E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning


    Discussion Forum 6

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    Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Admin on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 10:02 am

    For today, read and discuss on:

    Active Versus Passive Course Designs: The Impact on Student Outcomes
    -Enguerra, Juan

    Same guidelines apply. Deadline is August 21, 6AM

    Good luck!

    Jesson
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    ianenguerra

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:32 am

    Active versus Passive Course Design: The Impact on Student Outcomes

    The study is about the 2 different course designs that are usually uses in the school now a day. The main objective of this study was to investigate the impact of course design on both actual and self reported student outcomes.

    Let me introduce you first the different types of course design and its subtype
    1. Active Course Design[/b] – this kind of course design incorporates increased student involvement in the classroom. This is based on the assumption that an active learner, or the one who is more engaged in the learning process, learns much more effectively and the learning experience is more intense and permanent. There are two type of active course design: experiential learning and participative learning. Experiential learning is a type of active course design. This design was define (Kolb, 1984) as the process whereby knowledge is created through the transformation of experience. In the study also stated that experience alone are not inherently good for learning. It must be relevant to the learning goals. Experiential learning also leads to higher levels of retention for student learning. On the other hand, Participative learning is also a form of active learning. This defines (Mills-Jones, 1999) as engaging the learner in the learning process. In participative learning it will gives the student the opportunity to take an active part in determining the activities that are appropriate for them to learn effectively. The participative learning suggested that the student will feel more accountable for completing requirements. The participative learning allowed students to have a great deal of control over how they would be evaluated.
    2. Passive Course Design – unlike the active course design this type of course design is more on instructor-centered. Which means it emphasizes learner conceptual knowledge by focusing of facts and theoretical principles (Jones & Jones, 1998; Thornton & Cleveland, 1990; Whetten & Clark, 1996). This typically involves few opportunities for student to learn experientially or to participate in the decision in the classroom. As a Traditional Lecture the instructor basically provides syllabus, deliver daily lecture, and the grades of the student will be based on the exams.

    As a future educators let’s identify among our selves what style of education that can have the greatest and most permanent impact on undergrad as well as graduate student like us.

    As a guide question
    1. Will you identify strong points and weak points of the two course design? Cite your sources.
    2. As a nurse educator will you use this type of design (active and passive course design)? Why do you think this kind of course design will be more effective in learning?
    3. As a graduate nurse, will you explain the effectiveness of RLE (Related Learning Experience) as an experiential learning?
    4. Do you think the attitude of the learner will affect the effectiveness of each course design?

    -- Ian Enguerra --
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    patmarban

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  patmarban on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 8:59 pm

    Looking back through the course of MSN, I have encountered several different teaching concepts, two of which are the active and the passive designs. Both have strong and weak points, but I believe teaching learners how to learn will be a more efficient choice for nurse educators.

    The active course design engages learners in the learning process, thus promoting accountability on the learner. By constructing knowledge themselves, they feel a deeper and more significant learning experience in which they are responsible for what they know (Fok & Watkins, n.d.). However, Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark (2006) claimed that active/unguided/minimally-guided approaches does not correspond to the human cognitive structure and is deemed illogical.

    On the other hand, passive course design is the plain lecture-test based on the syllabus made by the educator; it gives focus on the theories and facts that the learners should know based on the set objectives. This covers more lessons in lesser time than the active design. Yet, this leaves little room for engaging learners in the learning process. Therefore, it may limit accountability, exploration, and motivation in learners.

    As nurse educators, we are responsible for engaging and motivating students to learn. We study pedagogical concepts for us to be able to decipher the learning needs of our students. In conclusion, I believe that a learner-centered approach would still make a more efficient design because with motivation, students will be excited instead of dragging their feet to class. With engaging students, we may be able to discover the potentials and strengths of the learners, and hone them.


    REFERENCES

    Fok, A. & Watkins, D. (n.d.). Does a critical constructivist learning environment encourage a deeper approach to learning? The Asia Pacific-Education Researcher, 16(1), 1-8. Retrieved July 4, 2008, from http://www.google.com.ph/url?sa=t&ct=res&cd=1&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.dlsu.edu.ph%2Fresearch%2Fjournals%2Ftaper%2Fpdf%2F200712%2FFok-watkins.pdf&ei=fAasSMvsEoLiswKp8bHPDw&usg=AFQjCNGmoG5F0up5svyPHdHDqWSSapYdJw&sig2=TnSphqlWBmdBHOsv66Z52Q


    Kirschner, P. A., Sweller, J., & Clark, R. E. (2006). Why minimal guidance during instruction does not work: An analysis of the failure of constructivist, discovery, problem-based, experiential, and inquiry-based teaching. Educational Psychologist, 41(2), 75–86. Retrieved July 4, 2008, from ProQuest Education Journals database.



    ianenguerra wrote:
    As a guide question
    1. Will you identify strong points and weak points of the two course design? Cite your sources.
    2. As a nurse educator will you use this type of design (active and passive course design)? Why do you think this kind of course design will be more effective in learning?
    3. As a graduate nurse, will you explain the effectiveness of RLE (Related Learning Experience) as an experiential learning?
    4. Do you think the attitude of the learner will affect the effectiveness of each course design?

    -- Ian Enguerra --
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    Josh

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Josh on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 9:17 pm

    “Experience is the best teacher.” I think this is the theme of our discussion tonight.

    Active course designs, according to the article experiential learning is very advantageous to the future profession of undergraduate students. The major premise is that learning is a process derive from experience; holistic and integrative and requires interplay between person and environment. Thus, the active design promotes student participation with real life learning experiences tantamount to enhancement of learning.

    According to Susan Hanley, the traditional teaching method of teacher as
    sole information-giver to passive students appears outdated. In a
    Berkeley (Angelo, 1991) study on undergraduates in a large lecture
    hall setting, it was found that only 20 % of the students retained
    what the instructor discussed after the lecture. They were too busy
    taking notes to internalize the information. Also, after a lecture
    has passed eight minutes, only 15 % of the students are paying
    attention. Futhermore, Project 2061 (1990, p. xvii ) charges that
    the "present curricula in science and mathematics are overstuffed and
    undernourished. They emphasize the learning of answers more than the
    exploration of questions, memory at the expense of critical thought,
    bits and pieces of information instead of understanding in context,
    recitation over argument, reading in lieu of doing. They fail to
    encourage students to work together, to share ideas and information
    freely with each other, or to use modern instruments to extend their
    intellectual capabilities"( Copyright 1994, Maryland Collaborative for Teacher Preparation).

    As a nurse-educator, the active learning design is highly effective in teaching RLE and nursing concepts. Nowadays, students should be prepared with learning content and experiences that student will relate to real life experiences and they get learning wherein they cam apply it in various situations. Furthermore, the learning from this kind pf method should also be applicable even in unpredictable situations. This is so according to the article as one of the purposes of active learning design is to enhance critical thinking skills.

    The active learning design therefore is very applicable to nursing education.

    ianenguerra wrote:Active versus Passive Course Design:

    As a guide question
    1. Will you identify strong points and weak points of the two course design? Cite your sources.
    2. As a nurse educator will you use this type of design (active and passive course design)? Why do you think this kind of course design will be more effective in learning?
    3. As a graduate nurse, will you explain the effectiveness of RLE (Related Learning Experience) as an experiential learning?
    4. Do you think the attitude of the learner will affect the effectiveness of each course design?

    -- Ian Enguerra --
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    ianenguerra

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 9:46 pm

    I agree with both of you Sir Patrick and sir josh. For further definition, Active learning is a learning strategy that engages and involves students in the learning process. Research has shown that not everyone learns in the same way. Some of us are visual learners that need to see to understand; while others need to hear or verbalize information. Others are hands-on, kinesthetic learners. At-risk students often struggle to learn in a traditional classroom. Numerous research studies have shown the value of active learning, particularly in improving the achievement level of the lowest-performing students and minorities (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1992; Kagan, 1994; Slavin, 1983). Active learning in the classroom allows students to take responsibility for their own learning. Teachers become facilitators rather than repositories of knowledge. Active learning has many benefits: Allows each learner to be recognized and rewarded for special strengths; Provides opportunities for learners to adapt their studies to their interests and learning preferences; reduces the chances of boredom by offering a variety of activities; and provides a teaching/learning methodology that works.

    Smink, J., & Schargel, F. P. (Eds.) Helping Students Graduate: A Strategic Approach to Dropout Prevention. Clemson, SC: National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, 2004.
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    ianenguerra

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 10:05 pm

    In one of the article a certain specific obstacles are associated with the use of active learning as a proof this includes limited class time; a possible increase in preparation time; the potential difficulty of using active learning in large classes; and a lack of needed materials, equipment, or resources. It also stated here that most faculty have not embraced recent calls for educational reform due to the powerful influence of educational tradition; faculty self-perceptions and self-definition of roles; the discomfort and anxiety that change creates; and the limited incentives for faculty to change. Also to include the risks that students will not participate, use higher-order thinking, or learn sufficient content, that faculty members will feel a loss of control, lack necessary skills, or be criticized for teaching in unorthodox ways.

    Bonwell, Charles C. - Eison, James A., Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education Washington DC.| FGK28050 _ George Washington Univ. Washington DC.
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    Josh

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Josh on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 10:35 pm

    Time is a factor in preparation. however, if the active design will be polished and incorporated into traditional teaching, as the process go along spontaneity will follow. Just an opinion.
    ianenguerra wrote:In one of the article a certain specific obstacles are associated with the use of active learning as a proof this includes limited class time; a possible increase in preparation time; the potential difficulty of using active learning in large classes; and a lack of needed materials, equipment, or resources. It also stated here that most faculty have not embraced recent calls for educational reform due to the powerful influence of educational tradition; faculty self-perceptions and self-definition of roles; the discomfort and anxiety that change creates; and the limited incentives for faculty to change. Also to include the risks that students will not participate, use higher-order thinking, or learn sufficient content, that faculty members will feel a loss of control, lack necessary skills, or be criticized for teaching in unorthodox ways.

    Bonwell, Charles C. - Eison, James A., Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ERIC Digest. ERIC Clearinghouse on Higher Education Washington DC.| FGK28050 _ George Washington Univ. Washington DC.
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    gary.orosa

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  gary.orosa on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:02 pm


    Passive vs Active Learning
    Studies show that over a period of 3 days, the retention of learning is as follows:
    10% of what we read
    20% of what we hear
    30% of what we see
    50% of what we see and hear
    70% of what we say
    90% of what we say as we

    Adults can learn by reading, listening and watching. But they will learn better if they are actively involved in the learning process.

    When the Student is Passive
    • "students are assumed to enter the course with minds like empty vessels or sponges to be filled with knowledge"
    • "traditional class": lecturing instructor verbalizing information to passive note-taking students
    • students remember only approx 10% of the content of each class session
    • mostly verbal lectures
    • instructor is "verbal" textbook
    • instructor reads definitions to the class
    • student is an "empty" vessel
    to be filled with knowledge
    • student is passive "tape recorder"
    • on exams, students regurgitate what the instructor tells them
    • students are expected to "record and absorb knowledge"

    When the Student is Actively Learning
    • The instructor strives to create "a learning environment in which the student can learn to restructure the new information and their prior knowledge into new knowledge about the content and to practice using it"
    • students activities during class time examples are
    o the Daily In-class Quizzes
    o the Modified Socratic Method
    • students are expected to look up definitions and vocabulary before and after class
    • students have the opportunity to remember up to 50% of the content of each class session
    • the instructor provides examples and illustrations of geologic concepts, processes and features
    o visual aids, demonstrations, etc., integrated into class presentations
    • the instructor explains concepts, principles and methods for geologic interpretation
    • students practice applying these skills to geologic interpretation
    • facts and concepts must be tested and used to be learned
    • students develop skills in constructing and using knowledge with the instructor's guidance”
    • various active learning methods, including lecturing
    • Students are expected to care deeply about their own education, learn to monitor and discuss their own learning, collaborate with other students to discover and construct a framework of knowledge that can be applied to new situations

    While practice is useful to reinforce learning, problem solving is not always suggested. Sweller (1988) suggests solving problems can even have negative influence on learning, instead he suggests that learners should study worked-examples, because this is a more efficient method of schema acquisition. So instructors are cautioned to give learners some basic or initial instruction first, perhaps to be followed up with an activity based upon the above methods.

    The efficacy of active instructional techniques has been questioned recently (Mayer, 2004; Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006). Certainly practicing procedural skills is a necessity for learning to be automated. But while these activities may be motivating for learners, these unguided situations can in fact leave learners less competent than when they began the activity (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

    However, not all research supports Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark's views. For example, one 2007 study compared results for college students in six different versions of a computer literacy course. In some groups, instructional elements were left out (objectives, information, examples, practice with feedback, review). The "practice with feedback" is the active learning component of the study. The researchers found that in all cases, students who had practice with feedback had better performance and more positive attitudes than those students who did not have opportunities for practice.

    No doubt RLEs are an effective learning tool in active learning but it must be a balance of both as not all students are the same. Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

    References:

    Active learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

    Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group. Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.adr.gov/workplace/pdf/wp-reten.pdf

    Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/active-passive/active-passive-learning.html

    Geoff Petty. Teaching Today. Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.geoffpetty.com/activelearning.html
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    Josh

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Josh on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:11 pm

    Ideally, RLE courses should be presented to students in experential method of teaching, i would like to ask everyone, as nurses how did you learn RLE? Traditional way or the active learning approach way? is the mere return-demonstration in RLE an Active learning approach?
    gary.orosa wrote:
    Passive vs Active Learning
    Studies show that over a period of 3 days, the retention of learning is as follows:
    10% of what we read
    20% of what we hear
    30% of what we see
    50% of what we see and hear
    70% of what we say
    90% of what we say as we

    Adults can learn by reading, listening and watching. But they will learn better if they are actively involved in the learning process.

    When the Student is Passive
    • "students are assumed to enter the course with minds like empty vessels or sponges to be filled with knowledge"
    • "traditional class": lecturing instructor verbalizing information to passive note-taking students
    • students remember only approx 10% of the content of each class session
    • mostly verbal lectures
    • instructor is "verbal" textbook
    • instructor reads definitions to the class
    • student is an "empty" vessel
    to be filled with knowledge
    • student is passive "tape recorder"
    • on exams, students regurgitate what the instructor tells them
    • students are expected to "record and absorb knowledge"

    When the Student is Actively Learning
    • The instructor strives to create "a learning environment in which the student can learn to restructure the new information and their prior knowledge into new knowledge about the content and to practice using it"
    • students activities during class time examples are
    o the Daily In-class Quizzes
    o the Modified Socratic Method
    • students are expected to look up definitions and vocabulary before and after class
    • students have the opportunity to remember up to 50% of the content of each class session
    • the instructor provides examples and illustrations of geologic concepts, processes and features
    o visual aids, demonstrations, etc., integrated into class presentations
    • the instructor explains concepts, principles and methods for geologic interpretation
    • students practice applying these skills to geologic interpretation
    • facts and concepts must be tested and used to be learned
    • students develop skills in constructing and using knowledge with the instructor's guidance”
    • various active learning methods, including lecturing
    • Students are expected to care deeply about their own education, learn to monitor and discuss their own learning, collaborate with other students to discover and construct a framework of knowledge that can be applied to new situations

    While practice is useful to reinforce learning, problem solving is not always suggested. Sweller (1988) suggests solving problems can even have negative influence on learning, instead he suggests that learners should study worked-examples, because this is a more efficient method of schema acquisition. So instructors are cautioned to give learners some basic or initial instruction first, perhaps to be followed up with an activity based upon the above methods.

    The efficacy of active instructional techniques has been questioned recently (Mayer, 2004; Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006). Certainly practicing procedural skills is a necessity for learning to be automated. But while these activities may be motivating for learners, these unguided situations can in fact leave learners less competent than when they began the activity (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

    However, not all research supports Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark's views. For example, one 2007 study compared results for college students in six different versions of a computer literacy course. In some groups, instructional elements were left out (objectives, information, examples, practice with feedback, review). The "practice with feedback" is the active learning component of the study. The researchers found that in all cases, students who had practice with feedback had better performance and more positive attitudes than those students who did not have opportunities for practice.

    No doubt RLEs are an effective learning tool in active learning but it must be a balance of both as not all students are the same. Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

    References:

    Active learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

    Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group. Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.adr.gov/workplace/pdf/wp-reten.pdf

    Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/active-passive/active-passive-learning.html

    Geoff Petty. Teaching Today. Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.geoffpetty.com/activelearning.html
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    ianenguerra

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:37 pm

    in addition, on my own view i think passive learningon the other hand is important tool because most of the board exams is theoretically/text book based. so, in this case we cannot totally reform passive learning style approach b'coz our theory will suffer a lot...
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    Divinia Joy Tuzon

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Divinia Joy Tuzon on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:38 pm

    The article elucidated very well the difference between an active and a passive course design. Active course design encourages students’ involvement using experiential or participative learning. Active learning is said to be more effective because it results to more intense and more permanent learning for the students. Active learning is basically learner-centered. It emphasizes the personal application of the material and encourages the students to develop belief systems, understand how they feel about an area of study, and make appropriate actions given a specific environment (Jones and Jones, 1998). Passive course designs on the other hand use the traditional lecture method where the professor dispenses the knowledge and students just submissively receive it. The main advantage of the traditional lecture class is that educators can present material not otherwise available to students (Bonwell, 1996). Also, lectures can be specifically organized to meet the needs of particular audiences. However, its main disadvantage is that it is teacher-centered; its weakness is that students turn out passive because there is no mechanism to ensure that they are intellectually engaged with the material. Bonwell (1996) also adds that lectures also presume that all students learn at the same pace and are at the same level of understanding.

    Both have advantages and disadvantages though educators and students nowadays appreciate more and see the benefit of adapting active over passive course designs. Today, helping students make the transition from passive to active learners means engaging them in the conversation from the beginning (Moore, Fowler , Watson, 2007). One way to mitigate students' resistance to accepting responsibility for learning is to actively involve them in understanding why a particular approach to pedagogy underpins a learning experience. Often students don't know why professors are doing what. Explaining to students that an interactive teaching approach to a curriculum or a course develops skills needed to apply knowledge in real-world settings offers a platform for participation that invites understanding.

    What then is the recipe for making a perfect pedagogical design? And what is the best teaching style that educators should adapt to promote better learning to their students? After reading the article, I’ve been really convinced that there’s NO such thing as: (1) perfect pedagogical design and (2) best teaching style.

    Felder & Soloman (1992) stated that when planning and developing instructional material, educators should strive for a balance of teaching styles to match the various learning styles of the students. Indeed, the learning style of the students should be considered. If given the chance to be an educator in the future, I would try to apply both styles. I would also try to consider as much as possible the attitudes and values of my students. Hence, in relation to question 4, I believe that the attitude of the learner affects the effectiveness of the course designs presented to them too. Students will gain more knowledge, retain more information, and perform far better when teaching styles used by the educator match their learning styles. However, Moallem (2001) recognizes that it is difficult to match students’ learning styles with every learning style and that is why a portfolio of teaching styles is recommended.

    REFERENCES:

    Bonwell, C. (1996). "Enhancing the lecture: Revitalizing a traditional format". Using active learning in college classes: A range of options for faculty, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 67. Cited August 20, 2008 from http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/teaching_styles.shtml#best

    Felder, R.M. & Soloman, B.A. (n. d.). “Learning styles and strategies”.
    Article retrieved August 20, 2008 from http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.htm

    Jones, V. and Jones, L. (1998). “Comprehensive Classroom Management: Creating communities of support and solving problems”.

    Moallem, M. (2001). “The implications of the research literature on learning styles for the design and development of a Web-based course”. Cited August 20, 2008 from http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/teaching_styles.shtml#best

    Moore, A., Fowler, S., and Watson, E. (2007). “Active Learning and Technology: Designing Change for Faculty, Students, and Institutions”. EduCAUSE Review, 42. Article retrieved August 20, 2008 from http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/teaching_styles.shtml#best
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    ianenguerra

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:50 pm

    LEARNING AND ATTITUDE -- Sherry Ryan sees, It is always important for Instructional Designers to define the target audience's current attitude toward the subject that will be taught. In some cases the current attitude is not the desired end state, and so attitude change becomes a component of the instructional design.

    Sherry Ryan
    Student, SDSU Educational Technology


    Divinia Joy Tuzon wrote:The article elucidated very well the difference between an active and a passive course design. Active course design encourages students’ involvement using experiential or participative learning. Active learning is said to be more effective because it results to more intense and more permanent learning for the students. Active learning is basically learner-centered. It emphasizes the personal application of the material and encourages the students to develop belief systems, understand how they feel about an area of study, and make appropriate actions given a specific environment (Jones and Jones, 1998). Passive course designs on the other hand use the traditional lecture method where the professor dispenses the knowledge and students just submissively receive it. The main advantage of the traditional lecture class is that educators can present material not otherwise available to students (Bonwell, 1996). Also, lectures can be specifically organized to meet the needs of particular audiences. However, its main disadvantage is that it is teacher-centered; its weakness is that students turn out passive because there is no mechanism to ensure that they are intellectually engaged with the material. Bonwell (1996) also adds that lectures also presume that all students learn at the same pace and are at the same level of understanding.

    Both have advantages and disadvantages though educators and students nowadays appreciate more and see the benefit of adapting active over passive course designs. Today, helping students make the transition from passive to active learners means engaging them in the conversation from the beginning (Moore, Fowler , Watson, 2007). One way to mitigate students' resistance to accepting responsibility for learning is to actively involve them in understanding why a particular approach to pedagogy underpins a learning experience. Often students don't know why professors are doing what. Explaining to students that an interactive teaching approach to a curriculum or a course develops skills needed to apply knowledge in real-world settings offers a platform for participation that invites understanding.

    What then is the recipe for making a perfect pedagogical design? And what is the best teaching style that educators should adapt to promote better learning to their students? After reading the article, I’ve been really convinced that there’s NO such thing as: (1) perfect pedagogical design and (2) best teaching style.

    Felder & Soloman (1992) stated that when planning and developing instructional material, educators should strive for a balance of teaching styles to match the various learning styles of the students. Indeed, the learning style of the students should be considered. If given the chance to be an educator in the future, I would try to apply both styles. I would also try to consider as much as possible the attitudes and values of my students. Hence, in relation to question 4, I believe that the attitude of the learner affects the effectiveness of the course designs presented to them too. Students will gain more knowledge, retain more information, and perform far better when teaching styles used by the educator match their learning styles. However, Moallem (2001) recognizes that it is difficult to match students’ learning styles with every learning style and that is why a portfolio of teaching styles is recommended.

    REFERENCES:

    Bonwell, C. (1996). "Enhancing the lecture: Revitalizing a traditional format". Using active learning in college classes: A range of options for faculty, New Directions for Teaching and Learning, 67. Cited August 20, 2008 from http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/teaching_styles.shtml#best

    Felder, R.M. & Soloman, B.A. (n. d.). “Learning styles and strategies”.
    Article retrieved August 20, 2008 from http://www2.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/ILSdir/styles.htm

    Jones, V. and Jones, L. (1998). “Comprehensive Classroom Management: Creating communities of support and solving problems”.

    Moallem, M. (2001). “The implications of the research literature on learning styles for the design and development of a Web-based course”. Cited August 20, 2008 from http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/teaching_styles.shtml#best

    Moore, A., Fowler, S., and Watson, E. (2007). “Active Learning and Technology: Designing Change for Faculty, Students, and Institutions”. EduCAUSE Review, 42. Article retrieved August 20, 2008 from http://tlt.its.psu.edu/suggestions/research/teaching_styles.shtml#best
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    evancarlo

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  evancarlo on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:52 pm

    Some people are concerned that distance education is compromising the
    quality of education. They believe that technology will denigrate higher
    education and destroy the special relationships instructors have with their
    students and students have with each other. Many researchers believe that the course delivery medium is rarely the determining factor for a variety of educational outcomes,
    including student satisfaction and learning (Russell, 1999) and that
    strong feelings of community can be developed in distance learning environments
    (Rovai, 2001). Moore and Thompson (1990) and Verduin and Clark (1991) suggested that teaching and studying at a distance can be as effective as traditional instruction provided: (a) the methods and technologies used are appropriate to the instructional tasks, (b) there is student-student interaction, and (c) there is timely teacher-to-student feedback. These are the positive sides of using the active learning part by means of pedagogical approach through the use of technology

    The Passive learning as i may say is purely based on the educators knowledge - his/her handouts, focuses on theretical concepts based on the given objectives. However, it may not facilitate students interaction and engage them in the learning process. Thus, may not promote independency and accountability. It is possible that variables other than pedagogy may affect perceived learning as reported by students, such as students’ educational goals, motivation to learn, and prior experiences, as well as their predispositions, beliefs, and attitudes regarding on-line learning (Marlin & Niss, 1980)

    I would just like to show you some information in the difference of the traditional way of teaching in relation to the article:

    TRADITIONAL COURSE
    - Professor plans/teaches
    - Professor is narrow funnel for information
    - Students follow a course plan
    - Knowledge is transferred via lecture, cases, etc.
    - Student work is private

    LEARNING ORGANIZATION APPROACH
    - Professor sets mission and supports self-directed learning
    - Students are knowledge producers from a world of resources
    - Students co-create a course plan
    - Student work is public and visible to all

    When i try to look back, as far as i can see, the role of the educators in passive learning design is only to plan, teach assign and grade, i cant helped the fact that its only a one sided event and if were gonna ask ourselves, did they learn from me? partly yes, but were not able to motivate them more on how to learn. Wherein, if im going to look ahead of me, i can say that the educators role in the active learning phase is to craft a mission for continous learning activities then support it via instruction and feedback.

    Based from my own personal experience, active learning is the very substantial in promoting motivation for students to learn by engaging them in real life activities that they do appreciate and will further enhance their critical thinking skills rather than teach them the theoretical concept and only part o it retain in their minds.

    References:

    Blum, K.D. (1999). Gender differences in asynchronous learning in higher education:
    Learning styles, participation barriers and communication patterns. Journal of
    Asynchronous Learning Networks, 1(3). Retrieved August 26, 2002 from the World Wide
    Web: http://www.aln.org/alnweb/journal/Vol3_issue1/blum.htm

    Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of age, the challenge is keeping the students.
    Chronicle of Higher Education, 46(23), A39-A41.
    http://cade.icaap.org/vol18.1/rovai.pdf

    J. Vallino, "Design patterns- evolving from passive to active learning," fie, pp. S2C19-24, 33rd Annual Frontiers in Education (FIE'03), 2003
    avatar
    evancarlo

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  evancarlo on Wed 20 Aug 2008, 11:55 pm

    Yes, i agree, not all of us learn the same way. we have our own style and techniques on how to learn, and to further enhance this skills, it will be promoted by via active learning style of our educator.

    ianenguerra wrote:I agree with both of you Sir Patrick and sir josh. For further definition, Active learning is a learning strategy that engages and involves students in the learning process. Research has shown that not everyone learns in the same way. Some of us are visual learners that need to see to understand; while others need to hear or verbalize information. Others are hands-on, kinesthetic learners. At-risk students often struggle to learn in a traditional classroom. Numerous research studies have shown the value of active learning, particularly in improving the achievement level of the lowest-performing students and minorities (Johnson, Johnson, & Holubec, 1992; Kagan, 1994; Slavin, 1983). Active learning in the classroom allows students to take responsibility for their own learning. Teachers become facilitators rather than repositories of knowledge. Active learning has many benefits: Allows each learner to be recognized and rewarded for special strengths; Provides opportunities for learners to adapt their studies to their interests and learning preferences; reduces the chances of boredom by offering a variety of activities; and provides a teaching/learning methodology that works.

    Smink, J., & Schargel, F. P. (Eds.) Helping Students Graduate: A Strategic Approach to Dropout Prevention. Clemson, SC: National Dropout Prevention Center/Network, 2004.
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    Kriselda Manzano

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Kriselda Manzano on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:00 am


    As I understand the article, it’s intention is to analyze the influence
    of the course design on both actual and self reported student outcome.

    Primarily, there are three kinds of design involved
    in the study. First is the passive design, where in traditional method of
    lecture, notetaking and multiple choice exams are done (Wingfield, Black 2005). Second, participative course an active design wherein the students helped plan the course by developing the syllabus and deciding what criteria should be graded (Wingfield 2005). Last is
    the experiential course another active design. In this course the students were exposed to assignments and activities designed to stimulate real world tasks and experiences (Wingfield 2005).

    To respond on guide question #2, As a future nurse educator I’ll probably utilize the active experiential design. I believe that retention is most likely when learning was experienced by the student. Neil (2005) explained that experiential education is often contrasted with didactic education, in which the teacher's role is to "give" information/knowledge to student and to prescribe study/learning exercises which have "information/knowledge
    transmission" as the main goal. Most of the time the educator using this
    design organizes and facilitates direct experiences of phenomenon under the assumption that this will lead to genuine (meaningful and long-lasting) learning.


    Reference:

    Wingfield, S., Black G. (2005) Active Versus Passive
    Course Designs: The Impact on Student Outcomes. Texas
    A & M University– Corpus Christi Texas. Heldref Publications. 119-125


    Neil, James (2005).
    Experiential Learning & Experiential Education. Philosophy, Theory,
    Practice & Resources. Retrieved August 20 , 2008 from http://wilderdom.com/experiential/ExperientialLearningWhatIs.html
    avatar
    Divinia Joy Tuzon

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Divinia Joy Tuzon on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:13 am

    Good point Sir Ian. I was about to mention this as well. As what the article mentioned, the conceptual emphasis of the traditional lecture design is significant to the development of a strong theoretical foundation upon which students build in their future professions. Passive learning emphasizes conceptual knowledge by focusing on facts and theoretical principles which active learning cannot replace, in my opinion. Thus, students also benefit from passive course design specifically in cases like the board exams where strong conceptual and theoretical foundations is needed.

    ianenguerra wrote:in addition, on my own view i think passive learningon the other hand is important tool because most of the board exams is theoretically/text book based. so, in this case we cannot totally reform passive learning style approach b'coz our theory will suffer a lot...
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    evancarlo

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  evancarlo on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:14 am

    Going back to my undergrad days, i can say that i learn RLE in a passive way. During those times, they will only provide us, teach us hte concepts, show us only once a certain nursing skill, and that expectations from them are very high, wherein in my own point of view, few of those information retained in my mind. i have to ask my classmates to sleep over n our house just to practice that skill. It never helped me at all, but one thing passing style taught me, is to exert more effort, if you want to learn, then you have to be independent.

    Through the use of guided practice, it will enhance the students mind to think critically in a given situation and will enhaned their nursing skills.

    Return Demonstration as far as i can see is a means of evaluating the students performance in doing the skill. Assumptions for the students who pass the R.D. is that they know the skill but we dont have a means to gauge how much did they learn in RLE. - This of course is my own point of view

    Josh wrote:Ideally, RLE courses should be presented to students in experential method of teaching, i would like to ask everyone, as nurses how did you learn RLE? Traditional way or the active learning approach way? is the mere return-demonstration in RLE an Active learning approach?
    gary.orosa wrote:
    Passive vs Active Learning
    Studies show that over a period of 3 days, the retention of learning is as follows:
    10% of what we read
    20% of what we hear
    30% of what we see
    50% of what we see and hear
    70% of what we say
    90% of what we say as we

    Adults can learn by reading, listening and watching. But they will learn better if they are actively involved in the learning process.

    When the Student is Passive
    • "students are assumed to enter the course with minds like empty vessels or sponges to be filled with knowledge"
    • "traditional class": lecturing instructor verbalizing information to passive note-taking students
    • students remember only approx 10% of the content of each class session
    • mostly verbal lectures
    • instructor is "verbal" textbook
    • instructor reads definitions to the class
    • student is an "empty" vessel
    to be filled with knowledge
    • student is passive "tape recorder"
    • on exams, students regurgitate what the instructor tells them
    • students are expected to "record and absorb knowledge"

    When the Student is Actively Learning
    • The instructor strives to create "a learning environment in which the student can learn to restructure the new information and their prior knowledge into new knowledge about the content and to practice using it"
    • students activities during class time examples are
    o the Daily In-class Quizzes
    o the Modified Socratic Method
    • students are expected to look up definitions and vocabulary before and after class
    • students have the opportunity to remember up to 50% of the content of each class session
    • the instructor provides examples and illustrations of geologic concepts, processes and features
    o visual aids, demonstrations, etc., integrated into class presentations
    • the instructor explains concepts, principles and methods for geologic interpretation
    • students practice applying these skills to geologic interpretation
    • facts and concepts must be tested and used to be learned
    • students develop skills in constructing and using knowledge with the instructor's guidance”
    • various active learning methods, including lecturing
    • Students are expected to care deeply about their own education, learn to monitor and discuss their own learning, collaborate with other students to discover and construct a framework of knowledge that can be applied to new situations

    While practice is useful to reinforce learning, problem solving is not always suggested. Sweller (1988) suggests solving problems can even have negative influence on learning, instead he suggests that learners should study worked-examples, because this is a more efficient method of schema acquisition. So instructors are cautioned to give learners some basic or initial instruction first, perhaps to be followed up with an activity based upon the above methods.

    The efficacy of active instructional techniques has been questioned recently (Mayer, 2004; Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006). Certainly practicing procedural skills is a necessity for learning to be automated. But while these activities may be motivating for learners, these unguided situations can in fact leave learners less competent than when they began the activity (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

    However, not all research supports Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark's views. For example, one 2007 study compared results for college students in six different versions of a computer literacy course. In some groups, instructional elements were left out (objectives, information, examples, practice with feedback, review). The "practice with feedback" is the active learning component of the study. The researchers found that in all cases, students who had practice with feedback had better performance and more positive attitudes than those students who did not have opportunities for practice.

    No doubt RLEs are an effective learning tool in active learning but it must be a balance of both as not all students are the same. Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

    References:

    Active learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

    Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group. Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.adr.gov/workplace/pdf/wp-reten.pdf

    Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/active-passive/active-passive-learning.html

    Geoff Petty. Teaching Today. Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.geoffpetty.com/activelearning.html
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    Kriselda Manzano

    Posts : 36
    Join date : 2008-08-12

    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Kriselda Manzano on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:17 am


    I must say that utilizing active
    experiential design is very useful when facilitated by the teachers properly, thus
    mastery on the subject matter and experience will be an advantage.

    Thinking it over, most likely I’ll utilize both passive (traditional design)
    and active (participative and experiential design) but I will take full
    advantage on the active design. The passive design strengthens the theoretical
    foundation of the learners consequently making them understand the rationale
    behind each phenomenon. While active designs reinforces the theoretical
    foundations of the students by providing experiences that are relevant to the
    learning goals.

    In my opinion, I still think that there is no single best teaching pedagogy
    available that we can apply on every subject matter however as good educators
    we can combine the existing teaching strategies to be an effective teacher
    since learners are not all the same.


    Reference:

    Wingfield, S., Black G. (2005)
    Active Versus Passive Course Designs: The Impact on Student Outcomes. Texas A & M
    University – Corpus Christi Texas.
    Heldref Publications. 119-125

    avatar
    Cristina Mariano

    Posts : 24
    Join date : 2008-08-12
    Age : 32
    Location : Manila

    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Cristina Mariano on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:31 am

    All of us should recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Learning styles cluster common ways that people learn. Each person has a mix of learning styles while some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use diverse styles in different circumstances. There is no precise combination or styles that are fixed for we can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that we already use well.

    As educators, the use of active or passive strategies is a deliberate process whereby we engage our students in various thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Other methods and approaches can also be utilized to promote active learning such as the use of cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and the use of case methods and simulations.

    Acknowledging that each student’s learning is different from each other, utilizing either of the two course design may suggest a varied strength and weakness. As said by Sir Butcon in our lecture, in order to foster learning, one must tap atleast 3 dimension or aspect of a student. Using multiple learning styles and “multiple intelligences” for learning is an approach that educators should consider and recognize to effectively retain significant information among their students. So we can say that passive or traditional teaching methods used mainly use a limited range of learning and teaching techniques.

    I strongly believe that the use of either design will both be effective in every scenario since both of them complement each other in many ways. “Although many schools still rely on classroom and book-based teaching, much repetition, and pressured exams for reinforcement and review. A result is that we often label those who use these learning styles and techniques as “bright.” Those who use less favored learning styles often find themselves in lower classes, with various not-so-complimentary labels and sometimes lower quality teaching. This can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is “smart” or “dumb.” (Overview of Learning Styles, 2008).

    For me RLE is a simulation of actual portrayal of students that enhances their learning which may be affected or influenced by their attitude, readiness to perform and also might vary based from the effect of instructor’s pressure on the time range of preparation for the return demonstration. It is a great example of experiential learning where students “learn by doing and by reflecting on experience”. This is a very effective way to help student picture themselves doing the concept taught on them and explore their abilities and limitations.

    Reference:
    Learning-Styles-Online.Com. Overview of Learning Styles. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/

    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php

    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Experiential Learning and Fieldwork. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php
    avatar
    ianenguerra

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    Age : 34
    Location : Manila

    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:39 am

    i think, the best thing that we can do is to inter-relate the two design. truly, active design is more effective but we can improve the passive design by injecting some improvement.

    classmates, would you like to help me to make some interesting changes that we can do to improve? to make more interesting to learners? and maybe, we can apply in our practice....
    avatar
    Josh

    Posts : 41
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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Josh on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:41 am

    very well said. As a novice educator i also believed that RLE for nursing students is the opportunity for student to practice real life situations, predicted or unpredicted situations. Our skills lab should appear like an actual clinical area and dummy patients should be treated as real patient. By doing so, if our students will treat dummy patient and act like in the real hospital, how much more if they have the chance to interact with real patient during their clinical exposure. Furthermore, nursing schools without or have incomplete skills lab facilities should endeavor doubly hard inorder to offer their students a institution condusive for real life learning experiences.
    Cristina Mariano wrote:All of us should recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Learning styles cluster common ways that people learn. Each person has a mix of learning styles while some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use diverse styles in different circumstances. There is no precise combination or styles that are fixed for we can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that we already use well.

    As educators, the use of active or passive strategies is a deliberate process whereby we engage our students in various thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Other methods and approaches can also be utilized to promote active learning such as the use of cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and the use of case methods and simulations.

    Acknowledging that each student’s learning is different from each other, utilizing either of the two course design may suggest a varied strength and weakness. As said by Sir Butcon in our lecture, in order to foster learning, one must tap atleast 3 dimension or aspect of a student. Using multiple learning styles and “multiple intelligences” for learning is an approach that educators should consider and recognize to effectively retain significant information among their students. So we can say that passive or traditional teaching methods used mainly use a limited range of learning and teaching techniques.

    I strongly believe that the use of either design will both be effective in every scenario since both of them complement each other in many ways. “Although many schools still rely on classroom and book-based teaching, much repetition, and pressured exams for reinforcement and review. A result is that we often label those who use these learning styles and techniques as “bright.” Those who use less favored learning styles often find themselves in lower classes, with various not-so-complimentary labels and sometimes lower quality teaching. This can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is “smart” or “dumb.” (Overview of Learning Styles, 2008).

    For me RLE is a simulation of actual portrayal of students that enhances their learning which may be affected or influenced by their attitude, readiness to perform and also might vary based from the effect of instructor’s pressure on the time range of preparation for the return demonstration. It is a great example of experiential learning where students “learn by doing and by reflecting on experience”. This is a very effective way to help student picture themselves doing the concept taught on them and explore their abilities and limitations.

    Reference:
    Learning-Styles-Online.Com. Overview of Learning Styles. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/

    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php

    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Experiential Learning and Fieldwork. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php
    avatar
    Cristina Mariano

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    Location : Manila

    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Cristina Mariano on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:43 am

    I believe that RLE courses is a great example of experiential type of learning. Back in my college years, our school has utilized both passive and active styles of teaching to reinforce learning regarding concepts included in our RLE class. According to UM Center for Research in Learning and Teaching, Experiential learning activities can include, but are not limited to, hands-on laboratory experiments, practicums, field exercises, and studio performances. It is an active type of learning because it involves student's actual participation on the concepts being undertaken.

    Reference:
    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Experiential Learning and Fieldwork. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php

    Josh wrote:Ideally, RLE courses should be presented to students in experential method of teaching, i would like to ask everyone, as nurses how did you learn RLE? Traditional way or the active learning approach way? is the mere return-demonstration in RLE an Active learning approach?
    gary.orosa wrote:
    Passive vs Active Learning
    Studies show that over a period of 3 days, the retention of learning is as follows:
    10% of what we read
    20% of what we hear
    30% of what we see
    50% of what we see and hear
    70% of what we say
    90% of what we say as we

    Adults can learn by reading, listening and watching. But they will learn better if they are actively involved in the learning process.

    When the Student is Passive
    • "students are assumed to enter the course with minds like empty vessels or sponges to be filled with knowledge"
    • "traditional class": lecturing instructor verbalizing information to passive note-taking students
    • students remember only approx 10% of the content of each class session
    • mostly verbal lectures
    • instructor is "verbal" textbook
    • instructor reads definitions to the class
    • student is an "empty" vessel
    to be filled with knowledge
    • student is passive "tape recorder"
    • on exams, students regurgitate what the instructor tells them
    • students are expected to "record and absorb knowledge"

    When the Student is Actively Learning
    • The instructor strives to create "a learning environment in which the student can learn to restructure the new information and their prior knowledge into new knowledge about the content and to practice using it"
    • students activities during class time examples are
    o the Daily In-class Quizzes
    o the Modified Socratic Method
    • students are expected to look up definitions and vocabulary before and after class
    • students have the opportunity to remember up to 50% of the content of each class session
    • the instructor provides examples and illustrations of geologic concepts, processes and features
    o visual aids, demonstrations, etc., integrated into class presentations
    • the instructor explains concepts, principles and methods for geologic interpretation
    • students practice applying these skills to geologic interpretation
    • facts and concepts must be tested and used to be learned
    • students develop skills in constructing and using knowledge with the instructor's guidance”
    • various active learning methods, including lecturing
    • Students are expected to care deeply about their own education, learn to monitor and discuss their own learning, collaborate with other students to discover and construct a framework of knowledge that can be applied to new situations

    While practice is useful to reinforce learning, problem solving is not always suggested. Sweller (1988) suggests solving problems can even have negative influence on learning, instead he suggests that learners should study worked-examples, because this is a more efficient method of schema acquisition. So instructors are cautioned to give learners some basic or initial instruction first, perhaps to be followed up with an activity based upon the above methods.

    The efficacy of active instructional techniques has been questioned recently (Mayer, 2004; Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006). Certainly practicing procedural skills is a necessity for learning to be automated. But while these activities may be motivating for learners, these unguided situations can in fact leave learners less competent than when they began the activity (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

    However, not all research supports Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark's views. For example, one 2007 study compared results for college students in six different versions of a computer literacy course. In some groups, instructional elements were left out (objectives, information, examples, practice with feedback, review). The "practice with feedback" is the active learning component of the study. The researchers found that in all cases, students who had practice with feedback had better performance and more positive attitudes than those students who did not have opportunities for practice.

    No doubt RLEs are an effective learning tool in active learning but it must be a balance of both as not all students are the same. Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

    References:

    Active learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

    Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group. Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.adr.gov/workplace/pdf/wp-reten.pdf

    Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/active-passive/active-passive-learning.html

    Geoff Petty. Teaching Today. Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.geoffpetty.com/activelearning.html
    avatar
    ianenguerra

    Posts : 34
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    Age : 34
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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:47 am

    We take in information through our senses, yet we ultimately learn by doing.



    Josh wrote:very well said. As a novice educator i also believed that RLE for nursing students is the opportunity for student to practice real life situations, predicted or unpredicted situations. Our skills lab should appear like an actual clinical area and dummy patients should be treated as real patient. By doing so, if our students will treat dummy patient and act like in the real hospital, how much more if they have the chance to interact with real patient during their clinical exposure. Furthermore, nursing schools without or have incomplete skills lab facilities should endeavor doubly hard inorder to offer their students a institution condusive for real life learning experiences.
    Cristina Mariano wrote:All of us should recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques. Learning styles cluster common ways that people learn. Each person has a mix of learning styles while some people may find that they have a dominant style of learning, with far less use of the other styles. Others may find that they use diverse styles in different circumstances. There is no precise combination or styles that are fixed for we can develop ability in less dominant styles, as well as further develop styles that we already use well.

    As educators, the use of active or passive strategies is a deliberate process whereby we engage our students in various thinking tasks such as analysis, synthesis, and evaluation. Other methods and approaches can also be utilized to promote active learning such as the use of cooperative learning, problem-based learning, and the use of case methods and simulations.

    Acknowledging that each student’s learning is different from each other, utilizing either of the two course design may suggest a varied strength and weakness. As said by Sir Butcon in our lecture, in order to foster learning, one must tap atleast 3 dimension or aspect of a student. Using multiple learning styles and “multiple intelligences” for learning is an approach that educators should consider and recognize to effectively retain significant information among their students. So we can say that passive or traditional teaching methods used mainly use a limited range of learning and teaching techniques.

    I strongly believe that the use of either design will both be effective in every scenario since both of them complement each other in many ways. “Although many schools still rely on classroom and book-based teaching, much repetition, and pressured exams for reinforcement and review. A result is that we often label those who use these learning styles and techniques as “bright.” Those who use less favored learning styles often find themselves in lower classes, with various not-so-complimentary labels and sometimes lower quality teaching. This can create positive and negative spirals that reinforce the belief that one is “smart” or “dumb.” (Overview of Learning Styles, 2008).

    For me RLE is a simulation of actual portrayal of students that enhances their learning which may be affected or influenced by their attitude, readiness to perform and also might vary based from the effect of instructor’s pressure on the time range of preparation for the return demonstration. It is a great example of experiential learning where students “learn by doing and by reflecting on experience”. This is a very effective way to help student picture themselves doing the concept taught on them and explore their abilities and limitations.

    Reference:
    Learning-Styles-Online.Com. Overview of Learning Styles. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.learning-styles-online.com/overview/

    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php

    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Experiential Learning and Fieldwork. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php
    avatar
    Josh

    Posts : 41
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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  Josh on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:51 am

    i think critical assessment on students educational learning needs should be assessed first. As was mentioned by some of our classmates, different students have different ways of learning. Assessment on academic institutions soci-cultural aspect is also imporatnt. As mentioned from previous discussion, culture and social structure are great influence in student values and its readiness to accept changes. Assessment also on faculty preparedness and capabilities in injecting improvements. there are some more factors to consider and one noble act is for us to join hands in proposing and implementing changes. clssmates, would you like to help me to make some interesting changes that we can do to improve? to make more interesting to learners? and maybe, we can apply in our practice....[/quote]
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    ianenguerra

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    Re: Discussion Forum 6

    Post  ianenguerra on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 12:54 am

    In the book Experiential Learning, David Kolb describes learning as a four-step process. He identifies the steps as watching, thinking (mind), feeling (emotion), and doing (muscle). He draws primarily on the works of Dewey (who emphasized the need for learning to be grounded in experience), Lewin (who stressed the importance of a people being active in learning), and Jean Piaget (who described intelligence as the result of the interaction of the person and the environment)
    Ref.
    Kolb, D., Experiential Learning: Experience as the Source of Learning and Development, Prentice Hall, 1983
    Experience & Education. John Dewey (Scribner, Reprint 1997).



    Cristina Mariano wrote:I believe that RLE courses is a great example of experiential type of learning. Back in my college years, our school has utilized both passive and active styles of teaching to reinforce learning regarding concepts included in our RLE class. According to UM Center for Research in Learning and Teaching, Experiential learning activities can include, but are not limited to, hands-on laboratory experiments, practicums, field exercises, and studio performances. It is an active type of learning because it involves student's actual participation on the concepts being undertaken.

    Reference:
    University of Michigan Center For Research on Learning and Teaching. Teaching Strategies: Experiential Learning and Fieldwork. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.crlt.umich.edu/tstrategies/tsls.php

    Josh wrote:Ideally, RLE courses should be presented to students in experential method of teaching, i would like to ask everyone, as nurses how did you learn RLE? Traditional way or the active learning approach way? is the mere return-demonstration in RLE an Active learning approach?
    gary.orosa wrote:
    Passive vs Active Learning
    Studies show that over a period of 3 days, the retention of learning is as follows:
    10% of what we read
    20% of what we hear
    30% of what we see
    50% of what we see and hear
    70% of what we say
    90% of what we say as we

    Adults can learn by reading, listening and watching. But they will learn better if they are actively involved in the learning process.

    When the Student is Passive
    • "students are assumed to enter the course with minds like empty vessels or sponges to be filled with knowledge"
    • "traditional class": lecturing instructor verbalizing information to passive note-taking students
    • students remember only approx 10% of the content of each class session
    • mostly verbal lectures
    • instructor is "verbal" textbook
    • instructor reads definitions to the class
    • student is an "empty" vessel
    to be filled with knowledge
    • student is passive "tape recorder"
    • on exams, students regurgitate what the instructor tells them
    • students are expected to "record and absorb knowledge"

    When the Student is Actively Learning
    • The instructor strives to create "a learning environment in which the student can learn to restructure the new information and their prior knowledge into new knowledge about the content and to practice using it"
    • students activities during class time examples are
    o the Daily In-class Quizzes
    o the Modified Socratic Method
    • students are expected to look up definitions and vocabulary before and after class
    • students have the opportunity to remember up to 50% of the content of each class session
    • the instructor provides examples and illustrations of geologic concepts, processes and features
    o visual aids, demonstrations, etc., integrated into class presentations
    • the instructor explains concepts, principles and methods for geologic interpretation
    • students practice applying these skills to geologic interpretation
    • facts and concepts must be tested and used to be learned
    • students develop skills in constructing and using knowledge with the instructor's guidance”
    • various active learning methods, including lecturing
    • Students are expected to care deeply about their own education, learn to monitor and discuss their own learning, collaborate with other students to discover and construct a framework of knowledge that can be applied to new situations

    While practice is useful to reinforce learning, problem solving is not always suggested. Sweller (1988) suggests solving problems can even have negative influence on learning, instead he suggests that learners should study worked-examples, because this is a more efficient method of schema acquisition. So instructors are cautioned to give learners some basic or initial instruction first, perhaps to be followed up with an activity based upon the above methods.

    The efficacy of active instructional techniques has been questioned recently (Mayer, 2004; Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006). Certainly practicing procedural skills is a necessity for learning to be automated. But while these activities may be motivating for learners, these unguided situations can in fact leave learners less competent than when they began the activity (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

    However, not all research supports Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark's views. For example, one 2007 study compared results for college students in six different versions of a computer literacy course. In some groups, instructional elements were left out (objectives, information, examples, practice with feedback, review). The "practice with feedback" is the active learning component of the study. The researchers found that in all cases, students who had practice with feedback had better performance and more positive attitudes than those students who did not have opportunities for practice.

    No doubt RLEs are an effective learning tool in active learning but it must be a balance of both as not all students are the same. Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

    References:

    Active learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

    Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group. Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.adr.gov/workplace/pdf/wp-reten.pdf

    Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/active-passive/active-passive-learning.html

    Geoff Petty. Teaching Today. Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.geoffpetty.com/activelearning.html

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