E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning


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    luder

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    Post  luder on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 1:24 am




    based on the "Cone of Learning" (Dale, n.d.) passive classroom activities such as lectures, reading, watching films, looking at pictures, watching demos,etc. leads to limited retention of knowledge. below is what sir gary presented with the addition of labels for each action, whether its a passive or active behavior leading to learning.

    10% of what we read passive
    20% of what we hear passive
    30% of what we see passive
    50% of what we see and hear passive

    70% of what we say active
    90% of what we say and do active

    as we can see, retention of knowledge grows as the student engages himself or relates himself to what is being learned. Fink (n.d.) shares this same view stating that,"all learning activities involve somekind of experince or some kind of dialogue." in his model of active learning, Fink (n.d.) illustrates four components, "Doing" and then "Dialogue with self," "Observing" and then "Dialogue with others." there is importance of immersing onself to what is being learned. it's not enough that we do and observe, we would have to reflect and then share with others what we've learned. experience is the best teacher as what sir josh mentioned, but if we forego the value that the experience has given us, eventually we'll forget.

    let us not disregard what passive learning contributes. although in many cases, as was mentioned previously by sir butcon, many of the teachers that we have today in nursing are just a textbook ahead from the students in terms of knowledge. still, these teachers know more. and the students will need guidance as to how to process this new knowledge.

    most of the principles we use in RLEs we learn in the classroom. this is, in my opinion, the SOP when in comes to hands on professions like nursing. we first start of with theoreticals and then practical application. as it is called, Related Learning Expereinces is thought of as a way to boost the theoretical foundation and anchor them in real life scenarios.

    my point in this discussion is that, although active learning is by far better the classic passive style. we can't just go with one. we'll need both in order to address the different types of learners and the different types of content. the proper mix of both methods coupled with the learner centered approach would greatly enhance the learning experience.

    looking back at article, we can see that the results are inconsistent with the hypothesis. although many authors believe in the advantages active learning has over passive learning the results tell a different story. this is the disadvantage of using just one type of learning methods.


    Dale (n.d) retrieved august 20, 2008 from http://courses.science.fau.edu/~rjordan/active_learning.htm

    Fink (n.d.) retrieved august 20, 2008 from http://honolulu.hawaii.edu/intranet/committees/FacDevCom/guidebk/teachtip/active.htm
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    ianenguerra

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    Post  ianenguerra on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 1:29 am

    Every good course design begins with a needs assessment. As assessment and understanding what your students need and what your objectives are for the course you’re designing. If you don’t know your objectives, you’re not ready to design your course.

    Josh wrote:i think critical assessment on students educational learning needs should be assessed first. As was mentioned by some of our classmates, different students have different ways of learning. Assessment on academic institutions soci-cultural aspect is also imporatnt. As mentioned from previous discussion, culture and social structure are great influence in student values and its readiness to accept changes. Assessment also on faculty preparedness and capabilities in injecting improvements. there are some more factors to consider and one noble act is for us to join hands in proposing and implementing changes. clssmates, would you like to help me to make some interesting changes that we can do to improve? to make more interesting to learners? and maybe, we can apply in our practice....
    [/quote]
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    gary.orosa

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    Post  gary.orosa on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 1:31 am

    Josh wrote:Ideally, RLE courses should be presented to students in experential method of teaching, i would like to ask everyone, as nurses how did you learn RLE? Traditional way or the active learning approach way? is the mere return-demonstration in RLE an Active learning approach?
    gary.orosa wrote:
    Passive vs Active Learning
    Studies show that over a period of 3 days, the retention of learning is as follows:
    10% of what we read
    20% of what we hear
    30% of what we see
    50% of what we see and hear
    70% of what we say
    90% of what we say as we

    Adults can learn by reading, listening and watching. But they will learn better if they are actively involved in the learning process.

    When the Student is Passive
    • "students are assumed to enter the course with minds like empty vessels or sponges to be filled with knowledge"
    • "traditional class": lecturing instructor verbalizing information to passive note-taking students
    • students remember only approx 10% of the content of each class session
    • mostly verbal lectures
    • instructor is "verbal" textbook
    • instructor reads definitions to the class
    • student is an "empty" vessel
    to be filled with knowledge
    • student is passive "tape recorder"
    • on exams, students regurgitate what the instructor tells them
    • students are expected to "record and absorb knowledge"

    When the Student is Actively Learning
    • The instructor strives to create "a learning environment in which the student can learn to restructure the new information and their prior knowledge into new knowledge about the content and to practice using it"
    • students activities during class time examples are
    o the Daily In-class Quizzes
    o the Modified Socratic Method
    • students are expected to look up definitions and vocabulary before and after class
    • students have the opportunity to remember up to 50% of the content of each class session
    • the instructor provides examples and illustrations of geologic concepts, processes and features
    o visual aids, demonstrations, etc., integrated into class presentations
    • the instructor explains concepts, principles and methods for geologic interpretation
    • students practice applying these skills to geologic interpretation
    • facts and concepts must be tested and used to be learned
    • students develop skills in constructing and using knowledge with the instructor's guidance”
    • various active learning methods, including lecturing
    • Students are expected to care deeply about their own education, learn to monitor and discuss their own learning, collaborate with other students to discover and construct a framework of knowledge that can be applied to new situations

    While practice is useful to reinforce learning, problem solving is not always suggested. Sweller (1988) suggests solving problems can even have negative influence on learning, instead he suggests that learners should study worked-examples, because this is a more efficient method of schema acquisition. So instructors are cautioned to give learners some basic or initial instruction first, perhaps to be followed up with an activity based upon the above methods.

    The efficacy of active instructional techniques has been questioned recently (Mayer, 2004; Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006). Certainly practicing procedural skills is a necessity for learning to be automated. But while these activities may be motivating for learners, these unguided situations can in fact leave learners less competent than when they began the activity (Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark, 2006).

    However, not all research supports Kirschner, Sweller, and Clark's views. For example, one 2007 study compared results for college students in six different versions of a computer literacy course. In some groups, instructional elements were left out (objectives, information, examples, practice with feedback, review). The "practice with feedback" is the active learning component of the study. The researchers found that in all cases, students who had practice with feedback had better performance and more positive attitudes than those students who did not have opportunities for practice.

    No doubt RLEs are an effective learning tool in active learning but it must be a balance of both as not all students are the same. Good students may create meaning from passive methods, but weak students do not. Both types of student improve their learning enormously when they are required to use it.

    References:

    Active learning From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Active_learning

    Interagency Alternative Dispute Resolution Working Group. Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.adr.gov/workplace/pdf/wp-reten.pdf

    Passive VS Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.csun.edu/science/ref/pedagogy/active-passive/active-passive-learning.html

    Geoff Petty. Teaching Today. Active Learning. Retrieved August 20, 2008 from: http://www.geoffpetty.com/activelearning.html


    Passive Learning:
    10% of what we read (reading)
    20% of what we hear (hearing words)
    30% of what we see (looking at pictures)
    50% of what we see and hear (watching a movies/video, looking at an exhibit, seeing a demonstration, seeing it done on location)

    Active Learning:
    70% of what we say (giving a talk, participating in a discussion)
    90% of what we say as we (doing a dramatic presentation, simulating the real experience, doing the real thing)

    A review of the evidence on active and passive learning in virtual environments (VEs) suggests that both conditions have shown superiority under some conditions of learning and testing, but there is no consistent outcome pattern. Measures of transfer between virtual and real environments have also revealed a variety of outcomes. Following either active or passive learning in a VE, experiment 1 assessed measures of orientation and distance estimation in that VE and in a real-world equivalent environment. On measures of direct and relative distance, more accurate estimates were found for active than passive VE explorers. A suggestion was also noted for the orientation estimates to benefit from real-world rather than VE testing. With an improvement to the procedure, experiment 2 found similar real versus virtual orientation judgments, suggesting that an opportunity for active learning during the test procedure probably influenced orientation measures in experiment 1. The effects of interactivity are unreliable and vary with the measures used, and that testing in virtual and real environments leads to similar outcomes.

    Clearly RLE is a combination of both active and passive and a balance of both must exist for learning to be effective.

    References:

    Active Learning. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from: http://courses.science.fau.edu/~rjordan/active_learning.htm

    Active versus passive learning and testing in a complex outside built environment
    Péruch, Patrick; Wilson, Paul Cognitive Processing, Volume 5, Number 4, December 2004 , pp. 218-227(10). Retrieved August 21, 2008 from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/klu/10339/2004/00000005/00000004/art00002
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    silva731

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    Post  silva731 on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 1:43 am

    In an a classroom, "passive-learning" approaches such as lecturing may still be a valid approach, but can frequently be best used to introduce basic concepts that are exercised with notebook-enhanced active-learning exercises. Active learning occurs when the student becomes more engaged with the course material.

    I just think to achieve a good learning experience, active and passive learning must be structured in a course design.
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    sdlopez02

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    Post  sdlopez02 on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 2:46 am

    Hello everyone,

    I would agree with everyone that Active learning is more favourable over Passive learning. As stated in this article, although neither course design have an advantage over the other on student grades, satisfaction, or perception of how a course was conducted, the students perceive active courses as relevant for their future in their career over passive learning. In my opinion, this perception of the usefulness of an instructional design as important to student's future plays a key role in the participation of the student in learning. For the student, it would help to know that such an instructional design wherein anyone could participate in a discussion would attract the student in favoring that kind of instructional design. This would be true especially for students who have that "initiative' and willingness to participate in a class.

    In an article by Debbie Carlton which observed learners exposed to passive and active learning it has concluded that passive learners were more likely to get distracted when completing a task if the context was not exactly as they experienced in facilitated instruction – and often lacked tolerance to adapt to changes in the learning environment. Passive learners also reported difficulties in determining relevant from irrelevant material, especially in understanding how new information applies to a job. Consequently, passive learners took excessive notes in class and delayed testing significantly, slowing the pace at which they completed content. Importantly, this group generally exhibited the same passive, risk-adverse behaviours in the post-graduate workplace.


    However, passive learning may have its advantages. In the Philippines, active learning may not be possible in many schools where there is large difference in the teacher to student ratio. Too, many participants with a single coordinator (instructor) would slow down learning. Also, dIfferent students have different rates of learning. So hypothetically, the gap of the number of recitations between the most participative and least participative students in the class would widen in relation to time. Here in this situation, i believe, would passive learning be effective where there is an even distribution of the teacher's attention for everyone in the class.

    Sources:
    Carlton, D. et al, The rise of the active learner. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from:
    www.humancapitalmanagement.org/pdf/Learning%2520%26%2520Development%2520-%2520Learning%2520Objectives.pdf+active+passive+learning&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=111&gl=ph" target="_blank" rel="nofollow">http://209.85.175.104/search?q=cache:NydkZjcZcMQJ:www.humancapitalmanagement.org/pdf/Learning%2520%26%2520Development%2520-%2520Learning%2520Objectives.pdf+active+passive+learning&hl=tl&ct=clnk&cd=111&gl=ph
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    sdlopez02

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    Post  sdlopez02 on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 3:11 am

    RLE is there to "put the theory into practice" and for students to experience and learn firsthand the valuable lessons of their actions and discoveries, rather than reading it from a book or hearing their teacher's experiences. It hones the qualities of students to develop initiative through self-discovery and self-evaluation of ones capability to perform duties.

    Factors that may prove RLE ineffective are the fault of the student or the instructor. As with any form of learning, it depends on the attitude of the student and the capability of the teacher to instruct for Significant learning to occur. The lack of initiative and/or interest of the student to learn or ineptitude of the instructor to supervise, delegate or even create an effective instructional tool would all hinder learning to take place in the RLE.

    REference:
    Wikipedia.org, Experential learning. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiential_learning
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    Kriselda Manzano

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    Post  Kriselda Manzano on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 3:13 am




    I agree with Joel. Like what I’ve
    said earlier combining teaching pedagogies will result to an effective
    learning. Educators must also assess student’s learning needs and cultural
    diversity to determine learning readiness. This was made true by the article
    that I read online.

    The teachers must master a repertoire of instructional methods and strategies,
    yet remain critical and reflective about their practice.
    Their professional responsibilities focus on
    educating students, in addition to participating in wider activities within the
    school and in partnership with parents and the community.
    Teachers also have the responsibility to challenge existing structures,
    practices, and definitions of knowledge; to invent and test new approaches;
    and, where necessary, to pursue organizational
    change in a constant attempt to improve the school.
    Accomplished teachers understand how students develop and learn.

    Therefore, these educators incorporate the prevailing theories of
    cognition and intelligence in their practice. In addition,
    they are aware of the influence of context
    and culture on behavior. Under these general circumstances,
    teachers develop students' cognitive capacity
    and their respect for learning. Equally important, they
    foster students' self-esteem, motivation, character, civic responsibility,
    and their respect for individual, cultural, religious,
    and racial differences (Early Childhood/Generalist Standards, 1998).

    Reference:
    National Board for
    Professional Teaching Standards, (Early Childhood/Generalist Standards,
    1998). Retrieved August 21, 2008 from http://www.intime.uni.edu/model/teacher/pedagogySummary.html




    silva731 wrote:In an a classroom, "passive-learning" approaches such as lecturing may still be a valid approach, but can frequently be best used to introduce basic concepts that are exercised with notebook-enhanced active-learning exercises. Active learning occurs when the student becomes more engaged with the course material.

    I just think to achieve a good learning experience, active and passive learning must be structured in a course design.
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    Divinia Joy Tuzon

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    Post  Divinia Joy Tuzon on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 5:52 am

    Thanks for your honest account Evan. In my case, I would have to say that as a student nurse before I practically learned the passive way too. The knowledge was entirely provided by our professors and though they encouraged and motivated us in the learning process, we still submissively accepted whatever they say and even deemed it as universal truths. But just like Cristina, I believe all of our undergrad schools applied both passive and active course designs, specifically in our RLE. I have to be honest that although I am personally aware that what my professors teach me and what I am practicing in the area are relevant events for my future, I had no time to reflect on all of those experiences as much as I really wanted to. I guess everyone would agree that as student nurses, we’re mostly preoccupied with getting good grades and passing our exams rather than understanding and giving meaning to our experiences at school. It is only now that I understand more and was able to appreciate both passive and active teaching styles. Grad school accentuates active learning more by allowing us to create our own paradigm of knowledge specifically through responding and interacting with diverse group of people and with our environment too.


    evancarlo wrote:Going back to my undergrad days, i can say that i learn RLE in a passive way. During those times, they will only provide us, teach us hte concepts, show us only once a certain nursing skill, and that expectations from them are very high, wherein in my own point of view, few of those information retained in my mind. i have to ask my classmates to sleep over n our house just to practice that skill. It never helped me at all, but one thing passing style taught me, is to exert more effort, if you want to learn, then you have to be independent.

    Through the use of guided practice, it will enhance the students mind to think critically in a given situation and will enhaned their nursing skills.

    Return Demonstration as far as i can see is a means of evaluating the students performance in doing the skill. Assumptions for the students who pass the R.D. is that they know the skill but we dont have a means to gauge how much did they learn in RLE. - This of course is my own point of view

    Josh wrote:Ideally, RLE courses should be presented to students in experential method of teaching, i would like to ask everyone, as nurses how did you learn RLE? Traditional way or the active learning approach way? is the mere return-demonstration in RLE an Active learning approach?
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    Kriselda Anne Moreno

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    Post  Kriselda Anne Moreno on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 7:04 am

    A pleasant morning to everyone!

    The article shows the different types of course designs and subtypes. In order to fully understand this, we must then go back to what we have learned in our face-to-face discussion in Instructional Design. Learning styles is the method of educating, particular to an individual that is presumed to allow that individual to learn best. (Wikipedia, 2008) As what Sir Butcon has emphasized, there are different kinds of learners as well. There are students who learn best with visuals, which learn based from experience, who learn with the incorporation of movement, who learn through music, and so on. Addressing the needs of all kinds of learners is a challenge for educators in any school. (Winter, 2004) Now, going back to the two different types of course design, the active and the passive. I, as a student, have encountered these two designs in my undergraduate and graduate days. Both have advantages and disadvantages as well.

    The active learning allows learner’s participation throughout the process of teaching. Studies show that students can lose interest and become bored if not actively engaged in the learning process. Active learning techniques can

    •give students time to process material.
    •help students link new material to previous knowledge.
    •reinforce lecture content by providing a context in which to apply material.
    •give students an opportunity to check their understanding of material.

    Though active learning includes experiential and participative approach, not all learners benefit in this way. There are learners who learn better with the use of visual aids, or the traditional lecture way. I think this is the down side of it.

    The passive course design, however, provides lecture based learning. Lecture is an efficient way to deliver content. It can provide important background information, introduce new material, and set the stage for activities or discussion. However, when lecture is continuous without time allowed for student processing, students may have difficulty understanding and retaining material. Though lecture type can be beneficial especially with the written examinations or board exam.

    If I may be given the chance to become a nurse educator, I wouldn’t stick with only one type of course design. Quoting Sir Butcon, you should be able to touch at least three types of learners in your lecture to be an effective educator.

    RLE, I believe, is a form of experiential learning. In this, we apply what we have learned in the classroom into the real world. For example, we are taught on how to get the vital signs of a patient, and how to determine if it’s within the normal range or beyond, we then apply it to our patients in the hospital setting. For me, experience is indeed the best teacher, as what Sir Josh has mentioned. I learn a lot in experiences, be it clinical or personal. But again, the effectiveness of this type of learning depends on what kind of learner you are, and the effectiveness of each type of learning also depends on the attitude and the level of acceptance of new pedagogical approach of every learner.

    References:
    Wikipedia, 2008. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Learning_styles

    Winter, 2004. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from http://cache.search.yahoo.net/search/cache?ei=UTF-8&p=kinds+of+learners&fr=moz2&u=www.allkindsofminds.org/documents/shibboley1.pdf&w=kinds+kind+learners+learner&d=EOgv4Bg5RKFs&icp=1&.intl=us

    Retrieved August 21, 2008 from http://www.iupui.edu/~idd/active_learning/1_5.html
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    Kriselda Anne Moreno

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    Post  Kriselda Anne Moreno on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 7:05 am

    I agree with you. Exactly what I wanted to say. Thank you.

    sdlopez02 wrote:RLE is there to "put the theory into practice" and for students to experience and learn firsthand the valuable lessons of their actions and discoveries, rather than reading it from a book or hearing their teacher's experiences. It hones the qualities of students to develop initiative through self-discovery and self-evaluation of ones capability to perform duties.

    Factors that may prove RLE ineffective are the fault of the student or the instructor. As with any form of learning, it depends on the attitude of the student and the capability of the teacher to instruct for Significant learning to occur. The lack of initiative and/or interest of the student to learn or ineptitude of the instructor to supervise, delegate or even create an effective instructional tool would all hinder learning to take place in the RLE.

    REference:
    Wikipedia.org, Experential learning. Retrieved August 21, 2008 from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Experiential_learning
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    ianenguerra

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    Post  ianenguerra on Thu 21 Aug 2008, 7:09 am

    As we close this discussion today. I hope every one of us will learn from this forum. In the future each one of us will encounter difficulties when it comes to teaching styles. With this topic I hope every one of us enlighten their minds just like what Sir josh said, assessment on students educational learning needs should be assessed first. As a nursing process always assessment is the first thing we need to do before we can make plan. In this topic we need to assess the learner’s ability before we can decide what kind of strategy we can use to be effective in learning. Such thing, we should recognize that each person prefers different learning styles and techniques.

    Everyone once again thank you for your participation in this wonderful and fruitful flower discussion

    -- Ian Enguerra --


    Very Happy I love you sunny

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