRA servant-leadership formula is an effective modality in enhancing the nursing faculty’s servant-leadership behavior.
    -Vitality of Care Complex of the nursing faculty is directly related to leadership behavior

    Key Concepts

    >CASAGRA transformative leadership model have concepts of leadership from a psycho-spiritual point of view, designed to lead to radical change from apathy or indifference to a spiritual person.

    >Servant-leader formula is the enrichment package prepared as intervention for the study which has three parts that parallel the three concepts of the CASAGRA transformative leadership model, namely: the care complex primer, a retreat-workshop on Servant-leadership, and a seminar-workshop on Transformative Teaching for nursing faculty.

    > Special expertise is the level of competence in the particular nursing area that the professional nurse is engaged in.

    >Retreat-workshop is the spiritual exercise organized in an ambience of prayer where the main theme is the contemplation of Jesus Christ as a Servant-leader.

    >Servant-leadership behavior refers to the perceived behavior of nursing faculty manifested through the ability to model the servant leadership qualities to students, ability to bring out the best in students, competence in nursing skills, commitment to the nursing profession, and sense of collegiality with the school, other health professionals, and local community.

    >Nursing leadership is the force within the nursing profession that sets the vision for its practitioners, lays down the roles and functions, and influences the direction toward which the profession should go.

    >Transformative teaching may also be termed Reflective teaching, an umbrella term covering ideas, such as thoughtful instruction, teacher research, teacher narrative, and teacher empowerment.

    >Care complex is the nucleus of care experiences in the personality of a nurse formed by a combination of maternal care experiences, culture based-care practices indigenous to a race and people, and the professional training on care acquired in a formal course of nursing.


    WHAT PROMPTED SISTER CAROLINA AGRAVANTE TO DO THE THEORY?

    The present day demands in the nursing profession challenge nursing educators to revisit their basic responsibility of educating professional nurses who are responsive to technological, educational and social changes happening in the Philippines society today. The reopening of the doors of foreign market to Filipino nurses, migration made easy, attractive salaries and benefits way beyond what hospitals can afford to give.

    Nursing education is faced with a new concern that is globalization of nursing services for the international market. Therefore a need to develop globalization of care with focus on developing caring nurses.

    The formation of new nursing leaders is urgently needed; leaders with new vision who will venture new traits and who have gone through new formation in order to serve the society as professional nurse.

    Nurses needs competent leaders with a dream what nursing can be, whose basic stand is caring and service who are competent in nursing, assertive of their own rights with the help profession.

    MEANING OF THE THEORY

    Based on the study, the effect of the CASAGRA Leadership model using the servant leader model on the leadership behavior of the nursing faculty, the care complex in the personality of the nursing faculty is highly correlated to their leadership behavior. The care complex is necessary given as a stimulant in the performance of the leadership activities. The leadership behavior of the faculty after going to the servant leadership formula was significantly higher in the two-post test periods than during the pre-test. It improved the leadership behavior of the nursing faculty in both groups.

    LOGICAL ADEQUACY
    - The conceptual framework is logical because the variables are very well explained on how transformative-leadership model be applicable through care complex, transformative teaching servant-leader spirituality, and servant-leader behavior.
    - A person with dynamic care complex is the cornerstone of nursing leadership. According to care complex of Agravante, caring personality rests on the possession of a care complex with in a person as an energy source of caring.
    - The framework explains and predicts the continuous formation of nursing leadership behavior in nursing faculty that will eventually affect their teaching function.
    - Servant-leadership formula runs parallel to the generic elements of the transformative-leadership model.
    - Transformative teaching is the guide that desired for the modern educative process designed to form the millennium professional nurse.
    - Expertise is the practice of caring and proactive in face of challenges for the profession go hand-in-hand. Education and practice bring this about.

    STRENGTHS
    - It provided the task of the formation of the nurse leaders at the baccalaureate level so that the profession assured the graduates possess the mind and heart of a nursing leader who is of the nursing profession
    - It can also be use in other educational settings not just on nursing profession


    WEAKNESSES/ LIMITATIONS
    - CASAGRA transformative leadership limits only on Roman Catholic and Christians nursing educators.
    - Did not consider other religion to this study. In the Philippines we have a variety of religion present. Every religion has its own traditions and practices to be considered.
    - According to the study the control and study groups were selected from the same faculty in the two schools, it is highly possible that experience could have been discussed casually in faculty room and in some way must contaminated the intervention.


    USEFULNESS (PRACTICABILTY)

    It is significant to the nurse educators. It will help them to achieve the vision-mission as a network of innovative, competent empowered educators towards excellence in national and global development. The theory could be the answer in the modern-world challenges in nursing education that is centered on the teaching of Jesus, a paradigm of peace.


    GENERALIZABILITY AND PARSIMONY

    -Nursing students will be assured of similar leadership formation that will be provided to them by the nursing educators who advocated the CASAGRA Transformative Leadership model. It will give them the confidence they need to face the challenges in the profession.

    -Transformative teachers are basically who looks into herself, sees her assumptions and feelings in the light of the nursing profession in the modern days, how her own philosophy of life affects professional life with her students

    SIMPLICITY
    - Agravante’s theory does not possess simplicity because the study group has to undergo seminar and retreats which somehow give hassles to them.

    - The theory is designed to transform a servant leader which Agravante possesses Jesus as a sample


    EMPIRICAL PRECISION
    -The study was conducted to determine the effects of the CASAGRA transformative leadership model for nursing faculty on the servant leadership behavior of the nursing faculty. The quasi-experimental two-group pre-test post-test design was utilized in the study. The study population consisted of 30 nursing faculty , divided into control and study group randomly selected to participate in the Servant-leader formula for nursing faculty.



    GUIDE QUESTIONS:

    1. What factors influence the development of leadership characteristics, skills and expertise among nurses?
    2. Since the study was addressed to the nursing educators, what do you think will CASAGRA transformative leadership model can contribute when applied to the staff nurses, nursing administrators and to the patients?
    3. What do you think will CASAGRA transformative leadership model, when applied to the hospital setting can have an impact on the staff nurses satisfaction and performance? On what specific way?
    4. As registered nurses, how will CASAGRA Transformational Leadership Model will be an effective mean of transforming the health care team into a successful collaboration?
    5. What are the approaches in leadership that nursing educators should be pursuing to enable the profession to respond to the challenge of change in our time?

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