E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning




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    Post  rachel on Fri 15 Jul 2011, 1:35 pm

    To become a leader is a difficult one. The burden is on the shoulders of the leader, because I strongly believe leadership is a journey. It is losing your way, the greatest crucible/trial and transformation from "I" to "We".

    A good leader can promote a healthy environment but it also depends on his followers. Followers should play their part as a member of the said environment. It should be the effort of both leader and his followers.

    As guided by Margaret Newman's theory of HEC (Paradigm Shift). A leader and a follower should go into a partnership; becoming aware of the pattern of the other person by becoming in touch with one's own pattern and eventually lead to self-awareness. Self awareness is a good ground for personal growth, because it is an in depth understanding of one's condition may pave the way for a person to engage into activities leading to positive progression.

    On another hand, Nursing leaders can improve healthier work environments by paying attention to facilitate a positive relationship with their staff, to promote patient safety, to recruit and retain staff.Smile

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    Post  Noriel_Pili on Sat 16 Jul 2011, 2:15 am

    I agree with you rachel that being a leader is not an easy job. More than being on top of chain of command the responsibility of being a leader is as heavy as his/her job. I think Carol Wong give us an in depth understanding about the traits and characteristic of being an authentic leader and how can we use this to understand our subordinates in able to create a healthy working environment.

    Implementation of authentic leadership can affect not only the nursing workforce and the profession but the healthcare delivery system and society as a whole. Creating a healthy work environment for nursing practice is crucial to maintain an adequate nursing workforce. The stressful nature of the profession often leads to burnout, disability, and high absenteeism and ultimately contributes to the escalating shortage of nurses. Leaders play a crucial role in retention of nurses by shaping the healthcare practice environment to produce quality outcomes for staff nurses and patients. I think Florence Nightingales Environmental Theory does not only applies in patient but also in nurses. I consider leadership as part of environmental factor which affects individual.

    Authenticity is knowing, and acting on, what is true and real inside yourself, your team and your organization and knowing and acting on what is true and real in the world.

    Authentic leadership may not be the answer for various problem that nurses encounter in their workplace, but it plays a good part in interpersonal relationship, motivation and making the working environment healthy.


    1. Maria R. Shirey, MS, MBA, RN, Authentic Leaders Creating Healthy Work Environments for Nursing Practice
    2. Bob Terry, Authentic Leadership: Courage In Action, excerpt from Chapter 6


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    Post  Alwynne on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 12:14 am

    The authentic leadership theory presented is very timely and relevant. It really is true that leadership in nursing is being challenged at this time because of the rapid changes happening in healthcare. The need for a more appropriate leadership theory had led to the conceptualization of authentic leadership. The authentic leadership theory had appropriately reexamined existing leadership theories, discovered their common core and added new perspectives.
    Essential concepts had been covered in this theory. I like the fact that authentic leadership was not made to become just another type of leadership theory instead the major concepts from existing theories together with new ideas formed it.

    The word ‘Authenticity’ is fundamental in this particular leadership theory. In psychology, authenticity is defined as experiencing events in a genuine manner and behaving in manners that is consistent with one's inner self. This is why self- awareness is important. Through reflection, authentic leader can attain a degree of clarity with regard to their core values, identity, emotions and motives/ goals. By clearly knowing one’s self, authentic leaders have a strong sense of self that guides them in their decisions and subsequent behaviors (Burke et al, 2006).
    I agree that self-awareness is important in a leader because it guides her actions and decisions. Though, self- awareness may not be easily measured.

    Other three components of authentic leadership are balanced processing, authentic behaviors and rational transparency. These are all self-regulatory processes. To me this means that a leader must carefully and constantly self-reflect to be able to consistently exemplify positive attributes that may influence followers’ behavior and work outcomes.

    Another contribution of this theory is the emphasis on positive ethical perspective as an integral component of leadership behavior. Ethics should really be a part of leadership theories. Ethics is important because it is our means of deciding a course of action. Without it, our actions would be random and aimless.

    Although this theory has provided fresh and enhanced concepts, very few weaknesses were still identified. I think that through further research and studies these areas may be observed and the theory be improved.

    Overall, I think the theory is very good but could be difficult to actualize. It is very ideal for me and I think that before one can attain the kind of leadership attributes described in the theory, it would take a good number of years.


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    Post  Noriel_Pili on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 2:17 am

    I like how you describe “authenticity” by Burke. From a leadership point of view, it is crucial for an organization’s leaders to possess high levels of emotional self-awareness. In other words, effective leaders need an acute understanding of how feelings can affect their behaviour, mood and performance. They also need to remain cognizant of how their mood affects the mood of others in the organization and team performance. Actions like these help leaders create a culture and environment where honest and open feedback is not only accepted, but expected. They also show a commitment to nurses’ personal and professional development that makes learning, growth and continuous self-improvement a priority.

    Indeed the theory provide fresh concept, in my opinion the theory is just a combination of leadership theories. Pounded together to produce a unique and fresh idea the “authentic leadership”. A theory with a new concept derived from a basic. What do you think?

    I agree that there is a notable weakness; the one that concerns me is the core of authentic leadership which is self awareness. How will we know if a person is truly an "authentic leader"? Can we measure the level of self awareness?

    Maryam Gallano

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    Post  Maryam Gallano on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 7:24 am

    Authentic leadership involves self-awareness. Goleman (1998) said that effective leaders have a high emotional intelligence, in which self-awareness is one of the components.

    Authentic leadership (self-awareness, balanced information processing, authentic behavior, relational transparency) has related concepts to emotional intelligence (self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skill). Hallmarks of self-regulation are trustworthiness and integrity, comfort with ambiguity (Goleman, 2003, p.555). Balanced information processing is comparable to Golem’s (1998) hallmark of self-awareness which is a realistic self-assessment. Gardner (2005) defined balanced processing as the review of self-esteem and non-self-esteem relevant information from a fairly objective view that incorporates both positive and negative attributes and qualities; Goleman’s (1998) concept of self-awareness includes realistic self-assessment as its hallmark. The effect of relational transparency (from Wong’s discussion) is a hallmark of self-regulation which are trustworthiness and integrity of Goleman (1998). Though they have similarities I think components of authentic leadership are not measurable because it does not encompass all the other components of emotional intelligence as a whole. In a 1996 study of a global food and beverage company, McClelland found that when senior managers had a critical mass of emotional intelligence capabilities, their divisions outperformed yearly earnings goals by 20% (Goleman 1998). This reveals that if leaders are emotionally intelligent, a good performance would be an outcome.

    I agree with Rachelle that self awareness is a good ground for personal growth because this can be a key in improving emotional intelligence which can pave the way for good governance.

    I agree w/ Jay that it is just a combination of different theories. I think it is unrealistic to have all the characteristics in the leader. I also agree to the idea that leadership is an environmental factor to nurses.

    I agree with Alwynne’s idea of reflection; that they should always have balanced information processing. I think this will remind leaders if they are parallel to their established values and goals.

    The article prescribes what a leader should be. The concept of integrity and cooperation was constantly mentioned in the discussion. Cooperation of the leader and the people is essential. Greenleaf (2002) servant leadership includes acceptance and empathy; by empathizing and accepting the people to be able to work hand in hand with them at the same time you are empowering them. I believe that it should not be a one way leadership, it should not be passive. According to Cummings (2004), the core of leadership is relationships. I believe that in order for a relationship to work, those who are involved must do their part.

    Aside from this theory, I think the different theories of management can serve as blueprint of nurse managers in handling the unit and subordinates. Application would be depending on the assessment of the environment.

    Goleman, D. (1998). What Makes A Leader? Harvard Business Review

    Greenleaf, R. Spears, L. (2002). Servant Leadership. Pauliss Press

    Porter, L., Angle, H., Allen R. (2003). What makes a leader? M.E. Sharpe p.555



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    Post  antidotetoblack on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 2:13 pm

    The authentic leadership paved for the understanding that leaders are not merely to just lead. There are certain attributes which make up a good leader. It somehow detailed the facts to mold new generation of leaders.

    In this time and age, we now ask ourselves, “Where have all our leaders gone?” We succumbed and tolerated the thieves of our drive for leadership: burnout, trust issues, understatements, no recognitions, and the like. As a result, we are left with no authentic leaders in several professions.

    Authentic leadership gave a fresh and old perspective of leadership. It acknowledged the propositions of other theories, and made more propositions out of the incompleteness and inconsistencies. The theory proposed that there is a boundary between a good leader to a great leader. There are four underlying components of authentic leadership: self-awareness, balanced information, authentic behavior, and relational transparency (Gardner et. al. 2005). Four components can be described collectively to as being able to understand his own unique talents and strengths, values, beliefs, and aligning them with their purpose, behaviors, and actions (Avolio, Gardner, 2005); that acts in accord with those values and not merely on pleasing others; that presenting one's self through openness and appropriate self-disclosure which prosper trust (Norman, 2006); act in accordance with their ethical concepts to make right, rational, and ethical decisions (Hannah et. al., 2005); that conditions of higher trust in leaders and increased hope and optimism for the future allowing individuals to focus more positively on their strengths, expand their thinking, heightened their awareness of moral implications of their decisions, and facilitate overall performance of followers (May et. al., 2003). Trust, integrity, and credibility here play a vital role. For whatever constitutes the followers' behavior or actions is dependent on that of the leader.

    I have to salute this theory for it did not focus entirely on the leader. This theory acknowledged that there are communication and human relatedness involved for authentic leadership to happen. What distinguishes great leaders from merely good ones? It isn't IQ or technical skills (Goleman, 2011). Its emotional intelligence, there are skills that enable the best leaders to maximize their own and their followers' performance: self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy, and social skills. Everyone was born with these attributes. And we can strengthen these abilities through persistence, practice, and feedback from followers, colleagues, or mentors. However, those attributes may not be realistic for everyone. It is being perfect inspite of the what if's and what not's. We are still humans who are capable of doing the right and wrong things and being able to use those for our growth. And let us not forget the opinions of others, that one way or the other, no one can please everybody. In this age of competitiveness, everyone wants to be an authentic leader, but not everyone is persistent nor followed. Nevertheless, we view and use those challenges and development for our own and humanity's benefit. In the light of the nursing theories, nurses are somehow authentic leaders in small and big perspectives. We are not merely just giving care but being a servant leader for patients. We do not constrain ourselves on our medical responsibilities but we act as army instruments for their bright future. We have reached to stop tolerating ourselves with the “thieves” in us, rather do and hear the “voice” of betterment.

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    Post  TheConchitinaLluch on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 8:00 pm

    HI GROUP 2. We just posted our group discussion paper. Please feel free to comment and answer the guide questions. It's entitled ALT ONLINE CLASS DISCUSSION GROUP 1. THANKS A LOT


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    Post  rachel on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 8:39 pm

    What does it mean to be self-aware?

    Self-knowledge – the accuracy of self assessment – is closely related to self awareness
    The statement, “Know Thyself,” is attributed to the early Greek philosopher Socrates who is famous for stating that to be wise is to Know Thyself, that the unexamined life is one not worth living. Socrates and the ancient Greeks also defined self-knowledge as understanding the limits of one’s performance capabilities.
    Daniel Goleman reviewed the term, self-awareness, as: “having a deep understanding of one’s emotions, as well as one’s strengths and limitations and one’s values and motives.”

    What is Strategic self-awareness?

    Strategic self-awareness creates an Authentic Leadership: the word authentic derives from Greek sources meaning one who accomplishes. To be authentic is to act, to embody, to engage, and to participate in life. (Terry, R. W., 1993). According to Robert Lee and Sara King, authors of Discovering the Leader in You, “there is no such thing as “one size fits all” leadership; the most outstanding leaders are authentic leaders. Your leadership abilities flow from who you are as a person: your values, talents, personality, and self image. Being authentic is about leading in a way that is natural for you and not trying to be someone else.

    How can you measure strategic self-awareness?

    The HoganDevelop Suite provides one with valuable and insightful information which can be utilised to shape and direct one’s career in terms of retaining and growing top employees, effective employee management and coaching, and competitive advantage (Hogan Assessments, 2008). More specifically, the HDS is an excellent tool for use in:
    • Personal risk assessment – Highlights the degree to which a person may exhibit tendencies that can derail an otherwise promising career.
    • Personnel selection – Evaluates dysfunctional tendencies that negatively impact on job and team performance.
    • Team building – Highlights disruptive tendencies that cause team conflicts.

    The ability to observe one’s behavior, to be aware of one’s own actions, and to appreciate one’s thoughts, feelings and emotions, is now understood to be essential as a foundation for exceptional leadership. Leaders, who are self-aware, understand how their environment affects them and how they affect their environments. They know what affects them positively and negatively and how that impacts on their job performance (Shay, J. M., 2003).


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    Post  rachel on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 9:11 pm

    Are there negative impacts to an unhealthy work environment?
    These include, but are not limited to,
    (1) Medication errors
    (2) High staff turnover
    (3) Burnout
    (4) Ineffective delivery of patient care
    (5) High stress levels
    (6) Unsafe working conditions
    These environments are not conducive to healing for patients and are detrimental to the staff.

    What are the necessary components for a healthy work environment?

    There are several. First, effective leadership must be present. All nurses have the capacity to be leaders. A healthy work environment fosters leadership growth in its staff and recognizes the importance and expertise of the nursing staff. In a healthy work environment, nurses are a valued resource.

    Second, communication is critical to a healthy work environment. This includes communication among nurses, physicians, allied health professionals, patients, families, and management. The healthcare team must work together to foster good communication skills.

    In a healthy work environment, nurses participate in the decision-making process concerning patient care and their work environment. Their thoughts and opinions are sought and valued.

    The fourth component of a healthy work environment is adequate staffing. We are all aware of the dangers of understaffing: increase in medication errors, high stress levels, low morale, burnout, and ineffective delivery of patient care. A healthy work environment is well staffed and plans are made accordingly to ensure adequate staffing to provide the utmost quality care to our critically ill patients.

    Another component of a healthy work environment is recognition of the efforts and achievements of the staff. Many units recognize nurses who have earned certification or advanced degrees. Many celebrate when a staff member presents a poster or paper or a local, state, or national meeting. A healthy work environment promotes lifelong learning and scholarship.

    Collaboration is another key ingredient for a healthy work environment. Nurses must work together and with other members of the healthcare team to meet the goals for the patients and their units. Collaboration requires good communication skills and the ability to work with others. The ability to compromise is a good skill. In a healthy work environment, nurses are not fearful or intimidated to voice their opinions. In fact, just the opposite occurs. Nurses are encouraged to actively participate in the decision-making process and in patient care.

    Maintaining a healthy work environment is a challenge. It is not something that is achieved quickly. Once you have established a healthy work environment, there is still an ongoing process. Effective leadership is necessary, as well as the commitment of the nursing staff. Nurses must be active participants in this process and not onlookers. As part of our nature, nurses are always up to a challenge. Every nurse and ill patient deserves a healthy work environment. As nurses, we must take the necessary steps to develop and maintain a healthy work environment for ourselves and our patients. It takes work and is not always easy, but it is something we all deserve.

    1. Shirey MR. Authentic leaders creating healthy work environments for nursing practice. Am J Crit Care. 2006;15:256-267. [Context Link]
    2. Gilmore J. Healthy work environments. Nephrol Nurs J. 2007;34:11. [Context Link]
    3. Anonymous. Effective leadership is essential in creating health work environments. Can Nurse. 2007;103:8. [Context Link]
    4. Barden C, Distrito C. Toward a healthy work environment. Health Prog. 2005;86:16-20.[Context Link]
    5. Ulrich B. Healthy work environment standards: is your unit up to par? Nephrol Nurs J. 2007;34:8. [Context Link]


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    Post  antidotetoblack on Mon 18 Jul 2011, 1:07 am

    I agree with the aforementioned comments. I would like to highlight as well the importance of trust in relationships of leaders and followers. In order for a person to be an effective servant leader, one has to be grounded with his in-depth understanding of self, that he shall recognize his ethical and professional values. Once the idea of having a strong foundation of the said attributes, it will show in the behavior and actions of the leader, and while doing so, a strong reputation of credibility will be acknowledged and respected by the followers. Trust will then be the reciprocal gain. Trust molds and nurtures a relationship. Without it, no relationship will ever be successful in achieving common goals. A trusting relationship will then begin to form, there will be respect for each other regardless of their positions, and will further have a healthy and open working environment, thus eliminating the intimidating issues of behavior and performance downfall.

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