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    Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

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    sheryllquides

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  sheryllquides on Fri 26 Nov 2010, 8:29 am

    Questions:


    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?

    It is not the facilitator's weight/burden is in focus but it is the institution's capability to handle a distance learning approach.They should ensure that students have access to and can effectively use appropriate library resources. The institution monitors whether students make appropriate use of learning resources. The institution provides laboratories, facilities, and equipment appropriate to the courses or programs. They should provide appropriate faculty support services specifically related to distance education.


    2. Please present literature on how to evaluate the learning outcome of students in distance learning?

    According to the article that I read entitled, "Critical Issue: Using Technology to Improve Student Achievement", they made six arenas critical in student's success in learning:
    * Communicate Effectively: Students must have a range of skills to express themselves not only through paper and pencil, but also audio, video, animation, design software as well as a host of new environments (e-mail, Web sites, message boards, blogs, streaming media, etc.).

    * Analyze and Interpret Data: Students must have the ability to crunch, compare, and choose among the glut of data now available Web-based and other electronic formats.

    * Understand Computational Modeling: Students must posses an understanding of the power, limitations, and underlying assumptions of various data representation systems, such as computational models and simulations, which are increasingly driving a wide-range of disciplines.

    * Manage and Prioritize Tasks: Students must be able to mange the multi-tasking, selection, and prioritizing across technology applications that allow them to move fluidly among teams, assignments and communities of practice.

    * Engage in Problem Solving: Students must have an understanding of how to apply what they know and can do to new situations.

    * Ensure Security and Safety: Students must know and use strategies to acknowledge, identify, and negotiate 21st century risks.

    There may be expectations that technology will solve all the school's problems with student learning and achievement. To be effective, however, technology must be used to promote new learning goals and teaching strategies that are student-centered, collaborative, engaging, authentic, self-directed, and based on development of higher-order thinking skills.


    xiao pei
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    distance education

    Post  xiao pei on Thu 25 Nov 2010, 12:52 am

    References
    1. Ozuah PO. Undergraduate medical education: thoughts on future challenges. BMC Med Educ. 2002; 2: 8-10.
    2. Nair BR, Finucane PM. Reforming medical education to enhance the management of chronic disease. Med J Aust. 2003; 179:257-259.
    3. Leung WC. Competency based medical training: review. BMJ. 2002; 325:693-696.
    4. Rosenberg M. E-learning: Strategies for Delivering Knowledge in the Digital Age. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2001.
    5. Wentling T, Waight C, Gallaher J, La Fleur J, Wang C, Kanfer A. E-learning: A Review of Literature 2000. Available at: Accessed February 3, 2005.
    6. Moberg TF, Whitcomb ME. Educational technology to facilitate medical students’ learning: background paper 2 of the medical school objectives project. Acad Med. 1999;74:1146-1150.

    xiao pei
    Guest

    distance education

    Post  xiao pei on Thu 25 Nov 2010, 12:47 am

    Distance learning takes place at locations remote from the point of instruction. Computer-assisted instruction (also called computer-based learning and computer-based training) uses stand-alone multimedia packages for learning and teaching. These two modalities are subsumed under e-learning as the Internet becomes the integrating technology.
    A concept closely related to e-learning but preceding the birth of the Internet is multimedia. Multimedia uses two or more media, such as text, graphics, animation, audio, and video to produce engaging content delivered by computer. Blended learning, a fairly new term in education, is an approach that combines e-learning technology with traditional instructor-led training. The term blended learning may be new, but the concept is familiar to most educators.
    Faculty, administrators, and learners find that multimedia e-learning enhances both teaching and learning. As Table 1 shows, the advantages can be categorized as targeting either learning delivery or learning enhancement.
    Learning delivery is the most often cited advantage of e-learning. It includes accessibility, easy updating, personalized instruction, distribution, standardization and accountability. Accessibility refers to the user’s ability to find what is needed, when it is needed. Improved access to educational materials is crucial, as learning is often an unplanned experience. Updating electronic content is easier than updating printed material: e-learning technologies allow educators to revise their content simply and quickly. Learners have control over the content, learning sequence, pace of learning, time, and often media, thereby allowing them to tailor their experience to meet personal learning objectives. Internet technologies allow the widespread distribution of digital content to many users simultaneously any time and anywhere.
    An additional strength of e-learning is that it standardizes course content and delivery. Automated tracking and reporting of learner activity lessens faculty administrative burden. Moreover, e-learning can be designed to include learner assessment to determine whether learning has occurred.
    Learning enhancement is a less well recognized but potentially more revolutionary aspect of e-learning. E-learning technologies offer educators a new paradigm based on adult learning theory that may result in a more effective and efficient learning experience. Learning enhancement includes interactivity, efficiency, motivation, cognitive effectiveness, and learning style flexibility. Learning is a deeply personal experience. We learn because we want to learn. By making the learner a more active participant, a well-designed e-learning experience can motivate learners to become more engaged with the content. Interactive learning shifts the focus from a passive, teacher-centered model to one that is active and learner-centered, offering a stronger learning stimulus. Interactivity maintains learner interest and provides a means for individual practice and reinforcement. Evidence suggests that e-learning is more efficient because learners gain knowledge, skills, and attitudes faster than through traditional instructor-led methods. This efficiency translates into improved motivation and performance. The use of e-learning is associated with increased retention rates and better utilization of content, resulting in better achievement of knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Multimedia e-learning offers learners flexibility to select a large menu of media options to accommodate diverse learning styles.

    xingxia
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    distance learning

    Post  xingxia on Thu 25 Nov 2010, 12:09 am

    Questions:


    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?

    2. Please present literature on how to evaluate the learning outcome of students in distance learning
    Distance education in nursing
    Distance education -- a set of teaching and/or learning strategies to meet the learning needs of students separate from the traditional classroom setting and sometimes from the traditional roles of faculty (Reinert & Fryback, 1997). Distance education requires that teachers and learners are separate from each other. This definition excludes activities where the teacher travels to an alternative site for delivery of traditional courses or classes.
    Distance education technologies -- the technical support and methods necessary to teach students who physically may not be in the same location as the teacher. These technologies encompass a variety of content-delivery methods, including audio conference by telephone, audiocassette tape, videotaped instruction, courier service, electronic mail (e-mail), faxing, fixed computer media (CD-ROM and floppy disk), Internet list-serves, room-based video conference (interactive television), desktop video conference, and World Wide Web (Internet-based programming) (Baldwin, Bingham, & Connors, 1996). Many of these technologies are also used in nursing education to complement traditional classroom teaching
    To take full advantage of technology in education, several factors need to be addressed by nursing and other leaders in education and health care institutions, as well as by external funders and policy makers:
    • Superior distance education programs require substantial institutional financial investment in equipment, infrastructure, and faculty development.
    • Local, regional, and national planning for multi-site communications need to consider coordination of services, compatibility and progressive upgrading of hardware, as well as policies that lower transmission costs within and across state lines.
    • The use of distance technology and in particular, Web-based media, has raised questions regarding intellectual property and copyrights, privacy of educational dialogue, and other related legal and ethical issues that require continued clarification.
    • Technology-mediated teaching strategies can change dramatically the way teaching and learning occurs, challenging the traditional relationship of students to academic institutions. These strategies may change conventional thinking about how quality of educational programs is assessed and what is required to support student learning (e.g., library access, counseling services, computing equipment, tuition, and financial aid).
    • Distance education technology has provided some nursing schools an advantage in recruiting students and is increasing competition among institutions
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    joxliongson

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  joxliongson on Wed 24 Nov 2010, 5:56 pm

    Distance learning is now a global trend in graduate studies. It served to be beneficial because higher education has had a symbolic relationship with the community (Harry & Perraton, 1999). Meaning, the success of a nation or community is gauged by how well-educated its constituents are. This approach has given birth to open universities which allows people from overseas to avail of good education from universities abroad without the expenses and tediousness of having to live in another country (Harry, 1999).

    Because of this new scholastic demand, governments of different countries have invested in open and distance learning for varied reasons.. Their goal was to improve accessibility of education. They were looking into responding into the demands of the labor market and their expectations of economic competitiveness. (Harry, 1999).

    Personally, on a national and international perspective, I believe that distance learning is beneficial. Using cyberspace as a medium of instruction is definitely cheaper than enrolling in an actual school. This means that the opportunity for higher education is more attainable than it used to be. This somehow provides an equal playing field for citizens to grow professionally. The personal growth of every individual ahs always been viewed as the key to economic stability. An educated man power is more competent and more productive manpower.

    Reference:
    Harry, K. (1999). Higher education through open and distance learning. London: Routledge.

    angeliebernardo

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    Distance Education

    Post  angeliebernardo on Wed 24 Nov 2010, 4:09 pm

    The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or techniques to reduce the burden of the facilitator?



    If I were given the opportunity to facilitate distance learning, initially, I will ensure familiarity of students on how online discussion environment is. This starts from a session in an introductory assessment of every students on their knowledge as well as skills about computers. E-moderators are expected to be sufficiently knowledgeable, skilled and with positive attitude to facilitate online learning. These are important characteristics of a moderator since they have an enormous responsibilities such as selection of article, facilitate the discussion, synthesizing and routine checks of each posts by participants in the forum. There should never be any reason for a student not to comply with the online discussions because materials are made available by the moderator for much easier and uniform access...just like what we currently do in Instructional Design (thanks to Abby).
    Second, the moderator should also be familiar with his/her participants. Explicit example is my experience. I was late in the registration in ID class because I was enrolled to another section. Though efforts was initiated by both parties, still, communication was really scarce at that time. But it is a learning experience especially for me since I have found myself exerting effort in familiarizing both online discussion and with my classmates.
    Lastly, be open to new ideas. We should welcome updates and incorporate them to our present practice. There is no harm in trying new ideas.

    References:

    Ribiero, T. (2000). From a distance: A look at Distance Learning. 3rd. ed.

    Sadler-Smith, E. (2000). Modern Learning Methods: Rhetoric and Reality personal review, 29 (4), pp474-490.


    Last edited by angeliebernardo on Fri 26 Nov 2010, 9:13 am; edited 1 time in total
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    Klarisse Esteban

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  Klarisse Esteban on Wed 24 Nov 2010, 2:15 pm

    Distance Education
    Distance learning using E-learning, based on what I understand, will only be effective when implemented after face to face session. Distance learning facilitates active learning for the learning will take effect depending on the learning style of the learner. Learning will only occur in distance learning if the learner is motivated and has a disciplined learning habit. If the student doesn’t perceive distance learning as an opportunity to learn on his own, the learning process will not be as effective as planned and the purpose of E-learning as a teaching strategy is defeated.

    Distance education, enables the students from different geographical locations to share their knowledge in a platform that is available to all of them. In a study made by Delgado Garcia and Oliver Cuello (2010), distance education was encouraged using an asynchronous discussion in a virtual platform. This setting enabled the students to have shared learning experience despite their different geographical locations and backgrounds. Also, according to the authors, asynchronous virtual discussion enables the students to have a higher degree of self-reflection on the discussion due to the lack of time limit.

    Distance education through E-learning is an effective platform to facilitate active learning with the students. The learners are encouraged to understand and reflect on the concepts on the time that is most convenient for them. This enables the student to discipline themselves. Also, the students are able to access information that is geographically unavailable and is only accessible through a virtual platform.
    Distance education with the use of E-learning facilitates the platform for sharing of knowledge by people from different societies and culture. In a journal written by Zhao and Jiang (2010), the use of a virtual platform was described as successful in creating a platform for sharing knowledge by people from different places. Sharing of “High quality educational resources” was made available both to local students and abroad. This implementation was treated as a success by the authors due to the superior educational resources made.

    If distance education will be implemented, the burden of the facilitators can be reduced by thorough planning and constant evaluation of the program. The effect of the program on the students should be constantly evaluated by having feedback analysis and test evaluation to measure knowledge gained. By having constant evaluation, the facilitators will be able to modify the program on what is effective for the students.

    References:
    Delgado García, A., & Oliver Cuello, R. (2010). A model of equitable and sustainable redistribution of knowledge. Educational Technology Research & Development, 58(6), 781-790. doi:10.1007/s11423-010-9169-y.
    Zhao, G., & Jiang, Z. (2010). From e-campus to e-learning: An overview of ICT applications in Chinese higher education. British Journal of Educational Technology, 41(4), 574-581. doi:10.1111/j.1467-8535.2010.01085.x.
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    markpradow

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  markpradow on Wed 24 Nov 2010, 10:05 am

    Distance education has always been an option in many institutions worldwide. Today, many forces are driving the need for new media to assist in student education that is more personal, immersive,
    and interactive instead of simply delivering content (Phillip, Shaw, Johnson, Sullivan, 2010).

    Many institutions of higher education are using a Web-based mode of education delivery (Thiele, 2003) thus reducing the cost in travelling and providing enhanced educational access to working adults (Phillip, Shaw, Johnson, Sullivan, 2010).

    Being a student of a university who applies an e-leanring approach to distance learning through online classes, I believe that it was subjected to analysis and literature review before it was implemented so it is deemed effective in a graduate school. Critical thinking should be developed while learning through an online forum or discussion board. The main point of distance learning is to enhance the students' learning experience while using a cost effective alternative to face-to-face discussion although they have different approaches to learning.

    Although I do find posting on e-forums sometimes daunting, I believe that it developed my skills in critical thinking with the sharing of ideas and discussing different points of view in a particular topic. We must strive to acquire knowledge and skills in critical thinking through a diverse meium of instruction.


    References:

    1.Phillips, B., Shaw, R., Sullivan, D,. Johnson, C. Using Virtual Environments to Enhance Nursing Distance Education. Creative Nursing, Volume 16, Issue 3, 2010

    2.Thiele, J. E. (2003). Learning patterns of online students. Journal of Nursing Education, 42(Cool, 364-366.
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    joxliongson

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    jo karla liongson

    Post  joxliongson on Mon 22 Nov 2010, 1:22 pm

    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?


    a. Have a Getting-to-Know-Each-Other-Forum

    School, in any form, is a social system whose success banks on human interrelatedness (Aquino, 2000). I think, the problems of miscommunication and unorganized on-line classes stem from the fact that student do not know each other and do not know how to contact each other. I think it will help to have the first forum or session dedicated to the students introducing themselves, letting their peers know what they do and offering contact information. This can work even in an asynchronous on-line class. it is also a good way for the teacher to know who are the students with confirmed participation. This is important because people work better if they are familiar with the people they are working with (Schultz & Schultz, 2002).

    This can also be the time for the teacher to orient students about how the class will be facilitated. This is also an outlet to raise clarifications. It is always important for the teacher to evaluate the students' understanding of instructions (Castillion-Boiser, 2000).

    b. Organized Syllabus and Schedule Adherence

    Distance learning cater to students who cannot attend the regular school due to work, home responsibilities, etc. Although on-line school is flexible, the teacher has to take into consideration that students do make time and do adjust their schedules for school. In any school setting, students are able to work optimally with organized schedules and syllabus and clear expectations (Lardizabal, Bustos, Bucu, & Tangco, 1977).


    2. Please present literature on how to evaluate the learning outcome of students in distance learning.

    For Adult Educators: California Distance Learning Project, it is highly possible to evaluate distance learning programs.

    Evaluation happens in two phases:

    Formative assessment is done during the project implementation. It is done to determine the level of efficiency of activities. The methods can be interviews, documentation, program reviews and other methods that are developed based on the classes.

    Summative assessment is done after the class. It evaluates rhe overall impact fo the class to the learners.

    There are also different basis for evaluation:

    Criterion-based evaluation design determines effectiveness if the objectives of the distance learning class are met. It can be proven by improved test scores and level of proficiency of students.

    Authentic or alternative assessment i done in a qualitative manner. A compilation of work samples from students can be analyzed based on a predetermined standard.

    Pre-post comparison is still the most effective and quantitative way of determining success on a distance class.


    REFERENCES:

    Lardizabal, A., Bustos, A., Bucu, L., & Tangco, M. (1977). Principles and method of teaching. 2nd ed. Q.C.: Phoenix Publishing House

    Schultz, D., & Schultz, S. (2002). Psychology and work today (8th Ed.). New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc.

    California Distance Learning Project. Retrieved on November 20,2010. Retrieved from http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=whatis&pg=7
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    Klarisse Esteban

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  Klarisse Esteban on Mon 22 Nov 2010, 11:44 am

    E learning is an effective teaching method to be applied in the graduate program. E-learning enhances the learning process for it enables the teacher to constantly evaluate the progress of the student. Also, the students are forced to express their understanding on the concept which makes learning active.

    In a study conducted by Florea (2010), E-learning, when applied in education provided positive results on the learning process, quality of education and the competitive advantage of the institution. Also, it was emphasized that E-learning will only be effective if it is utilized strategically.

    One strategy to handle E-learning is to constantly evaluate the efficacy of the learning method. In this way, windows for modifications can be seen and the quality of the learning process will be raised. Meung-Jung (2009) presented a strategy in evaluating E-learning with a use of a scale. The purpose of making the scale was to evaluate the student responses on the E-learning.

    Teaching strategies that will improve the learning process of the students should be implemented, especially in graduate studies, and I agree that E-learning is one of those strategies.



    References:
    Florea, N. (2010). New Forms of Human Resources Development: e-Learning in Education. Petroleum - Gas University of Ploiesti Bulletin, Educational Sciences Series, 62(1A), 249-257. Retrieved from Academic Source Complete database.

    Meng-Jung, T. (2009). The Model of Strategic e-Learning: Understanding and Evaluating Student e- Learning from Metacognitive Perspectives. Journal of Educational Technology & Society, 12(1), 34-48. Retrieved from Academic Source Complete database.
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    kristineaajuan

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  kristineaajuan on Mon 22 Nov 2010, 2:16 am

    Questions:

    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?

    For me, it would be easier if each students know each other because it is through proper communication that distance learning gets effective. If the facilitator does not know who or how to contact his/her classmates then it will be a barrier to the learning process. Since by the word itself, DISTANCE learning, clear instructions should be properly disseminated by the facilitator or moderator for the members not to get confused. Same goes with the members, they should know how to follow instructions to maintain the communication on good flow.



    jennyanne

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    Re: Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  jennyanne on Mon 22 Nov 2010, 1:25 am

    JENNY ANNE PEDRON


    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?

    2. Please present literature on how to evaluate the learning outcome of students in distance learning.


    I think giving an assigned task for each student should be done in facilitating such program. In doing so, this would be less confusing for them and for the students as well. In the discussion, different opinions and suggestions that can be supported by several literature can be encouraged. This would not just develop their ability to think critically but would also enhance their knowledge with the help of new discoveries or researches done by their colleagues.


    In evaluating the learning outcome of students in distance learning, an article in a website by the adult educators of California distance learning project contained the following:

    FORMATIVE
    - formative evaluation is conducted during the project implementation.
    - its purpose is to determine the level and efficiency of the project activities and to identify problems that need correction.
    - informs the project administrators of successes and problems in the project to date so that corrections can be made.
    - include data collection, documentation, site visits, interviews, focus groups, program viewing, student and teacher observation, as well as other methods that may be developed based upon the project.

    SUMMATIVE
    - performed at the end of the project and refers to the impact of the project on students, staff or elements of the program addressed in the project’s objectives.
    - purpose is to assess the overall success and impact of the project, measuring learner achievement, and how well the project objectives were met.
    - concerned primarily with measuring a project’s predicted outcomes in an effort to determine whether or not the program or project intervention produced an independent effect or impact on the predicted outcomes.
    - guides project decisions at the end of the project to modify, expand, replicate or discontinue the program, as well as to inform others who may conduct similar programs.






    Reference:

    What is distance Learning? Adult Learning Activities. California distance Learning Projects. Retrieved from http://www.cdlponline.org/index.cfm?fuseaction=whatis&pg=7

    lorrainepinzon

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    Distance Education and E-Learning

    Post  lorrainepinzon on Sun 21 Nov 2010, 9:56 pm

    Lorraine B. Pinzon
    Instructional Design
    Executive 6

    Distance Education and the Integration of
    E-learning in a Graduate Program


    Questions:


    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?

    2. Please present literature on how to evaluate the learning outcome of students in distance learning.


    For me, I believe it will be quite easier for the moderator to facilitate the e-learning process by assigning tasks to his or her students. Just like what we had, it is better if one article is assigned to one student and each student is required to make a response to the questions posted. It may also help, if the moderator will allow the students to post their own opinions and answers first before placing another follow-up question. With this, it will allow the students to study the article and sufficient time to compose their own thoughts and ideas regarding the article. Also, the moderator should clearly state at the beginning what the course outcomes are so that the students are also knowledgeable of the goals and objectives of the course.

    Some critics argue that the quality of the research that evaluates the effectiveness of distance learning is potentially biased and does not follow stringent research methodologies. Other researchers contend that based upon hundreds of studies, there is “no significant difference” between outcomes in distance versus classroom-based education. A third view states that the existing distance education research points to no significant difference, however shortcomings in the research make it necessary for additional study of the question. These three views are briefly described in the following section.

    “No Significant Difference”
    Some researchers believe that comparisons of the effectiveness of distance education vs. traditional classroom-based education show “no significant difference” in learner outcomes between the two methods of delivering instruction. Thomas L. Russell presents evidence for this view in his book, The No Significant Difference Phenomenon, an annotated bibliography of over 350 research reports, summaries and papers about the effectiveness of distance education. Russell states, “I soon discovered that there were very few comparative studies that, in fact, found that there was any measurable benefit to learning attributable to technology…A startling finding was that there were/are an enormous number of studies…that showed no significant difference, at least in strategic parts of the conclusions” (Russell xii). Russell’s book, published in 1999, includes early studies dating from the 1920s and 1930s as well as results from over 40 studies on computer-based instruction, the latest technology in distance education. Only studies and reports that found no significant difference in effectiveness between distance and classroom education are included. Russell says that “The good news is that these no significant difference studies provide substantial evidence that technology does not denigrate instruction.” He believes that technology will “allow us to employ cheaper and simpler technologies with assurance that outcomes will be comparable with the more sophisticated and expensive ones as well as with conventional teaching/learning methods”

    “What’s the Difference?”
    Other researchers agree that much of the research on the effectiveness of distance learning suggests no significant difference between distance and classroom learning, but they contend that the research has serious shortcomings and therefore must be regarded as inconclusive. In a review of research writings published in the 1990s on the effectiveness of distance education, the authors of What’s the Difference? A Review of Contemporary Research on the Effectiveness of Distance Learning in Higher Education 2 reach this conclusion and go on to point out the shortcomings and gaps in the research that they feel make the need for further research imperative (Phipps and Merisotis 3-4). They say that Russell’s compendium is a valuable contribution to the literature on distance learning, but that “many of the writings cited in the volume are not original research studies”.
    Researchers for What’s the Difference? reviewed over 40 original works of research and found that most of the studies concluded that “distance learning courses compare favorably with classroom-based instruction.…” However, they contend that “A significant portion of the research reviewed possesses serious weaknesses that call into question their results” . Arguing that the overall quality of the research on the effectiveness of distance education needs improvement, they quote Michael G. Moore and his colleagues who said in a 1990 review of the literature: “The weight of evidence…points overwhelmingly to the conclusion that teaching and studying at a distance…is effective, when effectiveness is measured by the achievement of learning, by the attitudes of students and teachers, and by cost effectiveness,” but that this “optimistic” conclusion was tempered by reservations about the kind of evidence gathered (anecdotal, for example), by whom, and by what methods.
    Of the four key shortcomings in the research named in What’s the Difference?, the third shortcoming had to do with how student outcomes and attitudes were measured. Earlier, the authors had stated that three broad measures of the effectiveness of distance education are usually examined: student outcomes (grades and test scores); student attitudes about learning through distance education; and overall student satisfaction. One of the key shortcomings that they found in the research they reviewed was that “The validity and reliability of the instruments used to measure student outcomes and attitudes are questionable”.

    “No Comparison”
    Instructional technology researchers at a Virginia university came to a similar conclusion. Like the authors of What’s the Difference?, they believe that many of the studies used to compare distance to traditional education are “plagued” with design flaws. They also assert that “Many studies related to distance learning use ‘teacher-made achievement tests’ which may, or may not have reliabilities or validities established” (Lockee, Burton and Cross 4-5). A further criticism they put forth is that treatment and control groups should be similar in identity and be randomly assigned, which according to them is seldom the case in studies that compare learner outcomes in distance vs. traditional education.

    So, while many studies have been conducted, and while the weight of the evidence as summarized by Russell and others seems to point to “no significant difference” in learning outcomes, the limitations of the existing research point to a need for continued study of the effectiveness of distance education.

    However, according to Major and Levenburg (1999) that it is the learner's responsibility to be an active learner; passivity is typically not rewarded in distance learning environments. Learners can contribute to their own learning success by:
    • Self-directed learning. Two behaviors that characterize the self-directed learner in distance learning environments are self-discipline and meta-cognitive processes. Since learners may choose when they will actively engage in the learning process (time-shifted learning), they must have the self-discipline and time-management skills to "keep up" with the expected learning schedule and pace. Learners must accept the importance of this demand, or opt out of the distance education environment. Since employers expect similar skills, distance education should tout this expectation as an advantage, rather than apologizing for it. The second required behavior, the meta-cognitive process, entails the learners asking themselves if learning has taken place. If the answer is "no," the learners must either repeat the previously engaged-in learning activities or ask for help. This process differs from many traditional learning systems in that in some distance learning environments, instructors cannot read non-verbal cues to detect learners in trouble. Again, as meta-cognition is a valuable lifelong skill, educators should not apologize for requiring it.
    • Using technology. Distance learners must learn to use specified communication technologies. This involves problem-solving and pro-active approaches to acquiring instructors' help.
    • Working together. Distance learners should help other learners and work together, and thus become less dependent on the instructor. Students often find that the learning they create communally is far richer than that gained from a single presenter. The instructor becomes a community member and functions with his students to create the learning rather than simply dispensing it. Dialogues then occur among learners and between learners, and the instructor no longer adheres to a traditional top-down academic hierarchy in which the knowledge flows one way from the instructor to the learners (Jonassen, 1995).

    Several groups must share responsibility for successful learning. While this is true in all learning situations, it is particularly important in distance learning environments. Without shared responsibility among instructors, institutions, and learners, distance learning systems will function poorly and break down. Distance education environments require the articulation of the mental model presented here so that administrators, instructors, and learners understand and can fulfill their roles.



    References:

    Post Secondary Distance Education: Issues of Student Outcomes, Cost, Access and Quality Assurance. Northern Viriginia Community College. January 2002. Research Report No. 01-02.

    Major, H (1999). Learner Success in Distance Education Environments: A Shared Responsibility. The Technology Source Archives at the University of North Carolina. January 1999.

    AlexZano
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    Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Gr

    Post  AlexZano on Sat 20 Nov 2010, 9:28 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center Inc.


    Graduate School


    Alexis O. Zano Jr.
    MSN-AHN
    Exec-6

    Distance Education and the Integration of
    E-learning in a Graduate Program

    Peter A. Lewis, BN, RM, CertCC, MN Ed, and Susan Price, RN, MA



    Technological advances greatly emerge affecting the trend in nursing education specifically on educational trend and instructional design in some graduate programs. The article sited studies of e- learning and its implications to students enrolled in the master programme at the New Zealand proves effectiveness of the e- learning style and approach.

    The advantages of e-learning significantly dominates than of the disadvantages. Feedback from e-learning experience demonstrated 72% of the students found online tutorials beneficial for the development of their critical thinking and critical appraisal skills. Additionally, 65% of the students commented positively with their e-learning experience and more comfortable with the progression of the course. (Lewis, P. A., Price, S. (2007). Meanwhile, Downside of the instructional style does affect trivial number or percentage of the students enrolled on e-learning. One of these is the perplexity of the operation of online posting that the other students who are not familiar to do so, may caused confusion and dissatisfaction and hinders them to participate in the learning process.

    The combination of e-learning and face to face mode of learning are effective style and technique in learning process. Independent way of learning is being impart for the student to initiate critical thinking, decision making and lifelong learning. Although distance learning give student opportunity to gain and explore bountiful knowledge and concepts, thorough supervision of the educator must observe in this learning style. The educator and the moderator should be prepared for an exhausting trend of education. Technique must be studied to east pressure brought by reading, reviewing articles and students numerous postings. Standard in evaluating student learning outcome is necessary to clearly evaluate participants level of competencies in the given program.


    Questions:

    1. The article exhibited the burden of the moderator and the educator in facilitating distance learning. Given the opportunity to facilitate the style of learning, do you have any tips or technique to reduce the weight/burden of the facilitator?

    2. Please present literature on how to evaluate the learning outcome of students in distance learning.



    Reference

    Lewis & Price (2007) Distance Education and the Integration of E-learning in a Graduate Program The Journal of Continuing Education in Nursing · Vol 38, No 3

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