E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning

    Is this teaching at students or teaching with students?


    Posts : 4
    Join date : 2010-04-06

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    Post  aldrinvallarta on Sun 11 Apr 2010, 3:24 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    Group 6
    Aquino, Felix
    Magdael, Kaye
    Sarmiento, Noel
    Vallarta, Aldrin

    E-learning: Is this teaching at students or teaching with students?
    Robert John Muirhead, BN, RGN, RSCN

    Today, education has become a commodity in which people seek to devote for their own personal gain, to ensure equality of opportunity and as a course to a better life.

    According to Goddard (2001) the demand for higher education is expanding exponentially throughout the world and by 2025 as many as 150 million people will be seeking Higher Education. This increase in demand is widely attributed to the changing culture of employment, where a job for life is no longer the norm and to the advent of the so-called ‘knowledge-driven society’ (Katz, 2001). Society requires higher levels of skills and qualifications to fill the same ‘worthwhile’ jobs, and individuals see education as a status provider. Volery and Lord (2000) point to the capacity constraints and resource limitations that can be overcome through the implementation of eLearning, creating a new opportunity to satisfy this growing demand.

    In higher education, a combination of pedagogical and andragogical principles are utilized to fully develop ones potential. According to National Comittee of Enquiry into Higher Education (2001), more than 50% of higher education students are mature students (someone who starts a degree aged 21 or over). Knowles' theory of andragogy is an attempt to develop a theory specifically for adult learning. Adults are self-directed and expect to take responsibility for decisions. (Reischmann, 2004). They need to know why they need to know something, for what purpose, and they learn best when the topic is of substantial value. Adult learning programs such as higher education must accommodate this fundamental aspect. However, pedagogy embodies teacher-focused education. In the pedagogic model, teachers assume responsibility for making decisions about what will be learned, how it will be learned, and when it will be learned. (Learning and Skills Improvement Service, 2010).
    However, development of e-learning solely relies on the theory of pedagogy because some of andragogical strategies cannot be transferred to e-learning (Muirhead, 2007). According to Muirhead (2007) pedagogy alone is associated with vocational learning and not with higher education. . Therefore, pedagogy of e-learning will may provide a strong grasp on a subject matter but may also limit development of students’ critical thinking.

    There is, however, another revolution taking place in educational circles that could aid in developing a greater e-learning for higher education, with its new set of principles and practices that may have application across the whole spectrum of the education and learning lifespan. Heutagogy comprises self-determined learning as a process. It is seen to provide a twofold opportunity to learner’s, which means they can simultaneously focus on their learning, their experiences and the process itself. Heutogogy is seen to go beyond the levels of problem-solving, extending the learning proactively and action learning, giving the learner the opportunity to develop self-efficacy and capability, using skills such as: reflection; environmental scanning; value experience; and, interact with others. As a relatively new theory, it adds to andragogy by giving special emphasis to one of its cardinal principles, self-directed learning. Heutagogy follows principles that aid in student learning. These principles include learning how to learn, double loop learning, universal learning opportunities, nonlinear process, and true learner self-direction (Isenberg, 2007). It provides a context for e-learning that puts the adult in charge of “much more than whether they press the forward or back button. Heutogogy puts the learner truly in control of what they learn and when. However, the vast majority of e-learning still does not even approach being self-¬directed.

    In conclusion, truly e-learning answers the need of society in terms providing a new teaching style for higher education. Though utilization of e-learning is world renowned, inadequacy of theory that should support this new kind of teaching exist such as andragogical principles that are needed for it to more become suitable to the adult students who will enrol the course in higher education . The new learning theory heutogogy emphasizes andragogy’s self-directed learning principle and is advancing the thinking for e-learning. The learner must be in charge of what they will learn, when they will learn, and how they will learn it.

    Due to the weakness of eLearning as a new style of teaching, educators can compensate through combining eLearning and face-to-face education. Foundation courses should be provided locally and delivered face to face for those who need them. Through this combination, higher learning can be acquired by the students. The results of this higher learning would be very beneficial to students, to the patients and even in the nursing profession.

    Guide questions:

    1. With increase demand for higher education, is there any other way of answering this demand other than using e-learning?
    2. What is/are advantage of using e-learning as a medium of teaching?
    3. What is/are the teaching techniques that can be used in delivering e-learning courses?
    4. What is/are the implications that e-learning poses to the students, faculty staff, and the institution offering e-learning courses
    5. How can a combination of pedagogy and andragogy style of teaching prepare nurses in their practices?
    6. Explain each principle under heutagogy.


    Goddard, A. (2000, June 16). Big brands key to e-university. Times Higher Education Supplement.

    Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From andragogy to heutagogy. Retrieved October 31, 2006 from http://ultibase.rmit.edu.au/Articles/dec00/hase2.htm.

    Isenberg, S. (2007).Applying Andragogical Principles to Internet Learning. Retrieved on April 8, 2010. http://www.cambriapress.com/camber/camber.cfm?bookid=9781934043196&page=xxxiv
    Learning and Skills Improvement Service.(2010). Pedagogy and Andragogy. Retrieved on April 8, 2009 from http://www.excellencegateway.org.uk/page.aspx?o=135534
    Katz, R. (2001, May 18). Campus champs tackle heavies. Times Higher Education Supplement.

    National Committee of Enquiry into Higher Education. (2001a). Report of the National Committee. Retrieved October 26th , 2003 from www.leeds.ac.uk/educol/ncihe/natrep.htm

    Reischmann, J. (2004).Andragogy. History, Meaning, Context, Function. . Retrieved on April 8, 2009 from http://www.uni-bamberg.de/fileadmin/andragogik/08 /andragogik /andragogy /index.htm

    Volery, T. & Lord, D. (2000). Critical success factors in online education. The International Journal of Education Management, 14 (5), 216 – 223.
    Ma. Martell Reyes

    Posts : 13
    Join date : 2009-06-21

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    Post  Ma. Martell Reyes on Sun 11 Apr 2010, 5:37 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    Group 2


    E-learning: Is this teaching at students or teaching with students?
    Robert John Muirhead, BN, RGN, RSCN

    Seeking higher education means going to colleges and/ or university after you leave high school. This entails one to get a diploma or a degree (University of Edinburgh). Upon accessing this higher education, one entails to seek for a good quality of education. Thus one of the issues that are arising would be the style of teaching and its implementation that suites the learners need. As cited in the study of Felder (1993), Tobias have raised when the learning style of a student matches the teaching style of a course, the understanding of the context and retention is longer. Therefore the big question that one may ask is, is e- learning worth it to be utilized?

    During the decades education has become an investment wherein people can bridge themselves to a more promising future and a better life. As a result, Higher Education providers find themselves competing with each other in gaining more students, funding and recognition from different institutions. During the decades the development of virtual education (i.e e-learning) has been pushed through and as an outcome Higher education became internationalized, to keep up with this kind of market providers need to ding new innovations (“Lifelong learning,” 1998, as cited in the study of Kershaw, 1996. as cited in the study of O’Neill, K., Singh, G., and O’Donoghue, J., 2004).

    E- Learning involves the use of technology- based tools and processes to provide for customized learning anytime or anywhere (Bastable, 2003). It encompasses the use of three learning styles such as auditory, visual, and kinesthetic (Kruse, 2004). Further more, according to Brady, e learning can accommodate various learning styles, more accessible to trainees, cost effective, eliminates affective factors in learning, and a more efficient evaluation and assessment methods can be utilized.

    On the other hand, issues such as those affects self motivation, being conscientious and success is being affected (Kershaw,1996. as cited in the study of O’Neill, K., Singh, G., and O’Donoghue, J., 2004). But being opposed by Knight (1996) and Hawkes and Cambre (2000), those who are so called spoon- fed students will be able to learn to take some responsibilities in their studies, thus, will benefit from this style of learning ( as cited in the study of O’Neill, K., Singh, G., and O’Donoghue, J., 2004). Moreover, concerns about isolation have also raise debate among different studies.

    To conclude, we agree to the proposed idea of the moderators that

    “… educators can compensate through combining eLearning and face-to-face education”

    The University of Edinburgh (no date).Why Go to Higher Education? Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.sra.ed.ac.uk/publications/General/Various/Why%20go%20to%20higher%20education.pdfd

    Felder, R. (1993). Reaching the Second Tier: Learning and Teaching Styles in College Science Education.
    J. College Science Teaching, 23(5), 286-290. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www4.ncsu.edu/unity/lockers/users/f/felder/public/Papers/Secondtier.html

    Bastable, S. (2003). Nurse as Educator: Principles f Teaching and Learning for Nursing Practice, 2nd Edition. Jones and Barlett publishers: Philippines

    Kruse, K. (2004). The Benefits and Drawbacks of e-Learning. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from e- learning Guru.com database

    Brady, J. (no date). Benefits Of Elearning Systems. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.articlefeeder.com/Education/Benefits_of_Elearning_Systems.html

    O’Neill, K., Singh, G., and O’Donoghue, J. (2004). Implementing eLearning Programmes for Higher Education: A Review of the Literature. Journal of Information Technology Education, Vol. 3. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://informingscience.org/jite/documents/Vol3/v3p313-323-131.pdf

    Posts : 14
    Join date : 2009-06-21

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    Post  lynnmonterozo on Sun 11 Apr 2010, 7:08 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    Aurora Boulevard, Quezon City

    Group 5
    Alvarez, Efren Jr. F.
    Facto, Christian Jay J.
    Monterozo, Mary Lynn R.
    Nidar, Joy H.

    As our world welcomed the 21st century, was the same as we faced and equipped ourselves with new technologies. These new technologies brought innovative instructional changes to learners and in the one who facilitates learning as well. Both were implicitly and explicitly adjust themselves to adapt in these new ways of teaching and learning.

    One of these new technologies which until now, has been a great issue was through utilization of the E-learning as a medium of teaching. Today, it was still in the brink of research whether this new approach is effective for the students to learn or not.

    Masic, Izet (2008) & Milic, D., et al., (2009) stated that E-learning enables permanent or lifelong learning and can help students on improving themselves professionally and independently. Masic also presented a comparison between using traditional way and e-learning. Various advantages were obtained and some of it were (1) economical factor (2) fosters independence (3) distant communication is possible and (4) learners can choose the place and time of education for themselves (Hugenholtz, N. R., et al., 2008 & Milic D., et al., 2009). However, obtaining contacts with the professors (Masic, Izet 2008) and as well as easy to transfer and upload standard teaching materials without considering the pedagogical requirements of good teaching (Rogerson-Regell, P. 2007) are considered as its main disadvantages.

    Meanwhile, Choi, S., (2007) suggested different strategies for e-learning benchmarking which are found on 3 different case studies presented. These include (1) data collection, (2) data interpretation and (3) implementation of the e-learning.

    Although some researchers showed numerous advantages of e-learning as a new medium tool for learning; in the study made by Diaz, L., et al., (2009), Hugenholtz, N. R., et al., (2008) & Kulier, R., et al., (2009) revealed that e- learning is just as effective in enhancing knowledge as lecture-based learning.


    Masic, Izet (2008). E-Learning as New Method of Medical Education. Review. Vol 16. No. 2. pp. 102-117. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Rogerson-Regell, P.( 2007). Directions in e-learning tools and technologies and their relevance to online distance language education. University of Leicester School of Education, 21 University Road, Leicester. Open Learning.Vol. 22, No. 1. Pp.57-74. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Milic, D., et al., (2009).E-Learning: Situation and Perspectives.UDC/UDK 378.14:004.738.5. Technical Gazet. pp. 31-36. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Diaz, L., et al., (2009). Are the Functions of Teachers in e-Learning and Face-to-Face Learning Environments Really Different?. Educational Technology & Society, 12 (4), 331–343. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Kulier, R., et al., (2009). The effectiveness of a clinically integrated e-learning course in evidence-based medicine: A cluster randomised controlled trial.BMC Medical Education 2009, 9:21 doi:10.1186/1472-6920-9-21. Retrieved April 11, 2010

    Hugenholtz, N. R., et al., (2008). Effectiveness of e-learning in continuing medical education for occupational physicians. Occupational medicine. 58(5): 370–372. Retrieved April 11, 2010 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2493067/?tool=pmcentrez[center]

    Posts : 20
    Join date : 2009-06-21
    Age : 34
    Location : Quezon City, Philippines

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    Post  melissa.juco on Mon 12 Apr 2010, 10:57 am


    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center, Inc.
    64 Aurora Boulevard, Brgy. Dona Imelda, Quezon City

    "E-learning: Is this Teaching at Students or Teaching with Students?"
    Robert John Muirhead, BN, RGN, RSCN

    Journal Response by GROUP #3:
    JUCO, Melissa Frances R.
    MANANQUIL, Ann Marby C.
    MARASIGAN, Iza Therese C.
    MEDALLA, Jerrick Y.


    What is/are the advantages of using e-learning as a medium of teaching?
    What is/are the implications that e-learning may bring to the students, faculty staff, and the institution offering e-learning courses?

    The 21st Century signifies the birth of diverse and bold developments in Science and Technology. Our mode of living is gradually being taken over by various technological advancements in communication, innovation and research, science and health among others. In fact, the field of Education is also in the process of gradually coping up with the rapid changes and demands of society. Everyday, new devices and other unique pieces of technology are invented, either for entertainment, business, domestic and multitasking purposes. E-Learning is one of them. Gone were the days when teachers would rely on traditional forms of instruction to deliver their lesson plans --- the use of chalk/whiteboards, overhead projectors, etc. Nowadays, schools have maximized technology by revamping their ancient ways of teaching through the introduction of high technology instructional devices such as the use of multimedia, digital videos, powerpoint presentations, LCD projectors, etc. Students, through e-learning, have explored the internet not only for educational research but also for peer interaction. E-Learning has thus created a virtual classroom where students are given full access to the course content. Besides the contemporary teaching devices that were just mentioned, 'Game-based learning has also become a trend in innovative instruction. Game-based Learning uses competitive exercises, either pitting the students against each other or getting them to challenge themselves in order to motivate them to learn better; games often create a fantasy element that engages players in a learning activity through a storyline (Teed, R. 2009)'. A shining example of this game-based strategy where the 'players' / 'learners' gain knowledge by virtual experience is the "Multi-Patient Approach" Program developed by The Faculty of Medicine in Imperial College London. They devised complex game-based learning activities for delivery of virtual patients that can drive experiential, diagnostic, and role-play learning activities supporting patients' diagnoses, investigations and treatment (Imperial College London. 2008). The GBL technology is a far out strategy that is yet to be tested in other universities, particularly in schools in the Philippines. It is a phenomenal invention. However, the virtual experience does not transcend the personal gain and fulfillment that one appreciates in face-to-face environments. 'The lack of face-to-face interaction is a clear disadvantage of the virtual classroom. Another disadvantage of the virtual classroom, which closely relates to this lack of human qualities in the virtual classroom, is the difficultly in establishing trust in the absence of face-to-face contact (Burbles, N. 2004)'.

    Indeed, the swift advancements in technology has brought the society to an entirely different arena where individuals compete to get better, high paying jobs. And just like what this journal topic reflects, more and more people recognize the value of investing in higher education. Through E-Learning and/or Distance Learning, education has catered to students abroad, those without fixed schedules, those with job and family constraints, those who are disabled (Lau, L. 2000) --- making learning more accessible and convenient in these aspects. Furthermore, allowing the students to interact virtually prepares them to future business practice of e-commerce making them independent learners in a lifelong learning process (Lau, L. 2000).

    The implications towards this method of instruction are endless, and advantages / disadvantages about this technique is imperative. However, we must face the fact that the market will continue to progress. E-Learning will gradually evolve and be standardized. Eventually, E-Learning will require a learning curve making automated correspondence course a marketable strategy in universities (Lau, L. 2000). This combination, according to Linda Lau's book on "Distance Technologies", 'will undoubtedly revolutionize the education process along with the rest of society'.



    1.) Burbles, N. (2004). Navigating the Advantages and Disadvantages of Online Pedagogy. Learning, Culture and Community in Online Education: Research and Practice, New York: Peter Lang Publishing, pp. 1-17

    2.) Kruse, K. (2004).The Benefits and Drawbacks of E-Learning. Lifted from http://www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art1_3.htm. Accessed on April 11, 2010

    3.) Lau, L. (2000).Distance Learning Technologies: Issues, Trends & Opportunities. IDEA Group Publishing. Hershey, USA.

    4.) Teed, R. (2009). Game-Based Learning. Lifted from http://serc.carleton.edu/introgeo/games/. Accessed on April 11, 2010

    5.) Faculty of Medicine; Imperial College London. (2008). Game-Based Learning for Virtual Patients in Second Life. Accessed from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhQ8MjdRq_4&feature=related on April 11, 2010

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