By: Dyad2: Gil Legarda/ Joanalyn Balino
ESRD patients in 2004: global overview of patient numbers, treatment modalities and associated trends
By: Aileen Grassmann, Simona Gioberge, Stefan Moeller and Gail Brown
This research study is carried out in a descriptive correlational research design and used a survey tool written in English to study the differences between treatment modalities and associated trends among the 122 countries. This type of research design for data collection and generation will allow for the exploration in the different treatment modalities for ESRD patients. PURPOSE: In order to facilitate effective future planning by healthcare authorities, reliable and up-to-date information on ESRD patient numbers, provide a base for comparison between specified patient populations and an understanding of treatment practices and policies and their implications for the well-being of those undergoing treatment for ESRD. The number of participants involved in this study came from the 122 countries selected by the Fresineus Medical Care with a total of 5.9 Billion which represents the 92% of the total world population. All of the countries with Established dialysis programmes by the Fresinius Medical Care were selected in this study. The Country demographic and economic data were sourced from publicly available and internationally recognized sources and inserted in the forms before distribution. It was conducted at the end of each calendar year focused on the total number of patients treated for ESRD, the treatment modality selected, products used, treatment location and ESRD patient care structure and funding. The settings of this study were in the 122 countries by which the Fresinius Medical Care has an establishment of their dialysis programmes. The researcher used a questionnaire prepared in English and in other cases is in the relevant local language which are distributed to professionals in the field of renal who are in a position to insert ESRD-relevant country. The results are validated centrally by means of cross-reference with the most recent sources of national End Stage Renal Disease information and the result of earlier surveys performed over the past previous years. In addition, responses were subjected to a validation procedure, in which input fields with significant information are linked and checked for consistency. All information gathered was consolidated at different regional levels within the database and validation checks were repeated for groups of countries There were some 1 783 000 people worldwide undergoing treatment for ESRD at the end of 2004. 1 371 000 (77%) were on dialysis treatment and 412 000 (23%) were undergoing renal transplant. The limitation of this research report is only for those ESRD patients only and for those dialysis centres and hospitals with establishments of dialysis programmes by the Fresinius Medical Care.
Compared to year 2003 the total numbers of treated ESRD patients, dialysis and transplant patients each increased by 6 to 7 percent. The result of global average prevalence values for treated ESRD, dialysis and transplant patients were 280, 215 and 65. The prevalence shows significant variation between the designated regions. Remarkably, the average prevalence of both treated ESRD and dialysis in the Europe was lower than in North America and Japan. In totting up, substantial intra-regional variations were reported.
In this research shows a prognosis that ESRD patients will continuously grow and can reached up to 2 million in the year 2010. Also the geographic distribution of ESRD patients in each country will also change. The economic growth of a country is also one of the basis that can affect the increasing number of ESRD patients. The preference of the patients in having a high-flux or low
Grassman A. et al. (2005). ESRD patients in 2004: global overview of patient numbers, treatment modalities and associated trends. Journal of the American Society of Nephrology Vol. 20 pages 2587–2593.
By: Dyad 2: Gil Legarda/ Joanalyn Balino
Nephrotic Ascities: an analysis of 16 cases and review of literature
By: Elloumi H, Arfoui D, Zayane A, Ajmi S.
When your kidneys are permanently failed to work that is End stage renal disease. Hemorrhage, weakness, fatigue, rash, muscle cramps, poor appetite, severe vomiting, fever, diarrhea or bloody diarrhea, abdominal pain, oliguria or polyuria, swelling of the tissues, history of recent infection, and detectable abdominal mass. Blood test that determines blood cell counts, electrolyte level and kidney functions; urine test; chest-x-ray (diagnostic test that uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film); renal Ultrasound which is a non-invasive test in which a transducer is passed over the kidney producing sound waves. Those diagnostic procedure can dtect End Stage Renal Disease.
A clinical diagnosis which is a refractory ascites in patients with end-stage renal disease is Neprogenic ascites. The cause of ascites formation is unknown. Moderate to massive ascites and cachexia are frequently present to patients. The ascetic fluid is an exudates. In order to come-up with a diagnosis they need to exclude the other causes of exudative ascites. The effective ways in controlling the ascites formation are continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and renal transplantation. The prognosis is dismal. 138 Patients reported in the literature to have had ascites associated with end-stage renal disease in which their characteristics, clinical outcomes, and proposed pathophysiologic mechanisms were being reviewed. The contributing mechanisms include fluid overload, hypoprotenuria, peritoneal membrane changes which is not necessarily related to peritoneal dialysis, and lymphatic drainage disturbances. Extensive evaluations could reveal an underlying disease in 15% of cases. Kidney transplantation is the most effective.
Peritoneal Dialysis is one of the two types of dialysis to eliminate the waste products that build up in the blood when the kidneys are not able to function. Kidneys become unable to carry workload of fluid balance in the body which the kidneys most important function then becomes ineffective or ceases completely.
Elloumi H, Arfaoui D, Zayane A, Ajmi S. (2002) Nephrologic Acities, An analysis of 16 cases and review of the literature. Medicine Baltimore. 77(4):233-45.
Uegesk L (1993). Nephrologic Ascities. Case Report and review of the literature. Journal Of NephrologY. 28(3):311-4.
This is the link for the full text of the journal that we used on our epidemiology: The title is ESRD patients in 2004: global overview of patient numbers, treatment modalities and associated trends
by Aileen Grassmann, Simona Gioberge, Stefan Moeller and Gail Brown
Last edited by gillegarda/joanalynbalino on Tue 07 Jul 2009, 6:44 am; edited 11 times in total