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    Guided or unguided learning

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    Klarisse Esteban

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    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  Klarisse Esteban on Mon 13 Dec 2010, 5:33 pm

    Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching By: Paul A. Kirschner, John Sweller, Richard E. Clark

    There are several teaching methods that different instructors use. Also, every individual has his own learning style. These learning styles enable the individual to understand the concepts using his own strategy. Because of this, we cannot say that the teaching style of the instructor is to blame when students do not easily understand the concepts that are given to them. In the article, it was argued that the guidance that the instructor is able to provide during the time that the student is exposed to the problem will determine the degree of understanding that the student will have on the concept being thought.
    The efficacy of teaching is not evaluated through the teaching style or the resources of the instructor. There are different factors to consider when teaching students. One is how the students perceive the topics that they should learn. In a study that was conducted by Brydges et al (2009), it was said that the method of teaching and the materials used in teaching will not determine the degree of learning that the students will have. It is the motivation and the will of the students that will enable them to learn the concepts that they are expected to understand. Therefore, in ensuring the understanding of the students on the topics, the instructor must consider the interest and the motivation of the students. The instructor must be the first one to give motivations and to give the students inspired and interested in the topic to be learned.
    Another factor that should be considered by the instructor is the learning styles of the students. Each student has a different learning style. When concepts are thought according to the learning style of the students, the interest and understanding rises. The use of learning styles was the focus of the study conducted by Kazu (2009). Kazu found out that the use of different learning styles will determine the best way of learning for the students. He also stated that in order to consider the right teaching style, the instructor must first determine the learning styles of the students.


    References:
    Brydges, R., Carnahan, H., Safir, O., & Dubrowski, A. (2009). How effective is self-guided learning of clinical technical skills? It's all about process. Medical Education, 43(6), 507-515. Retrieved from CINAHL Plus with Full Text database

    Kazu, İ. (2009). The Effect of Learning Styles on Education and the Teaching Process. Journal of Social Sciences (15493652), 5(2), 85-94. Retrieved from Academic Source Complete database.

    Kirschner, P., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. (2006). Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75-86. doi:10.1207/s15326985ep4102_1.
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    markpradow

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    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  markpradow on Mon 13 Dec 2010, 5:06 pm

    Teaching is easier when students are prepared or has some familiarity with the lesson. Educators assess the capability and the level of understanding of the students on what style of teaching and what the pace of the lesson should be.

    Minimal guidance of educators to their students will really have to depend on the assessment of the students’ capacity. It is our role as educators to give the students a comprehensive approach to lectures and that means we have to guide them well through out the learning process. The issue here is that there has to be a limit into how we feed information to the students. They should be able to grasp the concepts and learn which to focus on. Spoon feeding or just giving out all the necessary tools in learning to students will not really help them in being proactive in class. There should be a balance on the guidance of students in the learning process.

    I believe that teachers should explain the syllabus and point out the areas of focus and should only teach half of it and let the students learn how to find the concepts on the reference list. This way the students will have a better understanding of the lesson because they were able to read them first and then explaining it to class. The teacher may provide some correction and added information and in that way a more proactive and assertive students and future nurses are produced.

    xiao pei
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    guided or unguided learning

    Post  xiao pei on Thu 25 Nov 2010, 12:08 am

    Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    A guided learning approach requires rather more efforts in the preparation of materials than a more conventional
    approach but this is mostly a 'one-off' task, and time saved by the lecturer using this mode of delivery can offset
    the time required for maintenance of the materials.
    As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    If you are first starting out,i will use guided learning approach the Guided learning sessions is a good way to learn as the study practitioner will talk you through the experience and to help you identify what you should be feeling and how to effectively move you into the state that your technique is trying to get you in.
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?
    Education works best when it concentrates on thinking and understanding, rather than on rote memorization. Constructivism concentrates on learning how to think and understand.

    Constructivist learning is transferable. In constructivist classrooms, students create organizing principles that they can take with them to other learning settings.

    Constructivism gives students ownership of what they learn, since learning is based on students' questions and explorations, and often the students have a hand in designing the assessments as well. Constructivist assessment engages the students' initiatives and personal investments in their journals, research reports, physical models, and artistic representations. Engaging the creative instincts develops students' abilities to express knowledge through a variety of ways. The students are also more likely to retain and transfer the new knowledge to real life.

    By grounding learning activities in an authentic, real-world context, constructivism stimulates and engages students. Students in constructivist classrooms learn to question things and to apply their natural curiousity to the world.

    Constructivism promotes social and communication skills by creating a classroom environment that emphasizes collaboration and exchange of ideas. Students must learn how to articulate their ideas clearly as well as to collaborate on tasks effectively by sharing in group projects. Students must therefore exchange ideas and so must learn to "negotiate" with others and to evaluate their contributions in a socially acceptable manner. This is essential to success in the real world, since they will always be exposed to a variety of experiences in which they will have to cooperate and navigate among the ideas of others.



    jm_babera

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    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  jm_babera on Fri 19 Nov 2010, 3:46 pm

    <<Questions:

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?>>

    Every learner is unique (DeYoung3 2003), and as such, no single learning method can be considered as universally appropriate in all situations. Following this premise, it can be safely deduced then that no single approach can be applied to a single class which is a composition of different individual learners. Each class is then similar to the learner; it is unique in its composition of learners. As such no single approach will singlehandedly be effective without jeopardizing the learner; some people effectively learn in the guided method, and some will learn effectively on the unguided method. The teacher’s ultimate responsibility is to ensure that the learner will learn the course content and as such the educator must employ techniques that will effectively enhance learning. The educator must also employ techniques that will suit the individual’s learning style. From this premise, then, we can deduce that achieving a balance between the use of guided and unguided learning techniques based on the individual learning styles will ensure that everyone in the class will learn effectively
    There are perhaps 2 primary benefits which justifies the use of the constructivist approach. It is best explained by McLeod2 (2003) who quotes Boethel and Dimock’s (2000) 6 assumptions of the constructivist method: 1) Learning is an adaptive activity; 2) Learning is situated in the context where it occurs; 3) Knowledge is constructed by the learner; 4) Experience and prior understanding play a role in learning ; 5) There is resistance to change , and; 6) Social interaction plays a role in learning . Constructivists claim that it allows learners to solve “authentic problems” in a manner which is effective in that the learner’s construct knowledge in the environment by which the problem exists, which brings us to the second primary benefit in the technique. Rhem1 (1998) claims that learners achieve higher levels of learning because the learners find meanings within the information and grow more in different aspects as well because of the dynamics of the learning process.
    Ultimately, there is no perfect learning method for every learning situation; the appropriateness of the learning method utilized upon a specific situation shall finally rest upon the learner and not primarily on the educator.


    1 – Rhem, J., Problem-Based Learning: an Introduction (1998), The National Teaching and Learning Forum, vol.8 no.1, lifted from http://www.ntlf.com/html/pi/9812/v8n1smpl.pdf
    2 – McLeod, G., Learning Theory amnd Instructional Design (2003), Learning Matters (2003), lifted from http://courses.durhamtech.edu/tlc/www/html/Resources/learningmatters/learningtheory.pdf
    3 – DeYoung, S>< Teaching strategies for Nurse Educators (2003)
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    joxliongson

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    Post  joxliongson on Thu 18 Nov 2010, 11:12 am

    Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as learner ?

    I believe that there is no single way to learn. Learning is a process that requires a combination of different methods depending on the knowledge being passed on (Castillion-Boiser, 2000). Personally, I am able to learn best if I begin with guided learning. For building a good knowledge foundation, an instructor has to feed me some information with structure and organization. This is important for me to know what are the key points that i should focus on. otherwise, I will end up studying everything without emphasis on what needs to be remembered. I need an instructor to evaluate my learning for me objectively, so i will know my strengths and weaknesses. After I have a good knowledge foundation, that's when I can proceed to unguided learning. It will allow me to work independently, practice my critical thinking skills and put my decision making abilities to the test.

    As a teacher,what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?

    This question is just like question #1. The learning style that I prefer as a learner is what i deem effective if I were to teach. As a teacher, I will keep in mind that people work well in groups or with a partner (Masters, 2005). This is why guided learning will be my first approach. I should also acknowledge that people learn while working independently (Lardizabal, Bustus, Bucu, Tangco, 1977). I believe that what is most important for a teacher to consider is that the teaching pedagogy to be employed must be suitable for the students' level of ability to learn, level of knowledge and level of independence (Orteza, 1999).

    What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?

    According to Thanasoulas, the view of constructivism is that learning is acquired from individual mental construction. The learner learns by matching new against given information and establishing meaningful logic, rather than by knowing facts to be digested later on . The benefits are:
    1. The learner builds his own concepts which fosters logical thinking.
    2. The learner finds his own solutions to problems which fosters critical thinking and decision making.
    3. It requires the learner's initiative, personal involvement and self evaluation which foster autonomy and independence.

    References:

    Castillon-Boiser, D. (2000). Strategies for teaching: A modular approach. Manila: Rex Bookstore, Inc.

    Lardizabal, A., Bustos, A., Bucu, L., & Tangco, M. (1977). Principles and method of teaching. 2nd ed. Q.C.: Phoenix Publishing House

    Masters, K. (2005). Role development in professional nursing practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publisher, Inc.

    Thanasoulas, D. Constructivist learning. Retrieved on November 11, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Teachers_Page/Language_Learning_Articles/constructivist_learning.htm
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    joxliongson

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    Post  joxliongson on Thu 18 Nov 2010, 11:12 am

    Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as learner ?

    I believe that there is no single way to learn. Learning is a process that requires a combination of different methods depending on the knowledge being passed on (Castillion-Boiser, 2000). Personally, I am able to learn best if I begin with guided learning. For building a good knowledge foundation, an instructor has to feed me some information with structure and organization. This is important for me to know what are the key points that i should focus on. otherwise, I will end up studying everything without emphasis on what needs to be remembered. I need an instructor to evaluate my learning for me objectively, so i will know my strengths and weaknesses. After I have a good knowledge foundation, that's when I can proceed to unguided learning. It will allow me to work independently, practice my critical thinking skills and put my decision making abilities to the test.

    As a teacher,what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?

    This question is just like question #1. The learning style that I prefer as a learner is what i deem effective if I were to teach. As a teacher, I will keep in mind that people work well in groups or with a partner (Masters, 2005). This is why guided learning will be my first approach. I should also acknowledge that people learn while working independently (Lardizabal, Bustus, Bucu, Tangco, 1977). I believe that what is most important for a teacher to consider is that the teaching pedagogy to be employed must be suitable for the students' level of ability to learn, level of knowledge and level of independence (Orteza, 1999).

    What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?

    According to Thanasoulas, the view of constructivism is that learning is acquired from individual mental construction. The learner learns by matching new against given information and establishing meaningful logic, rather than by knowing facts to be digested later on . The benefits are:
    1. The learner builds his own concepts which fosters logical thinking.
    2. The learner finds his own solutions to problems which fosters critical thinking and decision making.
    3. It requires the learner's initiative, personal involvement and self evaluation which foster autonomy and independence.

    References:

    Castillon-Boiser, D. (2000). Strategies for teaching: A modular approach. Manila: Rex Bookstore, Inc.

    Lardizabal, A., Bustos, A., Bucu, L., & Tangco, M. (1977). Principles and method of teaching. 2nd ed. Q.C.: Phoenix Publishing House

    Masters, K. (2005). Role development in professional nursing practice. Sudbury, MA: Jones & Bartlett Publisher, Inc.

    Thanasoulas, D. Constructivist learning. Retrieved on November 11, 2010. Retrieved from http://www.seasite.niu.edu/Tagalog/Teachers_Page/Language_Learning_Articles/constructivist_learning.htm

    lixingxi
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    guided or unguided learning

    Post  lixingxi on Wed 17 Nov 2010, 9:22 pm

    questions:
    Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as learner ?
    As a teacher,what kind of approach would you use among your students? why?
    What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?

    Guided discovery learning is a constructivist instructional design model that combines principles from discovery learning and sometimes radical constructivism with principles from cognitivist instructional design theory.
    “ Students discover knowledge without guidance, developing their own understanding. The role of instruction is merely to provide a suitable environment, which in software might be a microworld or simulation. Discovery learning, or instructionless learning, involves hypothesis formulation and testing (Goodyear et al. 1991, Shrager and Klahr 1986).” (Stephen Bostock), retrieved, 17:17, 15 September 2006 (MEST)
    Guided discovery was developed by Dr. Charles E. Wales at the Center for Guided Design, West Virginia University (Leutner, 1993). Discovery learning is much older and other forms of structuredness do exist.

    “ Guided Discovery, is characterized by convergent thinking. The instructor devises a series of statements or questions that guide the learner, step by logical step, making a series of discoveries that leads to a single predetermined goal. In other words the instructor initiates a stimulus and the learner reacts by engaging in active inquiry thereby discovering the appropriate response. Mosston (1972:117) specifies ten cognitive operations that might take place as the learner engages in active inquiry: recognizing da analysing, synthesizing, comparing and contrasting, drawing conclusions, hypothesizing memorizing, inquiring, inventing, and discovering. By actively doing and consequence discovering facts or concepts, the learner will understand and therefore remember the subject matter. Mosston (1972:122) cautions that "discovery learning cannot take place if t answers are given." He also points out certain drawbacks of this teaching method: it precisely controls and manipulates learning behaviour and could therefore be abused, and is designed for individual rather than group use.” - The Discovery LearningConcept, retrieved, 17:17, 15 September 2006 (MEST)

    According to Spencer (1999), key features of guided discovery learning are:

    A context and frame for student learning through the provision of learning outcomes
    Learners have responsibility for exploration of content necessary for understanding through self directed learning
    Study guides are used to facilitate and guide self directed learning
    Understanding is reinforced through application in problem oriented, task based, and work related experiences
    Guided discovery learning designs can be enhanced with various computational tools. One of these is simulation. According to Reichert's (2005) summary of de Jong and Joolingen (1998) the following scaffolds should be included in the design of computer simulations for discovery learning.

    Direct "just-in-time" access to the domain knowledge seems to have a positive effect on problem solving and on transfer of knowledge.
    Support for hypotheses generation, for example by providing hypothesis construction tools, seems to have positive effects on the performance of learners.
    Support for designing experiments by providing hints and advice seems to positively affect the learners' experimentation abilities (but does not seem to influence the learning outcome).
    Support for making predictions e.g. by providing them a graphic tool to draw a curve that depicts the prediction.
    Support for the regulation the learning process includes various measures:
    Model progression, such as step-by-step model expansion (e. g. expanding the complexity of the model).
    Planning support (e. g. using guiding questions, quests or even assignments).
    Monitoring support (e. g. show what has already be done in the simulation)
    Structuring the discovery process (e. g. providing students with a sequenced structure such as "set-up, do, reflect").
    Extensive review of the litterature by de Jong and Jooling showed that generally speaking guided simulations lead to better results than non-guided ones. Compared to expository teaching, guided simulation may increase aspects of "deep learning", e.g. understanding of concepts and of course better train for the discovery process itself. See also some of the debate reported in the discovery learning article. In short: it is still open...

    Guided discovery or similar principles exists within many frameworks, e.g. Laurillard's conversational framework
    As a teacher, i will give the students guided learning, because it is can save long time and meanwhile, it can also give student's thinking time. guided leaning can widen student's horizon.
    Constructivism is basically a theory -- based on observation and scientific study -- about how people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When we encounter something new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, maybe changing what we believe, or maybe discarding the new information as irrelevant. In any case, we are active creators of our own knowledge. To do this, we must ask questions, explore, and assess what we know.

    In the classroom, the constructivist view of learning can point towards a number of different teaching practices. In the most general sense, it usually means encouraging students to use active techniques (experiments, real-world problem solving) to create more knowledge and then to reflect on and talk about what they are doing and how their understanding is changing. The teacher makes sure she understands the students' preexisting conceptions, and guides the activity to address them and then build on them.

    refences
    Allen, Michael (2002), Discovery Learning: Repurposing An Old Paradigm, LTI Newsline, HTML, retrieved, 17:17, 15 September 2006 (MEST).
    Aleven, V., Stahl, E., Schworm, S., Fischer, F., & Wallace, R. (2003). Help Seeking and Help Design in Interactive Learning Environments. Review of Educational Research, 73(7), 277-320.
    de Jong, T. & van Joolingen, W. (1998). Scientific discovery learning with computer simulations of conceptual domains. Review of Educational Research, 68(2):179-201, 1998. Abstract/PDF Preprint
    Faryniarz, J. V., & Lockwood, L. G. (1992). Effectiveness of microcomputer simulations in stimulating environmental problem solving by community college students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 29(5), 453-470. Abstract and PDF (Access restricted).
    Feldon, David, F. Dispelling a Few Myths about Learning, UrbanEd PDF
    Gokhale, Anu A. (1996), Effectiveness of Computer Simulation for Enhancing Higher Order Thinking, Journal of Industrial Teacher Education, Volume 33, Number 4. HTML.
    Goodyear, P., Njoo, M, Hijne, H & van Berkum, J.J.A. 1991. Learning processes, learner attributes and simulations. Education and Computing (6) 263-304
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    kristineaajuan

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    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  kristineaajuan on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 11:39 pm

    Since I am not really into teaching right, I think I can apply these two approaches in my area, which is the OR, whenever we have students having their RLE. First, by orienting them with the set-up of the area, telling them the do's and don'ts inside the OR and by familiarizing or introducing them with the instruments being used during operations. Definitely they cannot master the instruments with just one teaching but surely it can be instilled in their memory once they have assisted a few cases already. With that their experience of assisting in a procedure will put a mark in their minds which they can apply in the future if they also plan to be an OR nurse. Very Happy

    As a learner, I want the same approach or way of teaching be applied to me. For me, I cannot learn just merely by myself but of course there is a need for guidance from someone who is well versed of the matter.

    angeliebernardo

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    Guided or Unguided Learning

    Post  angeliebernardo on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 11:05 pm

    Bernardo, Angelie Teresa B.
    Instructional Design

    A. Do you prefer GUIDED or UNGUIDED LEARNING as a learner?

    Learning is a process. Just like any other profession it follows a certain pattern or steps systematically in order to achieve quality outcomes. In learning, the learner wants to gain knowledge or further enhance this. To meet this goal, the learner may have an alternative. He or she chooses something that would best benefit him/her the most. While UNGUIDED LEARNING is popular and appealing, it disregards the human cognition structures and its evidences empirically making it less effective and efficient. On the other hand, a GUIDED LEARNING is a process designed to be delivered via any media platform. It is said to be a set of specific procedures for completing and testing each stage in the design and development process. Utilizing this type of learning obviously increases the amount of learning and the learning time also decreases because it involves an authentic set-ups and tasks.

    As a learner at the graduate school, given the option, I would say it is not how much guiding is needed for a given learning level but the amount of learning gained that which is more important, guided or unguided may the learning be.


    B. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?

    Between GUIDED and UNGUIDED LEARNING, I would choose the former since it suffices the goal I would want to meet for my students. There is always the chance of failure to meet such goal for reasons like some students may lack enthusiasm or they may be skeptic to embrace such approach and this poses another challenge to me as the teacher. Again, the learning system here does not only apply to my students but it also does to me. As the saying goes, “try and try”. If this is the case, flexibility comes in. I would incorporate or can even combine this approach with other designs of instruction until it suits the standards of my students.

    C. What are the benefits of problem-based learning and constructivist learning?

    Guided Learning is also known as constructivist instructional design. Students gain knowledge without guidance. They develop their own understanding. The role of instruction is merely to provide a suitable environment, can either be in simulation or software. This means the instructor initiates stimulus and the student reacts through active inquiry thereby coming up to a certain and appropriate response. The drawback for this design is that it controls and manipulates the learning behavior of the student and therefore can be abused.
    An example of a problem-based design of learning is that of Merill’s. This suggests that most effective learning environments are those that are problem-based. This follows four phases of learning which are:
    1) activation of prior experience
    2) demonstration of skills
    3) application of skills
    4) integration of these skills into real world activities

    The phases itself speak clearly the benefits the students will gain from this type of instructional design.


    Reference: http://id2.usu.edu/Papers/5FirstPrinciples.PDF





    Charis Juan

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    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  Charis Juan on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 10:08 pm

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?

    I believe that a skilled instructor should be able to use different approaches to learning. I also believe that instructors and students should be able to interact freely and have a two-way discussion on subjects of learning. These statements proceed from the premise that the instructor should first be able to teach the concepts to students who are also willing to learn. The instructor should have a command of the subject being taught, a mastery of the concepts and topics being discussed, ability to convey competence in the subject matter, and confidence in teaching. The instructor should have respect for the students’ points of view, must have broad understanding of the class strength and limitations, and must be able to foster a healthy environment for learning. The students, in turn, must be eager to learn and must be committed to do their part to make learning productive for both teacher and the students. The student should also be open to change that might occur as a result of this learning.

    This view does away with traditional learning where the teacher controls the teaching environment, and the teacher bombards the student with all information while the student is a passive learner. It also does away with minimal guidance of instruction, otherwise called as discovery learning, problem-based learning or constructivist learning where the learners must discover or construct essential information for themselves (Kirschner, Sweller & Clark, 2006).

    A combination of direct instructional guidance and minimal guidance may be the best alternative. As Hanham said in his article, direct guidance is effective only up to a certain point. When the learner has gained sufficient knowledge in his field, direct guidance can be redundant. It is at this point that minimal guidance would be provided (Hanham, 2010).

    The student comes to class with his own beliefs, interpretation of a set of concepts. The teacher who is the most competent to discuss the subject, is able to guide the student with his ideas based on knowledge and skills that he has already learned from previous learning and experience. As the student goes up the ladder of learning, the student is able to process information and apply them to situations or problems with minimal guidance.

    Reference:
    1. Kirschner, Sweller & Clark(2006) Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist, Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and Inquiry-Based Teaching.
    2. Hanham, J. (2010), Minimal Guidance and Direct Instruction, online as reference at http://learning21c.wordpress.com/2010/07/09/minimal-guidance-and-direct-instruction/




    lorrainepinzon

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    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  lorrainepinzon on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 9:27 pm

    As i read your answers, most of you have said that it is better if both approaches are used in learning. I, too, believe that as a novice, one should be be given guidance in order to receive correct and adequate knowledge and information and as one progresses, one should learn to be independent in gaining experience through self-discovery for his own betterment.

    Both have their own benefits and disadvantages but if utilized well, i believe they will have great outcomes.

    As a learner or educator or both, how will you best utilize the 2 approaches in your chosen field?


    AlexZano
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    Article 1

    Post  AlexZano on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 9:13 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center Inc.

    Graduate School


    Alexis O. Zano Jr
    MSN-AHN
    Exec-6

    Methodology and techniques in teaching have been dramatically studied in order to effectively guide students in different means such as what we have trying to solve and foresee in the given issues. Different literatures and studies shows significant effect concerning guided and unguided learning preferences of the students and to consider the negative and the positive effects of the above inclination. According to Dr. Clark’s “Failure of Constructivism” The social constructionist pedagogy approach to learning is one of the underpinnings of the design of Moodle from it’s inception, according to Moodle.org Interestingly, the Moot keynote’s title was on the myth of success surrounding constructivism. The keynote more focused on learning and how, when specifically altered/focused could lead to much higher outcomes. Here are a few of Dr. Richard Clark’s notes on why:

    50% of students are wrong when asked to reflect on how much they learned
    30% of students like the instruction from which they learn the least
    adjusting instruction for different learning styles does not increase learning (accommodation = fail)

    Dr. Clark asserts that online learning is just as effective as classroom learning (contrary to popular belief), though if not done well it will lead to poor outcomes. Furthermore, multimedia-based presentations and engagement can decrease student attentiveness and investment in learning. The keynote went on to focus on the re-thinking of multi-tasking and mental capacity (and their limits which are less than previously estimated).

    Tips for increasing effective online instruction:

    >Eliminate all visuals and sound
    >Continually highlight the most effective information
    >Redundancy (call and answer/read and discuss approach)
    >Text next to graphics
    >Let learners choose the pacing
    >Give learners clues about what they’re learning
    >Graphics and narration > text and animation
    >Narration and pictures not narration alone
    >Use a conversational style
    >Human voice is always better than mechanical narration
    >Ask learners to explain why (teaching content codifies understanding)

    An additional theme of the keynote focused on giving control to students in learning processes. Without value, he says, students will fail to persist or even start a learning endeavor. Additionally, a student’s sense of confidence (and over confidence) can have a dramatic effect on their ability to learn. Finally, a student’s emotional well-being has a strong correlation to their motivation and perceived ability to learn and succeed. These three pieces together have a cumulative effect on providing students a sense of control over their education.

    In conclusion Dr. Clark spoke of research that was using data to inform changes to practice. His example was nurses providing infant care who were identified for having low infant mortality rates. By examining the practices of the “experts” the research team discovered skills and practices that were not listed in any text book or taught in any courses. Collecting, collating and disseminating that information has lead to fewer “islands of success” and is growing them into continents, if you will. This process is an important aspect of educational innovation.

    Perhaps the best line of the keynote was “Learning is a product of effort”. Effort on both ends (teacher and student) only will provide effective outcomes.

    For once, I like both ways of learning. Unguided technique is an imperative way of allowing student to explore abundant knowledge in able to take on and utilize the acquired facts properly. Guided technique will give a grounding in to the students in how to utilize the acquired knowledge correctly. Both are crucial technique in learning process.

    Questions:

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?

    Resources and researchers Dr. Clark talked about:

    1. Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist

    2.David Merrill,(2006) and his impact on how we understand effective instructional design.

    3.John Sweller (2005) rapid testing and assessment.


    5.Gary Klein (2006)and Cognitive Task Analysis



    http://www.moodlenews.com/2010/mootustx11-dr-clarks-failure-of-constructivism-keynote-recap/






    lol! lol! affraid bounce
    avatar
    sheryllquides

    Posts : 7
    Join date : 2010-11-15

    Guided or Unguided learning

    Post  sheryllquides on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 6:32 pm

    Sheryll M. Quides
    Instructional Design Class

    Questions:

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?

    The instructor and the learners are equally involved in learning from each other. This means that the learning experience is both subjective and objective and requires that the instructor’s culture, values and background become an essential part of the interplay between learners and tasks in the shaping of meaning. Learners compare their version of the truth with that of the instructor and fellow learners to get to a new, socially tested version of truth.

    As instructor, I will help the learner to get to his or her own understanding of the content, will provide guidelines and creates the environment for the learner to arrive at his or her own conclusions and most importantly to be in continuous dialogue with the learners. I will use both guided learning - students transform the information they get from instructors and texts into meaningful knowledge through conversations, arguments, lunches, discussion groups and other real-world activities and unguided learning - students do all the learning. It will be beneficial to both the students and instructor the two way learning process in one subject matter.This creates a dynamic interaction between task, instructor and learner. This entails that learners and instructors should develop an awareness of each other's viewpoints and then look to their own beliefs, standards and values, thus being both subjective and objective at the same time (Savery 1994).

    Problem-based learning is a student-centered instructional strategy in which students collaboratively solve problems and reflect on their experiences. In problem based learning, students are encouraged to take responsibility for their group and organize and direct the learning process with support from a tutor or instructor. Advocates of problem based learning claim it can be used to enhance content knowledge and foster the development of communication, problem-solving, and self-directed learning skill. problem based learning positions students in simulated real world working and professional contexts which involve policy, process, and ethical problems that will need to be understood and resolved to some outcome. By working through a combination of learning strategies to discover the nature of a problem, understanding the constraints and options to its resolution, defining the input variables, and understanding the viewpoints involved, students learn to negotiate the complex sociological nature of the problem and how competing resolutions may inform decision-making.

    Constructivist learning suggests that learners construct knowledge out of their experiences. It encourages the learner to arrive at his or her version of the truth, influenced by his or her background, culture. It is thus important to take into account the background and culture of the learner throughout the learning process, as this background also helps to shape the knowledge and truth that the learner creates, discovers and attains in the learning process.

    The learning experience should be open and free enough to allow for the learners to discover, enjoy, interact and arrive at their own, socially verified version of truth. Very Happy Smile


    References:
    1. http://guidedlearning.com
    2. Duffy, T.M. and Jonassen, D.H. (1992) Constructivism and the Technology of Instruction: A Conversation, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates pp.221
    3. Kirschner, P.A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R.E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist
    avatar
    kristineaajuan

    Posts : 38
    Join date : 2010-09-20

    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  kristineaajuan on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 4:09 pm

    Questions:

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?




    [font=Trebuchet MS][size=18][b]As a learner it is difficult to choose between guided or unguided learning. There are some things that we understand well if it is well taught or well explained to us. However, there are certain things in life that we learn through experience, experiences that not any context can tell us unless we have gone through it ourselves. Like when we were in undergrad there are certain things that were taught to us “ideally” or the right way but when we are already at the battlefield we experience or see different things from what we have read. Our nursing actions depend on what the scenario is asking from us. Not every scenario is written and can be read in the book that is why resourcefulness is one of the characteristics of a nurse. As what you have mentioned, problem-based learning is being practiced at UERM by the medicine department, probably so that they will have a clearer view or learning of what is really happening in the real setting. For me, a combination of a guided and unguided learner is a perfect match. A person will not really learn if everything is being spoon fed to him/her.

    You can benefit a lot from having things learned by your own because it will be really instilled in your mind and there could also be an emotional attachment to it and nobody can take that learning away from you. People have different interpretations or approaches to different things. But no matter how different it is sometimes it arrives at the same point.

    If I am a teacher, definitely I would be using a combination of the two styles. The two are of perfect combin
    ation!
    king queen lol!

    jennyanne

    Posts : 8
    Join date : 2010-11-15

    Re: Guided or unguided learning

    Post  jennyanne on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 1:33 pm

    Jenny Anne Pedron
    Instructional Design

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?


    In a problem-based learning (PBL) model, students are being challenged to solve different problems and collaboratively work toward its resolution. It also encourages them to acquire knowledge “through experience based on the procedures of the discipline.” (Kirschner et. al, 2006)

    Issues are being raised regarding the utilization of such model worldwide. Different explanations were cited in the article to support its ineffectiveness. One is the limitation of human cognition. According to the article, working memory which is a cognitive structure that processes different information is limited in duration and capacity. In contrast, these limitations can be dealt with if previously learned information from the long-term memory is being utilized and not novel information. In dealing with inquiry-based instruction, which advocates minimal guidance puts a lot of responsibility in the working memory, thus, may compromise the outcome.

    An article about cognitive load theory was discussed by Artino (2008) and explained that this “theory provides a framework for designing instructional materials. The basic premise of cognitive load theory is that learners have a working memory with very limited capacity when dealing with new information.” As discussed by Artino (2008), cognitive architecture and a learner’s experience influence the learning effectiveness and efficiency of students. Thus, it was suggested that “instructional materials that utilize cognitive load theory guidelines have the potential to enhance learning effectiveness and efficiency for students in a multitude of education and training contexts.” (Artino, 2008)

    Researches were done to compare the guided and unguided instruction. Based from these, it was noted that when students were taught to discover things on their own with minimal feedback, “they often become lost and frustrated, and their confusion can lead to misconceptions.” (Artino, 2008) Hence, unguided discovery often lead to inefficiency.

    Learning for novices was given focus on some part of the article by Kirschner. It was mentioned that minimal guidance may be ineffective for novices due to limited knowledge. Worked examples were implicated as an effective tool in helping them acquire and discover solution in any problem.

    A study on combining worked examples and intelligent tutoring was conducted to show effectiveness of assistance in learning. It was found out that “mid-level assistance provides the greatest learning advantages.” (Mc Laren, et. al)

    According to Dr. Hanham (2010) minimal guidance may be ineffective due to the limitations of human cognition which was discussed earlier. “Direct instruction, on the other hand, allows the learner to circumvent most of the limitations of short-term memory.” (Hanham) But in his conclusion, the author mentioned that direct instruction has a limitation as well. This may only work for a certain point in learning for this may lead to redundancy. And with this, minimal guidance should then be encouraged to further enhance their knowledge.

    References:

    1. Artino, A.R., Jr. (2008). Cognitive load theory and the role of learner experience: An abbreviated review for educational practitioners. AACE Journal, 16(4), 425-439.
    2. Mc Laren, B., Lim, S. & Koedinger, K. When Is Assistance Helpful to Learning? Results in Combining Worked Examples and Intelligent Tutoring: Human-Computer Interaction Institute.
    3. Hanham, J (2010). Minimal Guidance and Direct Instruction. Posted by Editor21C in Primary Education, Secondary Education. trackback
    4. Paas, F., Renkl, A., & Sweller, J. (2003). Cognitive load theory and instructional design: Recent developments. Educational Psychologist, 38, 1-4.


    lorrainepinzon

    Posts : 24
    Join date : 2009-09-24

    Guided or unguided learning

    Post  lorrainepinzon on Tue 16 Nov 2010, 1:16 pm



    Lorraine B. Pinzon Instructional Design
    Executive 6


    Why Minimal Guidance During Instruction Does Not
    Work: An Analysis of the Failure of Constructivist,
    Discovery, Problem-Based, Experiential, and
    Inquiry-Based Teaching


    There are 2 kinds of teaching that has been studied on for years that can greatly affect the cognitive learning and long-term memory of students. These are the minimally guided instruction against instructional approaches that emphasize on guidance of the student learning process. According to the article by Kirschner et al. arguments have been going on for years regarding whether which approach of study students learn best. First is that students learn best by experience that is, instead of presenting the information to the students, they must discover or construct the essential information themselves. Second is that learners should be presented with information that is supported by theories and disciplines.

    The minimal guidance approach has been referred to as discovery learning, problem-based learning (which has been also applied to our own medicine students here at UERMMMC), inquiry learning, experiental learning and constructivist learning. Though they are called various names, the procedure is the same.

    The authors of the article have also discussed that current research support direct guidance. It was found out that when students are left alone among themselves to discover for solutions and methods with minimum feedbacks from their teachers, they become more confused and frustrated thus leading their confusion to more misconceptions.

    According to Palmer (2001), traditional instruction, such as the typical lecture based session that developed before textbooks were mass produced, often involves delivering as much information as possible as quickly as possible. The lecture method was one of the most effective and efficient ways to disseminate information and has often been used for this end. Because many faculty members are poor lecturers, and because students are often poor participants in the lecture, this type of instruction has often allowed students to be passive in the classroom. Students, not knowing how to be active participants in the lecture, have relied on transcription, memorization, and repetition for learning. PBL is an educational approach in which complex problems serve as the context and the stimulus for learning. In PBL classes, students work in teams to solve one or more complex and compelling "real world" problems. They develop skills in collecting, evaluating, and synthesizing resources as they first define and then propose a solution to a multi faceted problem. In most PBL classes, students also summarize and present their solutions in a culminating experience. The instructor in a PBL class facilitates the learning process by monitoring the progress of the learners and asking questions to move students forward in the problem solving process. Unlike traditional classrooms, the faculty member is not the sole resource for content or process information, but instead guides students as they search out appropriate resources.

    According to Loyens (2008), the influence of a constructivist learning environment on students’ perceptions of assessments demands and students’ approaches to learning. Further, the researchers examined how changes in approaches to learning relate to changes in assessment demands. Results demonstrated that a course designed according to constructivist principles led to more deep-level assessment demands. However, this change in perceptions did not influence students’ approaches to learning, since students reported more frequent use of surface approaches to learning during the course. The authors conclude that students’ initial approaches to learning at the beginning of the course are more determinative for the change in those approaches compared to students’ perceptions of assessment demands. Finally, the study of Loyens and colleagues also starts from a student perspective. They examined how students’ beliefs and ideas (i.e., conceptions) about constructivist learning have an effect on their actual study behavior in terms of regulation and processing strategies. The authors conclude that structural relations exist between conceptions of constructivist learning and regulation and processing strategies. Their study also indicates that students who express doubt with regard to their own learning capacities seem to be at risk for adopting an inadequate regulation strategy.

    In Tandogan (2006) research, he presented some limitations on problem-based learning. these are (1) it could be difficult for teachers to change their teaching styles, (2) It could take more time for students to solve problematic situations when these situations are firstly presented in the class; (3) Groups or individuals may finish their works earlier or later; (4) Problem-based learning requires rich material and research; (5) It is difficult to implement problem-based learning model in all classes. It is unfruitful to use this strategy with students who could not fully understand the value or scope of the problems with social content; (6) It is quiet difficult to assess learning.

    Questions:

    1. Do you prefer guided or unguided learning as a learner?
    2. As a teacher, what kind of approach would you use among your students? Why?
    3. What are the benefits of problem-based learning or constructivist learning?




    References:

    Loyens, S. (2008). Understanding the effects of constructivist learning environments: introducing a multi-directional approach. August 19, 2008. www. Springerlink.com. DOI 10.1007/s11251-008-9059-4

    Palmer, B. (2001). Assessing the Effectiveness of Problem Based Learning in Higher Education: Lessons from the Literature. Spring 2001 Volume 5 Issue 1.

    Tandogan, R. (2006). The Effects of Problem-Based Active Learning in Science
    Education on Students’ Academic Achievement, Attitude and Concept Learning. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science & Technology Education, 2007, 3(1), 71-81


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