E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning



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    Post  TheConchitinaLluch on Sat 16 Jul 2011, 1:59 am

    Let's have a little background on the topic. "Authenticity" as a construct dates back to at least the ancient Greeks, as captured by their timeless admonition to “be true to oneself” (S. Harter, 2002). This was the original notion, but scholars in recent times (Ilies, Morgeson, & Nahrgang, 2005; Shamir & Eilam, 2005) posit that there is more to authentic leadership than being true to oneself. The test of times like a threat of a flu pandemic, terrorism, SARS, etc. prompted humanity to call for higher standards of integrity, character, and accountability of leaders. Thus, the conceptualization of this theory.

    The authentic leadership model of Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, et al. (2005) focuses on the core self-awareness and self-regulation components of authentic leadership. They identified several distinguishing features associated with authentic self-regulation processes, including internalized regulation, balanced processing of information,relational transparency, and authentic behavior. They also argued that authentic leadership includes a positive moral perspective characterized by high ethical standards that guide decision making and behavior. In sum, the proposed view of the authentic leadership suggests that authentic leaders show to others that they genuinely desire to understand their own leadership to serve others more effectively (George, 2003). They (authentic leaders) act in accordance with deep personal values and convictions to build credibility and win the respect and trust of followers. By encouraging diverse viewpoints and building networks of collaborative relationships with followers, they lead in a manner that followers perceive and describe as authentic (Avolio et al., 2004)

    Their model is quite interesting, since among all the other models of authentic leadership, it is the model that is firmly rooted on the "still existing" social psychological theory and research on authenticity (as compared to other scholars who had a more inductive or philosophical take on theory development). It also explicitly recognizes and articulates the central role of an internalized moral perspective to authentic leadership. It also focuses on the development of authentic leaders and followers, which make it somehow, something that can be developed in leaders (Walumba, et.al., 2008). It is worthy to note that they asserted that advanced level of moral development is a requirement for the achievement of leader authenticity, which was deliberately omitted by other scholars (Shamir & Eliam, 2005) from their conceptualization of authentic leadership, reasoning that a leader can be “true to self” without attaining a high level of moral development or complying with high standards of ethical conduct. Gardner, Avolio, and Walumbwa (2005) then counters Shamir & Eliam's (2005) notion by saying that defining authenticity as involving self-awareness and self-acceptance appears to be conceptually in-consistent with a low level of moral development. Although people may be true to themselves at a modest level of moral development (Kegan, 1982; Kohlberg, 1984), they are unlikely to possess the capacity for self-reflection and introspection required for a true understanding of the self (or others). For me, their argument is valid, and it does make a lot of sense because their reason for rejecting the argument is grounded in literature, especially that of social psychology.

    Avolio, Gardner, and colleagues’ (2005) model on authentic leadership is very promising. It proposes a type of leader who at first I thought may be like the other theorized type of leaders, but when I went to the micro level, I saw the authentic leader as someone who is a mixture of all the other proposed type of leaders. It seemed to me like an upgraded version of all the other leaders. As what these guys have said, they did not attempt to develop a new theory on leadership. They further assert that their goal was to investigate the common core of all leadership theories to discover, test, and explain the essence of authentic leadership intrinsic to a wide variety of leadership approaches. I agree with Wong & Cummings (2009) that some of the model's elements overlap with previous theory on leaders, but I guess these overlaps don't make their theory lesser than the other leadership models. When theorizing what an ideal leader or leadership is, it's good to take into account the other established theories to make a better "leader".

    To be an authentic leader is like almost being perfect. The theory as it is, is very beautiful but applying it to the real world, or even to myself, warrants me to transcend beyond everything i think is true. And truthfully speaking, that's like me not being Conchitina Lluch anymore. The beauty of being human is that we can always try and strive to be the best we can be, and be "the change we want to see in the world". and to me, this is the essence of all these theories. To show us that if we really want to, we can achieve things we thought are just mere "theories" and to guide us as we strive to be better. It is indeed a challenge to me, and to all the nurses.

    queen servant-leader Very Happy

    Last edited by TheConchitinaLluch on Sat 16 Jul 2011, 11:31 pm; edited 1 time in total

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    Post  LoLee on Sat 16 Jul 2011, 10:57 pm

    I agree with Kichi’s view that the authentic leadership as it is, is beautiful but a bit unrealistic. The components of this theory, yes, if inherent in all leaders would lead to effective leadership and good outcome to followers. This view is supported by studies such as those of Church in 1997 where he found out that high-performing managers were significantly more self-aware compared to average performing managers. But achieving these essential components of the theory or reaching its state would be a difficult process if it does happen at all. This also reflects that was mentioned in the study that there is no “quick fix” to developing leaders as leadership was defined by Jean (2006) as “a continuing journey of development.” Furthermore, Avolio et al. (2004) also mentioned that the developmental perspective of shaping values, beliefs and behavior is related to personal history and trigger events. Considering that personal history in my opinion can only be enriched with time and experience and trigger events such as loss or crisis happens naturally in God’s time, I am also doubtful if at what point in a person’s life does he acquire the attributes associated to an authentic leader, if he ever does reach this point in his life. As I see it, most likely a person may reach this point during the middle age stage wherein one may only be able to serve for a few years more until reaching retirement or succumbing to old age in which case a new leader would again be warranted to take his place and this turnover of leaders could possibly do more harm than good to the organization as every change of leader can cause the organization to become destabilized.

    As I read through the paper of Wong and Cummings in 2009, I noticed that the authentic leadership theory (ALT) at first was presented in a leader-follower concept as for example relating to presidents and citizens of the country or boss-employee relationship and on the latter part moved on to the healthcare system and nurse managers as leaders to the nurses under their services. As was mentioned in the article, it was clearly stipulated in Cumming et al.’s study in 2005 that positive relational orientation of nurse leaders translate to greater satisfaction of nurses on their work through improvement of emotional exhaustion. In addition, ALT proposes that leader behavior triggers a similar focus on self-awareness to their followers in the process of personal and social identification. A thought occurred to me that while this theory is being applied to different people and in the healthcare system was applied to nurses, then comes the possibility that maybe it can also be applied by staff nurses on their patients. It occurred to me that while the ALT when applied to nurses in the hospitals yielded to better working environment and emotions towards their job, then maybe if applied to patients it can also have good outcomes such as increased compliance of the patient or more willingness to cooperate on the care plans. This time, the patients would be the one triggered by their nurses to focus their self-awareness through the process of identification and perhaps this would also yield to good results in the context of better physical, emotional and mental well-being. Remember in the discussion of the nursing theories, one heavy implication is that what nurses have in them is what they can give to their patients. Then following this and provided that nurses, up to some degree, has the components of the ALT then they would also be able to foster these characteristics in their patients and consequently produce good patient outcomes. But of course this idea of mine is only possible if the nurses would firstly be able to reach an acceptable level of the four components of the ALT and so I agree with the suggestions mentioned in the article that there should be programs such as planned leadership interventions, building positive psychological capacities, coaching and mentoring.

    Kristopher Jose
    Kristopher Jose

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    Post  Kristopher Jose on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 11:50 am

    In today’s society, forms of problems are being faced in a day-to-day life. They are deeply rooted from the complex predicament of our social order. Conflicts like poverty, health issues, and political animosity transcends from the acrimony, mistrust, and prejudice. These divide people to establish trust and certain types of relationship that keeps us moving forward. A form of leadership must be revolutionized to elucidate these issues.
    Authentic leadership as an enhanced model to answer thematic issues in our society is very promising. It upholds the ideal manner to lead the society.
    At this point, I would like to give my insights on how authentic leadership will address related issues.

    Philippine Setting
    Sad to say, the current Philippine government is abominable. Corruption and controversies are rampant and felt by the people. Clearly remodeling and modification of the government administration is the answer to most pressing issues in our country. For me, the transformation of our government would take ample time to be achieved. Authentic leadership being applied to the current government will require a big adjustment to our officials, a herculean task for most. As being described, self-awareness, self-acceptance, authentic behavior and relational authenticity are required to become genuine. These are the qualities that our leaders must possess to effectively lead the society. Transparency will open the gate for a better communal relationship. However, I believe that a strong and solid values formation should be a must for every government official. If only these are realized by our legislators then the birth of a higher form of altruism takes into account to make big difference and huge impact in the society.

    Health system
    It is very frustrating to see that the majority of our fellow countrymen suffer the poor health system. Nurses are on the right disposition to extend a helping hand to our indigenous people. Authentic leadership applied by nurses is very much desirable in transforming the health system of our country. It creates a deeper meaning of commitment and service to our people. Equipped with self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors this will lead to positive development in extending aid to patients.

    Nursing education
    The essence of the nursing education is to transform young individuals to make a difference and contribute to the society. Nowadays, it is needed to cope up the challenges of the 21st century. Authentic leadership, calls for self regulation in aligning values, actions and intentions. This molds the character of a student from being a novice to an expert in solving problems in the society. Educating young nurses about the authentic leadership will modify their behaviors to become altruistic and will have the integrity as an individual. Sooner or later when student nurses apply their profession they will realize their calling to serve. Nurses have a momentous role in the society especially they are versatile in nature. The responsibility to help and care among the deprived and needy people articulates their enormous purpose in the society. Thus, it is a must that we should develop apposite leaders that will manifest their authenticity and will fulfill their commitment.

    Authentic Leadership in government needs drastic overhauling from the leaders themselves to implementation of laws, rules, regulations and government policies in order to achieve a very successful and orderly community. Whatever kind of leadership that is applied by the government is what kind of life there is that you can find in the society. Blatantly speaking, almost always, sectors of society whether local, bureaus, government –owned corporations, private companies and individuals pattern the kind of leadership they implement in the day to day activities. Crooked and corrupt practices in the government invite others to do the same. In the same manner, weak leadership influenced others leadership qualities.
    Applying this in the nursing profession, the kind of leadership somehow changes the quality because of the influence from the kind of leadership of government. Weak implementation of laws breaks the “would-be” strong and sound authentic leadership expected to be implemented.
    Thus, solid, sound and strong leadership foundation is needed today. Authentic leadership can best achieved when in overhauling, the leader himself starts building a strong foundation of Christian values, politically willed lawmakers and enforcers of the laws, genuine sincerity in the kind of leadership and leader that considers the needs and welfare of its people.

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    RE AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP Empty Good day everyone ^^

    Post  jordanbrosas on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 1:46 pm

    Happy Sunday to all.. What a Face

    Leadership has been defined and theorized in so many ways, but in my personal experience, and as a nurse, no matter how good and excellent the person is, still problems and inconsistencies are inevitable, thus, there are no perfect leaders, that is why good leaders are those who are always trying to improve themselves. And being a good leader includes having mistakes and then learning from them in the process. Since perfect leaders doesn’t exist, it is quite hard to subscribe to a single leadership model, which is why this Authentic Leadership theory is relevant to me since it is a combination and congruence of several theories of leadership just like making sense of many theories to be able to explicate a better one

    Reflecting back, assuming that I haven’t read this article. What is leadership for me? Leadership is empowering others to support to the common goals of the organization. It includes the ability to take a stance and having vision for the future. As a nurse, I believe leaders need to be willing to take risks, manage internal and external conflicts, and most importantly leaders are facilitators of change within the organization. Our current President, Benigno Aquino III once said that his cabinet secretaries must possess two important traits, for they are the leaders of each sector of this government – competence and integrity.

    Leadership is evidenced by commitment, results, and above all the presence of followers. I can compare leaders to pilots and passengers as the followers. The pilot carries big responsibility for the whole of the plane but he has to be with the people all the time. And followers are like passengers of the plane, they need to give full trust to the pilot for them to arrive to a certain place. Pilots are trained and exceptional, like leaders, one cannot be a good leader without mastery of self and undergoing a certain training to be called a pilot. Everyone has a chance to become a pilot, but only those who undergone training can use the plane and therefore can move people from one place to another.

    Going back to the authentic leadership, my take, is that, yeah you are both correct (kichi and low) that it is a somewhat unrealistic but having this model provides us a good example of what “Authentic Leaders” are. Authentic leaders as described here, has self-awareness, unbiased when it comes to decision, and practicing honesty and being to one’s self. Another thing that I admire on this theory is about giving importance to the ethics, ethics is essential to our profession and I’m into the notion that authentic leaders must be ethical leaders.

    The kind of leadership that can restore confidence comes from individuals who are true to themselves, and whose transparency positively transforms or develops associates into leaders themselves (Luthans & Avolio, 2003, p. 243), in this theory, when leadership is true to self and others, it practice the principle of veracity, and thus an authentic leader can be guided by high moral and ethical standards.
    I would like to quote what Ricoeur (1992) observed, “I cannot myself have self-esteem unless I esteem others as myself.” Self-esteem follows from the recognition of oneself in the regard of another, just as regard for others is discovered in the esteem they hold for one’s own self. Authentic leadership, then, is reflected not only by being true to self but also in the positive regard leaders hold for their followers and the positive regard of followers for their leader. Leadership is not just a one way process. With these, I would like to ask my group mates- because for me leaders are trained and my question would be. Can leadership be taught? Question

    1. Ricoeur, P. (1992). Oneself as another, (K. Blamey, Trans.). Chicago, University of Chicago Pres
    2. Luthans & Avolio, 2003, p. 243

    thank you! Very Happy

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    Post  jcaniag on Sun 17 Jul 2011, 4:08 pm

    Environment affects the practice and the development of professionals and patient health as well. As proposed by Nightingale that environment has a great role, and also people that you interact to are also a part of your environment. In every organizational facility, interaction comes in a hierarchy where leadership plays a great role in every ones experience. Leaders are persons that influence support and contribute to others to manage the environment and accomplish organizational goals. As leadership is been studied and develop to further attribute the role, authenticity is prescribed as an important part in a leadership role because knowing yourself gives a leader the capacity to share transparently and act with integrity (Hughes, 2005).

    Authentic leadership is a process that draws from both positive psychological capacities and a highly developed organizational context which results in both greater self awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of leaders and associates, fostering positive development (Wong et al, 2009). The theory attempts to contribute a characteristic of a leader to promote an effective behavior and attitude to influence work outcomes. Authentic leadership is also in line with the present ethical breaks in leadership as it focuses on organizational concerns for honesty, integrity and transparency of leaders – follower relationship. The notion of a servant leader in authentic leadership is very promising because practically in a work setting people have their own goals, reason and motivation (Carol et al, 2010). Servant – leadership gives the team an inspiration on work ethics and goal orientation as they see a leader as an example and a colleague (Gardner et al, 2005).

    Authentic leadership may be a good recommendation or definition of what a leader should be but it may be not be applicable in some situations. Authentic leadership requires an internalization of self and understanding of one's own psychology to be effective in goals and contribution to others. The thing is that other people cannot gauge someone's understanding and determination of his/her self (Deci, E., & Ryan, R. 2002) and it may be problem to identify someone who is an authentic leader. Having a leadership role may require someone to be flexible to his/her followers, thus, having an authentic behavior may not apply in some cases because acting with one's values and need's may not be applicable to the organization's motives and the followers perspective/values (Cooper et al, 2005). But in the nursing context, authenticity is a skill needed by every nurse as they function as leaders and nurses need to influence patient's health care practices.

    The whole concept of authentic leadership is ideal but may not be applicable at all times but this is a great theory for understanding one's competence and capabilities in leading by having self – awareness and internalization of one's values to adjust in certain situations and psychology of people.

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