Josh wrote:The article of Pinar, if I had construed it correctly, is an exposition of the phenomena of educational curriculum in the U.S. History had prove to show how educational system evolved into a dynamic process heading towards a noble quest but is now leading to degradation. The term used by Pinar is “nightmare” as U.S. educational standards slide into a more business oriented endeavor.
The focus of Pinar’s is an attempt to provide a curriculum theory that seek to offer help by mere exposition of the problem but offers to suggestion on how to solve the problem.
He also added that educational approach in classroom or even in clinical practice are so much influenced with the cultural background of instructor or political system, and He offers a theory of reconceptualization of curriculum or currere, or an instructor should go beyond from past experiences.
In the Philippines, I believed that it is happening. Not to mention the looming rates of tuition fee increase (commercialization of education), the cultural biases and discrimination.
Currere is a political and social reconstruction of curriculum. As if bringing back the glory of the old times where the search for knowledge for ghe sake of wisdom and learning is the primary concern. Therefore, currere, the “kernel of a reconceived and revitalized curriculum theory field,” might provide the kindling for a new and exciting discourse, one that is based upon lived experiences that naturally coincide with others,' that involves a change of consciousness and a deeper and richer understanding of learning and teaching. This route, this currere, might be the indispensable link that allows our “complicated conversations” to begin and grow.
Pinar, W. F. (1975). Currere: Toward reconceptualization. In W. F. Pinar (Ed.), Curriculum Theorizing: The Reconconceptualists (pp. 396-414). Berkeley: McCutchan Publishing.
The issue raised by Pinar, I think affects both teaching in classroom and clinical area. In the Philippines there are some, if not all, basically submit to requirements of educational body by mere compliance but not really for the sake of learning (e.g. 5 OR exposure…). And in classroom learning contents are more directed to answer question for exam competency but not really professional competency.
Instructional design should be reconceptualized and this therefore, will lead to scaffolding a better curriculum design.
silva731 wrote:Guide Questions:
1. The article is titled “Help without giving advice.” What does this mean and how is it related in the situation of Western education?
2. What is your opinion about Pinar’s statement that “We must make clear,” he writes, “that education coursework is intellectual work, not simply the sharing of personal experiences in the classroom and popular prejudices about ‘effective’ teaching”
3. In the Philippine context, do you think that this “nightmare” is also happening because we are a country with great western influence?
4. What do we mean by curriculum as currere?
5. Then number four is: Having identified the “nightmare/s” of Philippine education, how can we as educators address the problem by the context of currere?
6. Please relate your discussions to the three dimensions of instructional planning.
If the term used by Pinar is “nightmare” as U.S. educational standards slide into a more business oriented endeavour, then here in the Philippines our nursing education standards are not only towards commercialization, but also towards human exportation.
The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) said it is making changes to the College of Nursing Curriculum as well as ensure a better passing rate for the Filipino nursing graduates. "We will make changes in the curriculum for nursing to adopt to the international standards," Neri said.
As the thrust and long term goal of the government is in overseas employment as it is incompetent to provide the jobs here, schools have no choice but to comply with whatever curriculum the CHED wants. It must be remembered that the survival and permit of the nursing school lies on its ability to produce enough board passers. The government makes its own effort thru the PRC of publishing the passing statistical figures of each school including the percentile rank, number of examinees, repeaters, etc. perhaps as a warning to the public on which schools to patronize or not.
While a growing number of students graduate from nursing schools, not even 50 percent pass the licensure exams.
Throughout the country, nursing education is being retrofitted to meet the demands of the global market. A surge in demand for nurses among health institutions overseas—particularly in the United States and the United Kingdom—is fueling a boom in nursing schools. But as in any other boom, quality has suffered as the numbers increase, in large part because of skewed priorities.
In the 1970s there were 40 nursing schools in the country. Today there are about 350, including many that are focusing more on reaping profits from people dreaming of high-earning jobs overseas than on preparing students for an exacting profession that provides care for ailing patients and technical support for doctors.
Many of these schools lack up-to-date facilities, qualified faculty or affiliation with a hospital, all of which are supposed to be in place before these institutions are allowed to operate.
Yet instead of attending to these problems, many nursing schools have busied themselves adjusting their requirements to fit the needs of a new type of students: middle-age professionals seeking a new career. Called “second-coursers,” they include doctors as well as accountants, clerks, teachers, journalists, government employees and secretaries. All of them hope to become nurses, preferably in a foreign land. More often than not, such students enjoy a shorter term since their basic science subjects in their first course are credited.
But Rita Tamse of the Technical Committee on Nursing Education of the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) urges students to first scrutinize a school’s credentials and past performance before parting with their often hefty tuition. She notes, for instance, that 23 of the current number of nursing schools have failed to meet the requirements set by the government for them to operate but they have appealed to CHED to let them continue. They have also sought the help of congressmen to avoid closure.
To help students avoid the duds among the schools, CHED has issued a list showing the performance of various schools in the Nursing Board Exam. CHED divided the schools into five categories, with those that have 90 percent or more of their examinees passing the Board in the last five years classifying as institutions that had “outstanding performance.” The bottom category is for “very low performing” schools, or those with 29 percent or below of their students passing the exams.
Under the law, a nursing school must have a passing rate of 5 percent to be able to continue operating. CHED wants to push the rate up to 30 percent, a level that could close down many of the nursing schools.
To certain schools, CHED might appear to be a villain. But the government and even recruiters know that in the end, having high-quality graduates is the best way the country could stay in the business of exporting nurses.
The overwhelming number of students wanting to become nurses obviously contributes to the desire of many schools to have as many graduates as they can. According to CHED, nursing schools had a total of 80,000 enrolees last year, among them “second coursers.” The steep cost of the course apparently did not faze them, perhaps because they expect a quick return in their investment once they land a job overseas.
“Passing all examinations does not make them competitive,” Dr. Rusty Francisco said. Not many Filipino nurses are familiar with the medical equipment being used in US hospitals, he points out. Neither do they know how to operate in an environment where patients are more assertive and aware of their rights.
Francisco argues that even a high-standard school may not be able to change the mindset of those already determined to earn dollars above anything else. “A school curriculum,” he says, “does not automatically turn a person into a caring, compassionate nurse with the ability to be assertive and articulate.”
Now, Nursing Education the Philippines will never be the same again. Nursing, as a course in college, may no longer be as attractive as before starting this school year. The Philippine Nursing Curriculum has dramatically changed since the Commission on Higher Education’s issuance of CHED Memorandum Order (MO) No. 5, series of 2008 otherwise known as “Policies and Standards for Bachelor of Science in Nursing Program”. This CHED Memo makes BSN a five-year course.
The new Nursing Curriculum in the Philippines will effect these changes:
• Instead of the usual 79 units taken up by first year nursing students, the new guidelines will require students to take up 93 units in 2,632 hours.
• Additional 357 hours for hospital training or Related Learning Experiences (RLEs) which will make RLEs 2,499 hours from the previous 2,142 hours
• 28 additional units or about three summers of schooling
Whatever the overt or covert objectives of the curriculum are, at the end of the day, it is still the caring and the competency that will count...
CHED making changes to nursing curriculum to address low passing rate. Retrieved August 19, 2008 from: http://www.gmanews.tv/story/92437/
Nursing schools peddle dreams. By Chit Estella, Philippine Center of Investigative Journalism. Retrieved August 19, 2008 from: http://www.manilatimes.net/others/special/2005/mar/22/20050322spe1.html
Nursing Education in the Philippines: Nursing Curriculum Now 5 Years. Retrieved August 19, 2008 from: http://www.jpsimbulan.com/2008/08/12/nursing-education-in-the-philippines-nursing-curriculum-now-5-years/