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    Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice

    Tet Soriano
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    Post  Tet Soriano on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 6:15 pm

    chel_calvelo wrote:

    Becoming an authentic leader requires a big effort and it depends on the kind of followers they have.

    A leader must be the maturing force within the working environment.


    I agree with this. The burden is on the shoulders of the leader that is why it is difficult to become a leader. It is difficult to lead people that is why you need the traits in order to become effective. In addition, a healthy working environment is needed to become an effective leader.
    Authentic leadership is not enough to have a healthy work environment but it will help a lot create a good working environment embraced by workers.
    Self-awareness can be measured by tools but it is really difficult to accurately measure it.

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    Charis Juan

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    Post  Charis Juan on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 1:51 pm

    The study of Gabrielle Wood entitled “Authentic Leadership: Do We Really Need Another Leadership Theory” may be a reference on how we can measure self-awareness. In the study, she measured the attributes of altruism and integrity. She used a personality inventory wherein respondents were asked to rate a statement containing a trait. There are corresponding values for a trait that they strongly agree or disagree on, depending on their personality. The answers may then be rated on how much a respondent is aware of this particular trait in his personality, etc.

    On another note, I say that authentic leadership complements the leader attributes with leader-follower relationships. Personal qualities of the leader are undeniably valuable but they are not enough to exercise leadership to achieve a positive and sustaining healthy environment in nursing practice. A leader’s effectiveness is measured not only by his attributes but how well he can influence his followers to motivate and inspire him to reach a common goal. Authentic leadership is a call to action from what one already has in terms of attributes.

    However, to gauge the effectiveness of this leadership theory in nursing practice, it still has to have empirical basis.
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 12:01 pm

    aimee wrote:Authentic leadership may not be the only solution to various problems in our current diversified society, for the theory, as stated by Wong and Cumming, has flaws and weaknesses. On the other hand , the authors have likewise emphasized that it is the root construct of positive forms of leadership, therefore it has been developed as a leadership style at its best.

    Thanks for the reply!. sunny i totally agree with you that authentic leadership is not enough to solve problems. There are some factors that we can add up to have a good work environment. bom
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    Post  carlo_0829 on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 11:49 am

    chel_calvelo wrote:

    1.How can you measure self-awareness? Is there a specific criteria on how to become fully aware of oneself?


    Self-awareness is the awareness that one exists as an individual being. Without self-awareness the self perceives and accepts the thoughts that are occurring to be who the self is. Self-awareness gives one the option or choice to choose thoughts being thought rather than simply thinking the thoughts that are stimulated from the accumulative events leading up to the circumstances of the moment.

    One of the most important factors in building your self esteem and confidence is your self awareness. how can an individual become more self aware?

    According to Perrer, 2006 being self aware is knowing:

    what you want in your life

    1. your strengths and weaknesses
    2. what motivates you and makes you happy
    3. what you want to change about yourself or about your life
    4. your achievements so far
    5. how you relate to others
    6. you need to improve as a person
    7. your most important beliefs and values
    8. how you see yourself as a person
    aimee
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    Post  aimee on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 11:34 am

    Authentic leadership may not be the only solution to various problems in our current diversified society, for the theory, as stated by Wong and Cumming, has flaws and weaknesses. On the other hand , the authors have likewise emphasized that it is the root construct of positive forms of leadership, therefore it has been developed as a leadership style at its best.
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 11:16 am

    roseanne.catalan wrote:
    flower

    chel_calvelo wrote:
    A leader must be the maturing force within the working environment.

    Your discussions' focuses mainly on interpersonal relationship of the leader and follower...
    That is a good thing given that Peplau is my personal favorite.. Smile Communication for me is the main ingredient for a leader to be authentic. How can you be authentic if you are going to keep your feelings inside? Yes, action speaks louder than words, but most of the time it pays to talk, to share. Guided by Peplau's theory of Interpersonal Relations, a good communication in the work place can be a great help to have a good nursing environment. It will not only foster solidarity but can also be good ground for personal growth. It's nice to go to work knowing that you won't have any trouble with your colleagues because of you good interpersonal relations with them. At the end of the day, you can have a nice sleep knowing that you have grown.

    Response to questions:
    I don't know any existing instrument used to measure self-awareness. Perhaps that is the most solid gap that research need to fill out.
    Yes, I believe that authentic leadership can be enough to build a good nursing environment. It is all-in-one. It simply means offering genuine care to everyone. I love you

    thanks for the response!.
    I think we have the same idea that in order to have a healthy work environment, there must be a collaboration of both the leader and followers. sunny I can see that you are really a follower of Peplau's theory!.. flower
    roseanne.catalan
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    Post  roseanne.catalan on Fri 22 Oct 2010, 1:59 am


    flower

    chel_calvelo wrote:
    A leader must be the maturing force within the working environment.

    Your discussions' focuses mainly on interpersonal relationship of the leader and follower...
    That is a good thing given that Peplau is my personal favorite.. Smile Communication for me is the main ingredient for a leader to be authentic. How can you be authentic if you are going to keep your feelings inside? Yes, action speaks louder than words, but most of the time it pays to talk, to share. Guided by Peplau's theory of Interpersonal Relations, a good communication in the work place can be a great help to have a good nursing environment. It will not only foster solidarity but can also be good ground for personal growth. It's nice to go to work knowing that you won't have any trouble with your colleagues because of you good interpersonal relations with them. At the end of the day, you can have a nice sleep knowing that you have grown.

    Response to questions:
    I don't know any existing instrument used to measure self-awareness. Perhaps that is the most solid gap that research need to fill out.
    Yes, I believe that authentic leadership can be enough to build a good nursing environment. It is all-in-one. It simply means offering genuine care to everyone. I love you
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 11:20 pm

    cezzy wrote:
    Adequate instruments for exclusively measuring authentic leadership are not yet available; however, empirical research to identify markers of authentic leadership (Pittinsky, T.L., 2006) and to advance the development of instruments to measure it (Avolio, B. J., et al., 2004) are in progress. Instruments that measure some elements of authenticity are the Servant Leadership Behavior Scale (Sendjaya S., 2003) and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass BM, Avolio BJ.,1993) used to measure transformational leadership. Authentic, servant, and transformational leadership styles have distinct differences,(Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W.L., 2005) and thus the instruments cited may not be adequate proxies to measure authentic leadership.

    The literature consistently supports the key role of the leader in creating and sustaining healthy work environments for nursing practice (Disch J., 2000). However, I would like to put an emphasis that leaders alone doesn't make a healthy working milieu, the followers also play a vital role in its success. If leaders are to create successful organizations they must recognize that followers are the most essential resource the organization has and that only by understanding the needs of their followers can they achieve organizational success. Just like what Kelley (2003) posited, that a leaders' effectiveness is contingent upon the followers input, in other words a leader is as effective as the followers will permit.



    References:

    Pittinsky TL, Tyson CJ. (2006) Leader authenticity markers: findings from a study of African-American leaders. Available at: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/leadership/workingpapers.html.

    Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Walumbwa, F.O., Luthans, F., May, D.R. (2004) Unlocking the mask:A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviours. TheLeadership Quarterly, 16, 801-823

    Sendjaya S. Development and validation of Servant Leadership Behavior Scale. Available at: http://www.regent.edu/acad/sls/publications/conference_proceedings/servant_leadership_roundtable/2003/proceedings.htm.

    Bass BM, Avolio BJ. (1993) Full Range Leadership Development: Manual for the Multifactor Questionnaire. Palo Alto, Calif: Mind Garden.

    Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W.L., (2005) Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root ofpositive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338

    Disch J.(Mar-April 2000) The nurse executive: healthy work environments for all nurses. J Prof Nurs. 16:75.[Medline]

    Kelley, R. (1992).The Power of Followership, Doubleday, New York, NY.


    thanks for the reply!. sunny
    i agree with you that it should be the collaboration of both the leader and followers that will contribute to a healthy work environment. The responsibility should not be left to leaders alone but followers should also do their part as member of that environment. And with this collaboration, they can render a safe and quality healthcare services to its patients. flower
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 11:14 pm

    mariekathleensantos wrote:Q: How can you measure self-awareness? Is there a specific criteria on how to become fully aware of oneself?

    A: Self-awareness on its simple context means knowing more about ourselves. It is a lifelong process that happens gradually, but at times it can be helpful to put effort into raising our self-awareness. Consequently, it leads to an understanding of your strengths, core skills and preferences. These cover a wide range of both capabilities (what you know, what you can do and what you have the potential to do) and preferences and motivations (what interests and motivates you, how you do things and how you relate to others). There are many ways of doing this. However until now there is no specific tool made in measuring self awareness. On the brighter side here is a questionnaire that can assess self awareness:

    Self-awareness Questions
    1.What are your strengths?
    What are your weaknesses?
    2.How do your friends describe you?
    Do you agree with their descriptions? Why or why not?
    3.List two situtations when you are most at ease.
    What specific elements were present when you felt that way?
    4.What types of activities did you enjoy doing when you were a child?
    What about now?
    5.What motivates you? Why?
    6.What are your dreams for the future?
    What steps are you taking to achieve your dreams?
    7.What do you fear most in your life? Why?
    8.What stresses you?
    What is your typical response to stress?
    9.What qualities do you like to see in people? Why?
    Do you have many friends as you just described? Why or why not?
    10.When you disagree with someone's viewpoint, what would you do?

    http://www.vtaide.com/lifeskills/knowself.htm

    Q: Is authentic leadership enough to have a healthy work environment?

    A:"Healthy" as defined inthe AACNStandards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy WorkEnvironments(American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 2005)and in the originalconstruction of the NursingWork Index (Kramer M, Hafner, LP., 1989), means productive, able to give qualitycare, satisfying, and able to meet personal needs.

    Authentic leadership is not enough to attainn a healthy working environment. AACN’s made 6standards for establishing and maintaining a healthy work environment which includes an authentic leadership:
    Skilled communication: nurses must be as proficient in communication skills as they arein clinical skills
    Truecollaboration: nurses must be relentless in pursuing and fostering truecollaboration
    Effectivedecision making: nurses must be valued and committed partners in making policy,directing and evaluating clinical care, and leading organizational operations
    Appropriatestaffing: staffing must ensure an effective match between patients’ needs andnurses’ competencies
    Meaningfulrecognition: nurses must be recognized and recognize for the value each bringsto the work of the organization
    Authenticleadership: nurse leaders must fully embrace the imperative of a healthy workenvironment, authentically live it, and engage others in its achievement.

    AmericanAssociation for Critical-Care Nurses. Standards for Establishing andSustaining Healthy Work Environments. http://www.aacn.org/aacn/WD/HWE/Docs/HWEStandards.pdf.

    thanks for the reply!. i totally agree with your answers in my guide questions. Every individual have their own responsibility to know themselves better. They should analyze their strengths and weaknesses to know what are the things to be develop. There are also other factors that we must considered to have a healthy environment and not just only the authentic leadership. sunny cheers
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 11:08 pm

    ylaganroidah wrote:As the literature said, it is difficult to measure self-awareness in observable terms making its validation to be difficult. I think only the person itself may be able to identify if she/he is has a deep understanding of self-awareness. Maybe authentic leadership is enough to have a healthy work environment since according to Shirey (2006) healthy work environment guided by authentic leaders produce superior outcomes both staff nurses and patient. But there could be other literature that say that it is not enough to have one.

    I agree with you that self-awareness is difficult to measure or validate. It depends on the person on how they will be able know themselves better. I respect your answer that authentic leadership is enough to have a healthy work environment, but for me, there are many factors that must be considered not just only the authentic leadership. Some of these factors are skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership.
    thanks for the reply!. flower
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 10:58 pm

    AC Ver wrote:
    It may be that self-awareness is measured as knowing one’s emotions, preferences, and intuitions and includes three competencies: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence but it for sure still is difficult to measure in observable terms. However, it is said that the Emotional Competency Inventory presents a way in assessing emotional competencies which is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions effectively in ourselves and others, which in turn contributes to effective performance at work (Wolff, 2005). Even with this, others still claim that there are no existing true measures of self-awareness (Cooper et al., 2005)

    But I think Authentic leaders can work hard at developing self-awareness through persistent and often courageous self-exploration. Denial can be the greatest hurdle that leaders face in becoming self-aware, but authentic leaders ask for, and may listen to honest feedback.

    It is said that all workplaces can be healthy if nurses and employers are firm in their desire to address not only the physical environment, but also the less tangible barriers to staff and patient safety. There are 6 standards necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare according to American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, these are skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership.

    References:
    1. Steven B. Wolff, DBA, 2005. Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) Technical Manual. Hay Group McClelland Center for Research and Innovation November 2005.
    2. Cooper, C.D., Scandura, T.A. and Schriesheim, C.A. (2005), “Looking forward but learning from our past: potential challenges to developing authentic leadership theory and authentic leaders”, The Leadership Quarterly
    3. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses 2005. AACN Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments: A Journey to Excellence From Aliso Viejo, Calif. American Journal of Critical Care. 2005;14: 187-197

    thanks for the reply!.
    Indeed, it must be a collaboration of both the leader and their followers which may contribute to a healthy work environment sunny flower
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 10:49 pm

    edliwag wrote:The rapidly changing environment has its entire credit on the rate at which inventions and innovations are taking place . In this complex situation in order to survive every organization must cope up with changes.

    The leader-follower relationship becomes a transforming force within the organization generating greater organizational effectiveness. And so creating a healthy environment based on the elements in the authentic leader although not enough is vital in achieving cohesion in the organization.

    Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542970

    thansk for the reply.. cheers
    i agree that it should be the effort of both the leader and its followers that will contribute to a healthy work environment. it's better to know ourselves better before engaging yourself in position such as being a leader without analyzing our strengths and weaknesses.
    sunny
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 10:41 pm

    AntonJayTan wrote:As I remember my notes on psychiatric nursing. We had discussed about the Johari window.A Johari window is a cognitive psychological tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1969 in the United States. It used to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise and I believe we can also use this in knowing ourselves and become a better leader.

    Authentic leadership alone is not the key to a healthy working environment. Communication, good relationship and cooperation in the workplace our all needed to achieve this healthy working environment. Very Happy

    It was a good analysis of my discussion.It's really better to know yourself first before getting the responsibility of being a leader. This will help you to identify your strengths and weaknesses.I think it's the combination of education and experiences that will contribute to a healthy work environment..
    thanks for the reply!. flower
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 10:30 pm

    therese_132409 wrote:i think your first question was answered in the article. it says, "The major challenge for conceptual clarity in authentic leadership is self-awareness,which is difficult to measure in observable terms. Although Cooper et al. (2005) claimed that there were no existing measures of self-awareness making its
    validation difficult, a self-awareness cluster exists in the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI 2.0) (HayGroup, 2002; Boyatzis et al. 2000). Self-awareness is measured as knowing one’s emotions, preferences, and intuitions and includes three competencies: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence.
    criteria in measuring are just man-made. the most important is on how "you" truly and fully know yourself inside out.
    a good leader can promote and maintain a healthy work environment but it also depends on your members or subordinates if they are also into or looking for a better relationship among them and also to their leader as well.

    i think i must affirm to your stand that self-awareness is difficult to measure. Razz Whats important is on how we truly know and understand ourselves. It must be a collaboration of the leader and its followers that will make up a healthy work environment. cheers
    chel_calvelo
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    Post  chel_calvelo on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 10:20 pm

    khayee_07 wrote:i think measuring exactly self awareness is impossible... but analyzing at what state of self awareness a person is into could be done... i guess criteria on how to become aware of oneself varies among individuals, each of us may claim that we are fully aware of WHO WE ARE based on the notion of what we only need to know about ourselves and that we're the only ones who truly know the genuine US more than others do...

    i definitely believe that authentic leadership is not the only ingredient of a healthy work environment. A lot of aspects should be taken into consideration as well, such as the external factors and personal concerns of all the people within the environment...

    i totally agree with you that measuring self-awareness is impossible. We are the only person who is capable of knowing our own selves, the real us. For me, it is a combination of leadership styles, concepts that we studied during undergrad years and the experiences that we are encountering are the ingredients of a healthy work environment!.

    thanks for the reply! flower
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    Post  therese_132409 on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 4:40 pm

    i think your first question was answered in the article. it says, "The major challenge for conceptual clarity in authentic leadership is self-awareness,which is difficult to measure in observable terms. Although Cooper et al. (2005) claimed that there were no existing measures of self-awareness making its
    validation difficult, a self-awareness cluster exists in the Emotional Competency Inventory (ECI 2.0) (HayGroup, 2002; Boyatzis et al. 2000). Self-awareness is measured as knowing one’s emotions, preferences, and intuitions and includes three competencies: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence.
    criteria in measuring are just man-made. the most important is on how "you" truly and fully know yourself inside out.
    a good leader can promote and maintain a healthy work environment but it also depends on your members or subordinates if they are also into or looking for a better relationship among them and also to their leader as well.
    AntonJayTan
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    Post  AntonJayTan on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 4:04 pm

    As I remember my notes on psychiatric nursing. We had discussed about the Johari window.A Johari window is a cognitive psychological tool created by Joseph Luft and Harry Ingham in 1969 in the United States. It used to help people better understand their interpersonal communication and relationships. It is used primarily in self-help groups and corporate settings as a heuristic exercise and I believe we can also use this in knowing ourselves and become a better leader.

    Authentic leadership alone is not the key to a healthy working environment. Communication, good relationship and cooperation in the workplace our all needed to achieve this healthy working environment. Very Happy
    AC Ver
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    Post  AC Ver on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 3:24 pm

    It may be that self-awareness is measured as knowing one’s emotions, preferences, and intuitions and includes three competencies: emotional awareness, accurate self-assessment, and self-confidence but it for sure still is difficult to measure in observable terms. However, it is said that the Emotional Competency Inventory presents a way in assessing emotional competencies which is the capacity for recognizing our own feelings and those of others, for motivating ourselves and for managing emotions effectively in ourselves and others, which in turn contributes to effective performance at work (Wolff, 2005). Even with this, others still claim that there are no existing true measures of self-awareness (Cooper et al., 2005)

    But I think Authentic leaders can work hard at developing self-awareness through persistent and often courageous self-exploration. Denial can be the greatest hurdle that leaders face in becoming self-aware, but authentic leaders ask for, and may listen to honest feedback.

    It is said that all workplaces can be healthy if nurses and employers are firm in their desire to address not only the physical environment, but also the less tangible barriers to staff and patient safety. There are 6 standards necessary to establish and sustain healthy work environments in healthcare according to American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, these are skilled communication, true collaboration, effective decision making, appropriate staffing, meaningful recognition and authentic leadership.

    References:
    1. Steven B. Wolff, DBA, 2005. Emotional Competence Inventory (ECI) Technical Manual. Hay Group McClelland Center for Research and Innovation November 2005.
    2. Cooper, C.D., Scandura, T.A. and Schriesheim, C.A. (2005), “Looking forward but learning from our past: potential challenges to developing authentic leadership theory and authentic leaders”, The Leadership Quarterly
    3. The American Association of Critical-Care Nurses 2005. AACN Standards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy Work Environments: A Journey to Excellence From Aliso Viejo, Calif. American Journal of Critical Care. 2005;14: 187-197
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    Post  edliwag on Thu 21 Oct 2010, 1:16 pm

    The rapidly changing environment has its entire credit on the rate at which inventions and innovations are taking place . In this complex situation in order to survive every organization must cope up with changes.

    The leader-follower relationship becomes a transforming force within the organization generating greater organizational effectiveness. And so creating a healthy environment based on the elements in the authentic leader although not enough is vital in achieving cohesion in the organization.

    Organizational culture and leadership matter in creating and sustaining healthy work environments. Nurse managers play a pivotal role in creating these environments, yet they need supportive structures and resources to more effectively execute their roles.
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19542970
    avatar
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    Post  mariekathleensantos on Wed 20 Oct 2010, 10:06 pm

    Q: How can you measure self-awareness? Is there a specific criteria on how to become fully aware of oneself?

    A: Self-awareness on its simple context means knowing more about ourselves. It is a lifelong process that happens gradually, but at times it can be helpful to put effort into raising our self-awareness. Consequently, it leads to an understanding of your strengths, core skills and preferences. These cover a wide range of both capabilities (what you know, what you can do and what you have the potential to do) and preferences and motivations (what interests and motivates you, how you do things and how you relate to others). There are many ways of doing this. However until now there is no specific tool made in measuring self awareness. On the brighter side here is a questionnaire that can assess self awareness:

    Self-awareness Questions
    1.What are your strengths?
    What are your weaknesses?
    2.How do your friends describe you?
    Do you agree with their descriptions? Why or why not?
    3.List two situtations when you are most at ease.
    What specific elements were present when you felt that way?
    4.What types of activities did you enjoy doing when you were a child?
    What about now?
    5.What motivates you? Why?
    6.What are your dreams for the future?
    What steps are you taking to achieve your dreams?
    7.What do you fear most in your life? Why?
    8.What stresses you?
    What is your typical response to stress?
    9.What qualities do you like to see in people? Why?
    Do you have many friends as you just described? Why or why not?
    10.When you disagree with someone's viewpoint, what would you do?

    http://www.vtaide.com/lifeskills/knowself.htm

    Q: Is authentic leadership enough to have a healthy work environment?

    A:"Healthy" as defined inthe AACNStandards for Establishing and Sustaining Healthy WorkEnvironments(American Association of Critical-Care Nurses, 2005)and in the originalconstruction of the NursingWork Index (Kramer M, Hafner, LP., 1989), means productive, able to give qualitycare, satisfying, and able to meet personal needs.

    Authentic leadership is not enough to attainn a healthy working environment. AACN’s made 6standards for establishing and maintaining a healthy work environment which includes an authentic leadership:
    Skilled communication: nurses must be as proficient in communication skills as they arein clinical skills
    Truecollaboration: nurses must be relentless in pursuing and fostering truecollaboration
    Effectivedecision making: nurses must be valued and committed partners in making policy,directing and evaluating clinical care, and leading organizational operations
    Appropriatestaffing: staffing must ensure an effective match between patients’ needs andnurses’ competencies
    Meaningfulrecognition: nurses must be recognized and recognize for the value each bringsto the work of the organization
    Authenticleadership: nurse leaders must fully embrace the imperative of a healthy workenvironment, authentically live it, and engage others in its achievement.

    AmericanAssociation for Critical-Care Nurses. Standards for Establishing andSustaining Healthy Work Environments. http://www.aacn.org/aacn/WD/HWE/Docs/HWEStandards.pdf.
    cezzy
    cezzy

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    Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice Empty Re: Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice

    Post  cezzy on Wed 20 Oct 2010, 2:53 am


    Adequate instruments for exclusively measuring authentic leadership are not yet available; however, empirical research to identify markers of authentic leadership (Pittinsky, T.L., 2006) and to advance the development of instruments to measure it (Avolio, B. J., et al., 2004) are in progress. Instruments that measure some elements of authenticity are the Servant Leadership Behavior Scale (Sendjaya S., 2003) and the Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire (Bass BM, Avolio BJ.,1993) used to measure transformational leadership. Authentic, servant, and transformational leadership styles have distinct differences,(Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W.L., 2005) and thus the instruments cited may not be adequate proxies to measure authentic leadership.

    The literature consistently supports the key role of the leader in creating and sustaining healthy work environments for nursing practice (Disch J., 2000). However, I would like to put an emphasis that leaders alone doesn't make a healthy working milieu, the followers also play a vital role in its success. If leaders are to create successful organizations they must recognize that followers are the most essential resource the organization has and that only by understanding the needs of their followers can they achieve organizational success. Just like what Kelley (2003) posited, that a leaders' effectiveness is contingent upon the followers input, in other words a leader is as effective as the followers will permit.



    References:

    Pittinsky TL, Tyson CJ. (2006) Leader authenticity markers: findings from a study of African-American leaders. Available at: http://www.ksg.harvard.edu/leadership/workingpapers.html.

    Avolio, B.J., Gardner, W.L., Walumbwa, F.O., Luthans, F., May, D.R. (2004) Unlocking the mask:A look at the process by which authentic leaders impact follower attitudes and behaviours. TheLeadership Quarterly, 16, 801-823

    Sendjaya S. Development and validation of Servant Leadership Behavior Scale. Available at: http://www.regent.edu/acad/sls/publications/conference_proceedings/servant_leadership_roundtable/2003/proceedings.htm.

    Bass BM, Avolio BJ. (1993) Full Range Leadership Development: Manual for the Multifactor Questionnaire. Palo Alto, Calif: Mind Garden.

    Avolio, B.J., & Gardner, W.L., (2005) Authentic leadership development: Getting to the root ofpositive forms of leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 16, 315-338

    Disch J.(Mar-April 2000) The nurse executive: healthy work environments for all nurses. J Prof Nurs. 16:75.[Medline]

    Kelley, R. (1992).The Power of Followership, Doubleday, New York, NY.

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    ylaganroidah

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    Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice Empty Re: Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice

    Post  ylaganroidah on Tue 19 Oct 2010, 9:55 pm

    As the literature said, it is difficult to measure self-awareness in observable terms making its validation to be difficult. I think only the person itself may be able to identify if she/he is has a deep understanding of self-awareness. Maybe authentic leadership is enough to have a healthy work environment since according to Shirey (2006) healthy work environment guided by authentic leaders produce superior outcomes both staff nurses and patient. But there could be other literature that say that it is not enough to have one.
    khayee_07
    khayee_07

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    Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice Empty Re: Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice

    Post  khayee_07 on Tue 19 Oct 2010, 3:07 pm

    i think measuring exactly self awareness is impossible... but analyzing at what state of self awareness a person is into could be done... i guess criteria on how to become aware of oneself varies among individuals, each of us may claim that we are fully aware of WHO WE ARE based on the notion of what we only need to know about ourselves and that we're the only ones who truly know the genuine US more than others do...

    i definitely believe that authentic leadership is not the only ingredient of a healthy work environment. A lot of aspects should be taken into consideration as well, such as the external factors and personal concerns of all the people within the environment...
    chel_calvelo
    chel_calvelo

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    Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice Empty Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice

    Post  chel_calvelo on Tue 19 Oct 2010, 2:06 am

    Authentic Leadership and its relevance to Nursing Practice
    I agree with the idea that Authentic Leadership is a theory derived from the combination of both new theoretical perspective and earlier forms of leadership. Authentic leadership, an approach that is linked to humanistic psychology, is based on the idea that leaders are effective by being true to themselves, and being open and authentic with others. The focus is on who the leader is as a person, and how he or she conveys that to others. An authentic leader is one who is in a position of influence/responsibility who is genuine, trustworthy, reliable, and believable (George, 2003). Further, authentic leaders are distinguished by a deep sense of personal core values, principles, and ethics that determine actions (George, 2007; Shirey, 2006).

    Authentic leadership can be a great help not only in the nursing profession but also in the healthcare system and society as a whole. A common quote is, "I came to work for this hospital, but I left because of the manager." People hunger for personalized leadership that speaks to their hearts and inspires them to do things they didn't know they were capable of accomplishing. It is not fun going to work in an atmosphere where you don't feel a sense of synergy with your boss. When you feel you are relating to a machine and not a real person who cares, bleeds, cries, or loses sleep over serious problems, you disengage. The ability to bring your soul and heart to your work is an essential human hunger of nurses, but something that unfortunately many nurses will not experience when they do not have the experience of an authentic leader in their environment. According to the article, Nurses need to feel safe and healthy at work, be able to speak openly in a trusting and non punitive atmosphere about issues that concern them, and do so without fear of organizational reprisals. They must also be supported and encouraged to identify their requirements to practice in a safe, ethical, and responsive manner. Listening to nurses, asking about their visions for practice, keeping promises made to them, faithfully representing them, and celebrating their accomplishments are signals of authentic leadership that foster work engagement(Rogers, 2005; Storch et al., 2002).

    The focus in authentic leadership is on everyday ethical practice in making decisions, allocating resources, sharing information and resolving clinical concerns that matter to patients and nurses. Positive ethical climates make a difference to nurses’ satisfaction with their work and ultimately, influence the quality and safety of care they provide to patients. Communication skills are of utmost importance. Effective leaders disclose information and strive for open communication without secrets. They give credit and praise freely, remembering to say thank you. Moreover, nurse leaders should value relationships within the group and show concern for others. Leaders must trust and earn trust. They must listen and be supportive. Timeliness shows respect for others. Lastly, effective nursing leaders are broad thinkers who look at the big picture. They take care of problems, which if ignored could cause the group to lose trust. Nurses must lead with creativity, while not being afraid to take risks. Authentic leaders play a vital role in establishing and sustaining healthy work environments (American Association of Critical Care Nurses, 2005). Creating a healthy working environment for nurses will lead to adequate nursing workforce which may eliminate burnouts, disability, high absenteeism and escalating shortage of nurses.

    Becoming an authentic leader requires a big effort and it depends on the kind of followers they have. A leader must be the maturing force within the working environment. If their followers wasn’t able to meet or have the said characteristics, it won’t be effective. There is no explanation on how the leaders will be able to manage a situation where their followers value differ on their own. In some point the theory can also be unrealistic. It merely focuses on the positive traits of both the leader and the follower.

    Questions:
    1.How can you measure self-awareness? Is there a specific criteria on how to become fully aware of oneself?
    2.Is authentic leadership enough to have a healthy work environment?

    References:
    1.Smith, R., Bhindi, N., Hanen, J., Riley, D. and Roll, J. (2008): Questioning the notion of “authentic” leadership in education: The perspective of “followers”. Retrieved from: http://www.aare.edu.au/08pap/smi08816.pdf
    2.Shirey, Maria (2006). Authentic Leaders Creating Healthy Work Environments for Nursing Practice. American Journal of Critical Care. 2006;15: 256-267
    3.Kerfoot, Karlene (2006). Article: Authentic leadership. (nursing management) Medsurg Nursing, 15(5), 319-320.

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