E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning



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    Join date : 2009-06-21


    Post  jcfad on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 1:09 am

    AQUINO, Camille
    FADERA, Juan Carlo
    LACISTE, Chloe


    Nurses must be at pace with the demands of evolving complex needs of the Health Care Consumers. However, being boxed with the traditional method of teaching wherein the teachers think of students’ minds as Tabula rasa is still prevalent. Students are still regarded as passive (sponge and absorbent napkins) and solely depend on the knowledge content of what teacherrs want to teach. The focus is drawn away from what the learners need to know. Most teachers would focus on imparting the saturated information and leaving the task of choosing what is relevant to students. This teaching style may not prepare students with the challenges they may face with the current trends in the Health Care because these traditional structure uses repetition, recitation and memorization and not actual application of knowledge. (Bewis and Watson, 1989).

    Recent innovation on Nursing Education promotes the shift from teaching-centered to learning-centered teaching style. Learning-Centered focuses on the needs of the students rather than the amount of content. It postulates that each student are different individuals that has unique motivational ways of learning, has their own past experiences, personal development and performance and broadening learning experience is vital to enhance learning (Candela L. and Dalley, K. et.al, 2006). To be able to identify these factors that determine learners’ abilities assessment and evaluation strategies should be implemented (Candela, 2004).

    To develop critical-thinking skills, educators must employ student-centered learning because this fosters independent learning (Schaefer and Zygmont, 2003, Girot, 1995). Such activities like reflective journals, case studies and groupworks are instrumental in development of critical thinking skills ( Schaefe and Zygmont, 2003).

    According to Maslow’s (1970) Theory of Human Motivation, Intrinsic Motivation while Mullins (1996), Motivation is acquired through intrinsic factors, which constitutes the driving force of the learner to learn and Extrinsic Factors that relates the learner to its environment that he or she have no control. In the recent study conducted by Nilsson, K. (2008) et.al, the main motivation factor was Extrinsic factors and Goal Oriented; namely becoming a nurse and they saud that female students are more motivated than men.

    Therefore, with the vast number of new Nurses locally raises the question which nursing school produces the best wave of graduates equipped with therapeutic nurse – patient relationships, critical thinking skills, and global competitiveness in accordance to Nursing Process. This relies on each institution’s choice of curriculum.

    Guide Questions:
    1. Differentiate Teacher-centered from Learning-Centered curriculum and identify advantages and disadvantages of both.

    2. Based on your undergraduate years, what motivated you to learn? Would you suggest these factors? Which will be used for development of course curriculum.


    1. Schaefer K.M., and Zygmont, D. (2003). Analyzing the Teaching Style of Nursing Faculty: Does it Promote a Student-Centered or Teacher-Centered Learning Environment?. Nursing Education Perspectives. 24(5), 238-245. Retrieved April 6, 2010 via EBSCOHost

    2. Tanner, C. (2004). The Meaning of Curriculum Content to be Covered or Stories to be Heard?. Journal of Nursing Education. 43(1), 3-4. Retrieved April 6, 2010 via EBSCOHost

    3. Murphy, F. (2006). Motivation in Nurse Education Practice: A Case Study Approach. Bristish Journal of Nursing. 15(20), 1132-1135. Retrieved April 6, 2010 via EBSCOHost

    4. Nilsson, K. and Stomberg, M. (2008). Nursing Students Motivation Toward their Studies – A Survey Study. BMC Nursing. 7(6), 1472-6955. Retrieved April 6, 2010 via EBSCOHost

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    Post  izatherese on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 12:54 pm

    Journal Response by: GROUP 3
    JUCO, Melissa Frances R.
    MANANQUIL, Ann Marby
    MARASIGAN, Iza Therese C.
    MEDALLA, Jerrick
    * MELICOR, Abigail


    For the past centuries, the traditional lecture model was practiced in the Nursing academe. It was believed to be effective for proficiently disseminating a number of profound knowledge to a large number of Nursing students. The students then were compelled to listen and absorb whatever the person in front of them speaks of. Learning was limited to only one direction; therefore, students have become passive and superficial in learning. (Bransford, et al., 2000) This one-way approach failed to stimulate the drive, confidence, and enthusiasm of students to learn. As a result, the traditional lecture format can often lead them to finish their undergraduate Nursing education without knowledge and skills that are important for professional success. This consequence presents the need for changes in the lecture approach to promote meaningful learning, problem solving, and critical thinking for a diversity of students. (Armbruster, et al., 2009)

    Since the undergraduate students are the recipients of education, it is only proper that they should be the core consideration in making, providing and teaching any Nursing concept. The individualized differences of each student should always be regarded by the educators. Given the rapid development of new technology, students need to become lifelong learners rather than allowed to learn only to pass the curriculum if they are to become competent and well-rounded nurses who provide quality care to their future patients. (Cheang, et al., 2008)

    Various factors influence student motivation. Students can become intrinsically motivated or extrinsically motivated. If the motivation comes from within, the students have developed an interest in deepening their knowledge and achieving competence (ie, A student considers a bad comment as a good critic to further improve himself). If their motivation comes from any external stimulus, their desire to develop competence can shift towards likely or unlikely behavior, depending on the way this stimulus moved (ie, A student can become alienated to the subject he/she loves when a professor gives a grade he/she thinks he does not deserve).

    Learner-centered approach is a means in which students have the power to control the learning process. With this, professors function as facilitators rather than lecturers. In this way, “teachers become guides” while “students become explorers”. This form of instruction also reinforces students to participate in their education; as opposed to the passive role traditionally practiced traditionally. Learner-centered approach can also promote more in-depth learning experience for students to develop into independent learners. (Cheang, et al., 2008)

    Learner-centered approach can inculcate in students the value of active learning. Active learning can be defined as “seeking new knowledge, relating its meaning to life experiences and having the chance to discuss and expound it to others.” This approach emphasizes the need for interactions with peers and facilitators so they can be given consistent opportunities to apply whatever experiences, learnings and insights they gained. By putting students at the center of instruction, the focus from teaching shifts to learning. This can promote a learning environment conducive for students to become independent and critical thinkers. (Armbruster, et al., 2009)

    To differentiate the two approaches presented earlier, Huba and Freed presented a table entitled, “Comparison of Teacher-centered and Learner-centered paradigms”

    Teacher-Centered Paradigm
    - Knowledge is transmitted from professor to students
    - Students are passive during lectures.
    - Emphasis is on gaining knowledge outside the context used.
    - Professor’s role is to be primary information giver and primary evaluator.
    disadvantage: students are not given opportunities to become independent
    - Teaching and assessing are separate
    - Assessment is used to monitor learning
    - Emphasis is on right answers without enough empirical data
    - Desired learning is assessed through the use of objective tests only
    - Culture is competitive and distinctive
    - One-way learning (only the students learn)

    Learner-Centered Paradigm
    - Students construct knowledge through gathering and synthesizing information and integrating it with the general skills of inquiry, communication, critical thinking, problem solving and so on.
    - Students take part in activities and lectures.
    - Emphasis is on using and communicating knowledge effectively as they apply and resolve enduring and emerging issues and problems in real-life contexts
    - Professor’s role is to coach and facilitate. Professor and students evaluate learning together.
    - Teaching and assessing are interconnected
    - Assessment is used to promote and diagnose learning
    - Emphasis is on learning from errors, generating better questions, and adding supplemental information
    - Desired learning is assessed through paperworks, projects, performances, etc.
    - Culture is participative, supportive, and collaborative
    - Mutual learning (Instructors and students learn simultaneously)

    According to the journal written by Haidet, et al., learning becomes effective if the three general areas are present; namely (1) role modeling (2) students' experiences; and (3) “support for students' behaviors.” This is what our group visions to see. Since we are the 21st century learners, the group has experienced both teaching methods in our undergraduate education. The transition from traditional-centered to learner-centered has not been fully established yet. Our group recommends that instructors and nurse managers be open to changes and be up-to-date with the latest trends to facilitate improved teaching and learning for them and for the students. The learning will be continuous and rich when two parties involved participate in making this possible.

    Armbruster, P., et al. (2009). Active Learning and Student-centered Pedagogy Improve Student Attitudes
    and Performance in Introductory Biology. Retrieved April 7, 2010. From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2736024/?tool=pmcentrez

    Bransford, J. D., et al. (2000). How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School. Committee on
    Developments in the Science of Learning. Washington, DC: National Academies Press.

    Cheang, K. (2008). Effect of Learner-Centered Teaching on Motivation and Learning Strategies in a Third-Year Pharmacotherapy Course. Retrieved April 7, 2010. From

    Huba and Freed.(2000). Comparison of Teacher-centered and Learner-centered paradigms. Retrieved
    April 7, 2010. from http://www.assessment.uconn.edu/docs/TeacherCenteredVsLearnerCenteredParadigms.pdf

    Haidet, P., et al. (2006).Not the Same Everywhere: Patient-Centered Learning Environments at Nine
    Medical Schools. Retrieved April 7, 2010. From http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1484792/?tool=pmcentrez

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    Join date : 2009-06-21


    Post  joyhn on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 1:13 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    Aurora Boulevard, Quezon City

    Alvarez, Efren Jr. F.
    Facto, Christian Jay J.
    Monterozo, Mary Lynn R.
    Nidar, Joy H.


    Teacher-centered and Learning-Centered curriculum has a philosophical differences. It drives the behavior, so when it comes to your teaching style, it is important to have a deep understanding of your own belief system. Your view of learning, students' roles, and teachers' roles determine the method by which you teach. Like the types of activities you create, the layout of your classroom, the way students learn with you, how you prepare for class and also how to make the most of your style.

    No matter how smart a student is, he can't learn everything in the four corners of a classroom. And no book or teacher has all the information a student looks for. If such is the case, it is a waste and unjust for students to be bombarded with information and expected to retain all of them when quite possibly more than half of it can't be transmutable to real world challenges.

    Learner-centered classrooms focus primarily on individual students' learning. The teacher's role is to facilitate growth by utilizing the interests and unique needs of students as a guide for meaningful instruction. Student-centered classrooms are by no means characterized by a free-for-all (Mawhinney et al. 2002) but rather it helps the students in knowledge integration (Wohlfarth, et al., 2008). The learner-centered approach enhances critical-thinking skills, attitudes and intrinsic motivation. It is reported that student themselves realize the effectiveness of this (Cheang, 2009). The development critical thinking skills and self-management abilities can spell success in the “real world” compared being an extraordinary test taker (Wohlfarth, et al., 2008).

    The problem with reflective journals, case studies and groupworks is, ironically, with the students. Resistance in the use of groupwork in the forms of disinterest, time conflicts, slackers, fear of slackers, fear of being labeled a slacker, interpersonal conflicts, and the "only-child" syndrome poses a problem in the effectiveness of this method (Monk-Turner, 2005). Many find those activities to be hard and tedious, not realizing the effects in their learning and critical thinking skill.

    These classrooms are goal-based. Students' learning is judged by whether they achieve predetermined, developmentally-oriented objectives. In essence, everyone can earn an A by mastering the material. Because people learn best when they hear, see, and manipulate variables, the method by which learning occurs is oftentimes experiential. (Dolence M. G. 2003).

    Curriculum-centered classrooms focus essentially on teaching the curriculum. The teacher determines what ought to be taught, when, how, and in what time frame. The curriculum that must be covered throughout the year takes precedence. These classes often require strict discipline because children's interests are considered only after content requirements are established. (Wang X. nd). Traditional methods can be seen in the curricula, for example, of Nursing Colleges. Curricula are more focused in the theories (for the preparation for the Licensure Exam) rather than skill training.

    With the new generation of teachers who have the understanding of new methods of teaching, teaching-centered style will likely be replaced by the learning-centered style. Understandably this will be a possibly slow process since those who are used to the old style might find it hard (or reluctant) to shift styles. And those who are starting to practice the new style still need to gain more experience and master this style to make the most out of it.


    Dolence M. G. (2003). The Learner-Centered Curriculum Model: A Structured Framework for Technology Planning. Educause Center For Applied Research, 17. Retrieved April 7, 2010.

    Wang X., nd. Curriculum Design Model and The Enlightenment. East China Normal University. Retrieved April 7, 2010 from http://educ-calvin2.lsu.edu

    Mawhinney H., Fruciante A., Aaron P., Liu Y. (2002). Design Principles for Learning-Centered Schools: Building Effective Strategies for Addressing the Achievement Gap. Council of Educational Administrative and Supervisory Organizations of Maryland. Retrieved April 7, 2010.

    Wohlfarth, D., Sheras, D., Bennett, J., Simon, B., Pimentel, J., and Gabel, L. (2008). Student Perceptions of Learner-Centered Teaching. InSight: A Journal of Scholarly Teaching Vol.3, 67-74. Retrieved on April 7, 2010.

    Cheang, K. (2009). Effect of Learner-Centered Teaching on Motivation and Learning
    Strategies in a Third-Year Pharmacotherapy Course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 73 (3) Article 42. Retrieved on April 7, 2010 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2703280/pdf/ajpe42.pdf/?tool=pmcentrez.

    Monk-Turner, Elizabeth. (2005). Students' aversions to group work The Free Library. Retrieved April 07, 2010 from http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Students' aversions to group work-a0138703706

    Last edited by joyhn on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 1:15 pm; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : edit format)

    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2009-09-24


    Post  purplemarge on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 2:26 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    Aurora Boulevard, Quezon City

    Group 1
    Castellano, Katrina
    Gonzales, Charise
    Galvez, Maria Lourdes
    Ochona, Zacchari Andrei

    Nurses must be able to anticipate and manage the care of patients with complex conditions in a rapidly changing, highly technological health care environment. Moreover, some nursing programs are failing to cater what students need in a learning environment (Blumberg P. 2008). It is important for us to evaluate what motivates each individual to learn, although sources of motivation is complex. The motivation to learn is personal and comes from within an individual, but can be influenced by external factors (Frith C. 2000). In the past, students motivations was dependent upon the importance to them of improving the value of the class and future classes, and the expectation that their formative feedback would lead to increased value for them (Caulfield, 2007). Students are motivated when teachers value their contribution of information whether if it’s wrong or not. Students also gains motivation when they think the teachers exerts effort for them to learn. So teachers must use the feedback from learners to develop and know what the main interests of the students are so that the discussion will be both beneficial with each other because learning is a lifelong process.

    Learner-centered teaching is an approach to teaching that is increasingly being encouraged in higher education. Learner-centered teachers do not employ a single teaching method. This approach emphasizes a variety of different types of methods that shifts the role of the instructors from givers of information to facilitators of student learning. Traditionally instructors focused on what they did, and not on what the students are learning. This emphasis on what instructors do often leads to students who are passive learners and who did not take responsibility for their own learning. Educators call this traditional method, “instructor-centered teaching.” In contrast, “learner-centered teaching” occurs when instructors focus on student learning. (Blumberg P. 2008). According to Dolence (2003), The Learner-Centered Curriculum (LCC) is a framework to guide the design, delivery of curriculum, development & the infrastructure that supports it with services that make it work.

    When it comes to teacher-centered versus learner-centered curriculum, the prime focus is on the instructor while in learner-centered, the focus is on both students and instructor. The language forms and structures is center on the instructor. It is about what the instructor knows about the language and where all the talking is done by the teacher and all the students do is listening. On the other hand, in learned-centered, the language use in typical situations. In teacher centered, The students here work alone, there are no group work or discussion being made The instructor chooses topics to discuss and can form a boundary on where to stop or limit the discussion. Instructor also evaluates student learning without the students evaluating their own learning.; this is exactly the opposite in the learner-centered. In learner-centered approach, the students talk without constant instructor monitoring, and then the instructor provides feedback. Students have some choices of topics. Also, students evaluate their own learning so as the instructor. One of the most noticeable characteristic is that in a teacher- centered curriculum the classroom is usually quiet and in learner-centered the classroom is often noisy and busy. Undeniably the advantages of Learner-centered curriculum out run the advantages of Teacher –centered Curriculum without us pinpointing the obvious effects it will do to the learning of the students.

    In conclusion, the teacher-centered and learner centered curriculum debate is far from over. Those on the more conservative subject-centered side typically argue that educational problems can only be solved with the “back to basics,” one size fits all core curriculum. Educators usually reject this radical approach to favor a more learner-centered curriculum that builds on student interest guided by established principles and innovative teaching. (Donal P, 2008). Gone are the days where student were empty vessels in which teachers pour knowledge and they are dependent upon the primary instruction method of lecture (Visel, 2006). With the type of students today, teachers must facilitate and support the already existing knowledge of learners to bring the desired learning outcomes (Shuh, 2003).


    Blumberg, P. (2008). Learning Centered Teaching. Developing Learner-Centered Teachers: A Practical Guide for Faculty. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass

    Bruning, R.; Horn, C. 2000. Developing motivation to write. Educational psychologist (Hillsdale, NJ), vol. 35, no. 1, p. 25–37.

    Caulfield, J. (2007) what motivates students to provide feedback to teachers about teaching and learning? An expectancy theory perspective. International journal for scholarship of teaching and learning. Vol1, no 1

    Dolence M (2003) The Learner-Centered Curriculum Model: A Structured Framework for Technology Planning ; Educause Center for Applied Research

    Donal, P (2008). The American Teacher: Foundation of Education, Taylor & Francis Publishing, page 165- 168

    Frith C(2000) . Motivation to Learn: Educational Communications and Technology
    University of Saskatchewan p. 11-13

    Schuh, K. (2003), Knowledge construction in the Learner-centered classroom, journal of educational psychology 2003, vol. 95, no. 2, 426-442 copyright 2003 by American psychological association, Inc.
    Visel, T. (2006), a look at curriculum alignment with state standards a transition in instruction strategies. Connecticut’s common core learning ct state board of education 1998 revised 2006.

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    Join date : 2009-06-21


    Post  arneljamolangue on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 4:39 pm

    University of the East
    Graduate School

    AQUINO, Camille
    FADERA, Juan Carlo
    LACISTE, Chloe

    Reply to Posts

    In Learning centered approach, the educator should be the one who will create environment wherein students will have leeway to assess themselves and identify their preferences in learning. Like constructivist approach in learning, learning needs is highly subjective and personalized in nature and educators should recognize that fact. “Students are active participant in determining the most appropriate teaching style the suit their needs”, according to one of the respondents in the study conducted by Schaefer & Zygmont (2003). The role of educator is work hand in hand on the journey of learning keeping in mind that they still have impose independence to their students.

    Learning-centered approach enhances critical thinking skills and motivates students. Focusing on what the students ‘interpretation of experience over a didactic teaching style that foster habitual-stiff thinking will equip students to the future we can barely imagine.

    Tanner, C. (2004). The meaning of curriculum: content to be covered or stories to be heard?. Journal of Nursing Education, Vol. 43 (1). Retrieved April 06, 2010 from CINAHL database.
    Schaefer, K. & Zygmont, D. (2003). Analyzing the teaching style of nursing faculty: Does it promote a student-centred or teacher centred learning environment?. Nursing Education Perspectives, Vol. 24(5). Retrieved from April 7, 2010 from CINAHL databse.
    Senge, P. (2006). The Fifth Discipline: The Art and Practice of the Learning Organization. New York: Currency-Doubleday.
    Stevens, J. & Brenner S. (2009). The Peer active learning approach for clinical education: Pilot study. Journal of Theory construction and Testing, 13 (2): 51-6. Retrived April 5, 2010 from CINAHL databse.

    Last edited by arneljamolangue on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 4:41 pm; edited 1 time in total (Reason for editing : additional)

    Posts : 12
    Join date : 2009-06-20


    Post  krisna on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 4:43 pm

    GROUP 2:

    “Learner-centered approach is a means in which students have the power to control the learning process”

    We totally agree to the statement above. It is because learning-centered approach has its heart on the learners rather than on the teaching, curriculum and instruction, or administrative instruction (Dolence, 2003). The said approach would address the current concerns of the teachers and/ or faculties regarding to the students learning enthusiasm and style.

    The teacher’s role in student-centered learning environment is as a facilitator and guide, the students have the power to control their own learning. Learning may be independent, collaborative, cooperative and competitive. Handing out and processing of information is important and students are engaged in creating their own knowledge. (Theroux,2002).

    Teachers that utilize this method effectively is constantly on the move. They may be engaged with the students as a classroom collective, individually or in groups. Their involvement would include questioning, disciplining, guiding, validating, monitoring, motivating, encouraging, suggesting, modeling and clarifying (McKenzie,2002).

    To facilitate an effective learning, according to Comb (1976), a student should be able to explore the new learning. The set up of the class should allow the students to be involved in the context, interact and socialize to others. Another point would be, to be able the student to experience and apply the learning. This would allow the students not only to receive the information being given but to be able to incorporate their past experiences with this first hand experience.

    Also, to give emphasis that this learning should facilitate a personal touch of the students personal ability to acquire this new learning with his own style and pace of learning (cited in the article of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory).

    Furthermore, Manzano, R. stated in the A Different Kind of Classroom (1992), postulated that to be able to develop a learning centered classroom one should be able to provide: (cited in the article of the North Central Regional Educational Laboratory).
    a. Instruction must reflect the best of what we know about how learning occurs.

    b. Learning involves a complex system of interactive processes that includes five types of thinking - the five dimensions of learning.

    c. What we know about learning indicates that instruction focusing on large, interdisciplinary curricular themes is the most effective way to promote learning.

    d. The K-12 curriculum should include explicit teaching of higher-level attitudes and perceptions and mental habits that facilitate learning.

    e. A comprehensive approach to instruction includes at least two distinct types of instruction: teacher-directed and student-directed.

    f. Assessment should focus on students' use of knowledge and complex reasoning rather than their recall of low-level information.

    To conclude, learning centered approach makes the student to develop its critical thinking ability, provide them to be active in the learning process, promoted more in-depth learning and facilitated students’ development into independent learners (Cheang, 2008).

    Dolence M. G. (2003). The Learner-Centered Curriculum Model: A Structured Framework for Technology Planning. Educause Center For Applied Research, 17. Retrieved April 7, 2010.

    North Central Regional Educational Laboratory (no date). Learner-Centered Classrooms, Problem-Based Learning, and the Construction of Understanding and Meaning by Students. Retrieved April 7, 2010 from http://www.ncrel.org/sdrs/areas/issues/content/cntareas/science/sc3learn.htm

    Cheang, K. (2008). Effect of Learner-Centered Teaching on Motivation and Learning Strategies in a Third-Year Pharmacotherapy Course. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education 73:3. Retrieved April 7, 2010 from PubMed Central Database.

    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2010-04-06


    Post  aldrinvallarta on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 5:06 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    Aquino, Felix
    Magdael, Kaye
    Sarmiento, Noel
    Vallarta, Aldrin

    The changing demographics of the learners and the increasing consumer/client-centred culture in today’s society have posted a challenge to teacher-centred curriculum to meet the increasingly diverse needs of students and make the required prorams for achievement gains. Thus, problems may exist when the teaching styles will not meet the students’ learning styles and learning capabilities which will results in limited acquisition of knowledge. Learner-centeredness was developed as a model for countering classroom challenges because of its viability on meeting the diverse needs of students. However, different authors use different definition of student-centred learning as some equate it with ‘active learning’, while others take a more comprehensive definition including: active learning, choice in learning, and the shift of power in the teacher-student relationship (Mc Mahon, & O’Neill, 2005). Therefore, overused of term ‘student-centred learning’ can mean different things to different people which can lead to confusion.

    To have a better grasp of what is student-centred learning is and how beneficial it is, determining the differences between traditional (teacher-centred curriculum) and student-centred learning must be done.
    In both approaches, learners play a vital role in improving their achievement. The learner-centred approach places responsibility for knowing individual learner capabilities and creating an environment where learners can make learning. This approach is goal-based. Learners are evaluated by whether they achieve the set objectives. In other words, everyone receives a high grade by mastering the material. The teacher-centred approach, however, places control for learning in the hands of the teacher. The teacher uses her expertise in content knowledge to help learners make connections. The effort to get to know the learner and how he processes information is secondary. In this approach, students are compared with one another. Student's achievement is judged in comparison with how well others do. A fixed standard of achievement does not necessarily exist (Teachervision.fen.com2010).

    In order to have a clear picture of differences of two approaches, think about the structure of each:
    Information-age model-----Factory model
    Criterion-based-----Norm (bell curve) based
    Thematic integration-----Single subjects
    Process- and product-oriented-----Product-oriented
    Block scheduling-----Short time periods
    Collaboration-----Isolated teaching and learning
    Experiential knowledge-----Rote knowledge

    Many teachers fall somewhere in the middle of this continuum. Teachers use what works for them based on their fundamental belief structures (Teachervision.fen.com2010).

    In today’s society where choice and democracy are vital concepts, use of student-centred learning as an effective approach to learning becomes more evident. According Lea et al. (2003) who reviewed several studies on student-centred learning, it was an effective approach. Students in a UK University elaborated on the impact of student-centred learning on them, i.e. they felt there was more respect for the student in this approach, that it was more interesting, exciting, and it boosted their confidence (Lea et al., 2003).

    However, student-centred learning goes without some criticisms. The main critique of student-centred learning is its focus on the individual learner ( Mc Mahon, & O’Neill G.,2005). Moreover, certain factors exist which make this approach to learning difficult to implement. O’Sullivan (2003) described student-centred learning as a Western approach to learning and may not necessarily transfer to the developing countries where there are limited resources and different learning cultures. In addition, students who value or have experienced more teacher-focused approaches, may reject the student-centred approach as frightening or indeed not within their remit. Prosser and Trigwell’s (2002) work in higher education emphasises the different belief systems held by staff and students. They found that lecturers with a teacher-centred approach to teaching held views that students should accommodate information rather than developing and changing their conceptions and understanding. The reverse was true for those with more student-centred approaches to their teaching.

    It has been discussed that student-centred learning is an effective approach in teaching students even though criticisms exist. In general, it has been seen to be a positive experience.
    ‘Placing learners at the heart of the learning process and meeting their needs, is taken to a progressive step in which learner-centred approaches mean that persons are able to learn what is relevant for them in ways that are appropriate. Waste in human and educational resources is reduced as it suggested learners no longer have to learn what they already know or can do, nor what they are uninterested in’.—(Edwards, 2001)


    Edwards, R. (2001). Meeting individual learner needs: power, subject, subjection. In C. Paechter, M. Preedy, D. Scott, and J. Soler (Eds.), Knowledge, Power and Learning. London: SAGE

    Lea, S. J., D. Stephenson, and J. Troy (2003). Higher Education Students’ Attitudes to Student Centred Learning: Beyond ‘educational bulimia’. Studies in Higher Education 28(3), 321-334

     Mc Mahon, T. & O’Neill G. (2005).Student-centred learning: What does it mean for students and lecturers?Retrieved on April 7, 2010 at http://www.aishe.org/readings/2005-1/oneill-mcmahon-Tues_19th_Oct_SCL.html

    O’Sullivan, M. (2003). The reconceptualisation of learner-centred approaches: A Nambian case study. International Journal of Educational Development. In Press.

    Prosser, K. and M. Trigwell (2002). Experiences of teaching in Higher Education. In Understanding Learning and Teaching: The Experience of Higher Education. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.

    Teachervision.fen.com.(2010). Learner-Centered vs. Curriculum-Centered Teachers: Which Type Are You?. Retrieved on April 7, 2010 at http://www.teachervision.fen.com/teaching-methods-and-management/curriculum-planning/4786.html?page=2&detoured=1

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