E-learning modules for Integrated Virtual Learning

    Empirical Analysis


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    Join date : 2009-06-21
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    Location : Quezon City, Philippines

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    Post  melissa.juco on Tue 06 Apr 2010, 11:25 pm

    Instructional Design

    Empirical Analysis 21st_century_PR_2Empirical Analysis 21_century_PR_1

    GROUP #3
    JUCO, Melissa Frances R.
    MANANQUIL, Ann Marby
    MARASIGAN, Iza Therese C.
    MEDALLA, Jerrick

    Area: Nursing Administration
    Focus: Infection Control Training Program for Staff Nurses


    The emergence of the 21st Century has presented us with bold new knowledge and ways on how to survive the ever changing society. Our mode of living is gradually being taken over by various technological advancements in communication, innovation and research, science and health among others. According to Dr. Douglas Kellner of the UCLA (2004), ‘We now live in an increasingly diverse, globalized, and complex, media-saturated society. This technological revolution will have a greater impact on society than the transition from an oral to a print culture.’

    With regards to education in the new millennium, the curriculum is more interdisciplinary, project-based and research-driven. Lesson plans incorporate higher order thinking skills, multiple intelligences, technology and multimedia, and authentic assessments which are directed to the students’ interests, experiences and talents. Therefore, 21st century education is more student-centered with the teacher acting as a mere facilitator and/or coach. At the same time, learners today possess fundamental natures of being temperamentally curious and hungry for knowledge. Thus, a “culture of inquiry” should be emphasized and encouraged in the global classroom / clinical setting to effectively deliver programs of instruction.

    In the nursing clinical practice, being aware of the 21st century learners can help bridge the gap of instruction towards its learners therefore creating efficient delivery of information to students. Thus, our group would like to effectively utilize the Nursing Administration area to center on Infection Control principles and management. According to the survey conducted by the Royal College of Nursing, almost 1/3 of nurses in the United Kingdom have been unable to access training in infection control. With this result, concerns regarding patient safety are beginning to rise. The Philippines, however, is not excluded in this current issue. Nosocomial infections have become a major concern in different hospital settings. Strict aseptic techniques are not fully implemented and followed by the staff nurses. According to Davies, 'There is a need for mandatory training about infection control. The training ensures that staff nurses are up-to-date with infection control procedures, life saving techniques and good practice.' Thus, it is the nurses’ own responsibility to ensure that they are equipped with the knowledge and skills they need to effectively provide patient care. However, it is the managers’ role to ensure that their subordinates are complying with this protocol and can provide continuous staff development.

    The empirical analysis presented above gives us an idea of the needs and problems of nursing administrators in the 21st century. At the same time, it also presents us with a clear picture of the characteristics of nurses/learners today. Hence, the group has decided to formulate a sample instructional device on Infection Control Training programs for staff nurses and nurse administrators in the Philippines.



    1.) Davies, J. 2010. UK Nurses Lack Access to Infection Control Training. Accessed last April 6, 2010 from http://www.infectioncontroltoday.com/hotnews/uk-nurses-lack-infection-control-training.html

    2.) Kellner, D. 2004. New Media and New Literacies: Reconstructing Education for the New Millennium. Accessed last April 6, 2010 from http://www.21stcenturyschools.com/What_is_21st_Century_Education.htm

    3.) Lambert, M. 2001. 21st Century Learners - And Their Approaches to Learning. Accessed last April 6, 2010 from http://ultibase.rmit.edu.au/Articles/sept02/lambert1.htm

    Last edited by melissa.juco on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 5:49 pm; edited 2 times in total
    Christian Jay Facto

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    Post  Christian Jay Facto on Tue 06 Apr 2010, 11:41 pm

    University of the East
    Ramon Magsaysay Memorial Medical Center
    Aurora Boulevard Quezon Ctiy

    Graduate School

    Instructional Design

    Alvarez, Efren Jr. F.
    Facto, Christian Jay J.
    Monterozo, Mary Lynn R.
    Nidar, Joy H.

    21st-Century Learners

    Over time the learner has been the explorer of knowledge, its accumulator and skilled ‘access-or’. In the 21st century challenges and demands are expanding and changing again. Our new society’s environment is one of rapid communication, action and change, of intricate social activity and a huge potential for new knowledge. (Lambert, M. 2002)

    Lambert, M. (2002) postulated four models of the learner of the future: (1) Collaborator, for whom networks of knowledge, skills and ideas are the source of learning (2) Free agent: utilising flexible, continuous, open-ended and life-long styles and systems of learning to the full (3) Wise analyser whom able to gather, scrutinise and use evidence of effective activity and apply conclusions to new problems and (4) Creative synthesizer which able to connect across themes and disciplines, crossfertilise ideas, integrate disparate concepts and create new vision and practice.

    Spires, H.A. et al (2008) on the other hand, emphasized the increasing trend of using digital technologies among student teenagers whether in school or out of school activities. In addition, the students are seemed to have high levels of basic computer skills, including word processing and spreadsheet skills. These skills were developed primarily in school-based contexts. Majority of students used various digital applications such as word processing, painting, and design technologies to complete and share their work.

    Furthermore, it is claimed that games can promote creativity and innovation, abilities that are more important than ever in today's competitive global economy on which students will learn how to creatively adapt and apply knowledge in a variety of real-world situations. (Spires, H.A. et al 2002)

    For traditional teachers to cope with their students who are more adept in the use of digital technology, they must accept the fact that they are not the main source of information. They must be able to utilize the same technologies their students use and integrate it into the curriculum. (Rodgers, et al, 2006 )

    Lambert, M. (2002). 21st Century Learners - and their approachs to learning. School of Education, University of Wolverhampton, UK. Retrieved April 6, 2010.

    Spires, H., Lee, J., and Lester, J. (2008). The Twenty-First Century Learner and Game-Based Learning. Meridian Middle School Computer Technologies Journal, Issue I, Volume 11. Retrieved April 6, 2010 from http://www.ncsu.edu/meridian/win2008/21st/index.htm

    Rodgers, M., Runyon, D., Starrett, D., and Holzen, R.V. (2006). Teaching the 21st Century Learner. The Board of Regents of the University of Wisconsin System. Retrieved April 6, 2010

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    Post  purplemarge on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 12:20 am

    Date: April 6, 2010

    Group 1

    Castellano, Katrina Sopia

    Galvez, Maria Lourdes V.

    Gonzales, Charise

    Ochona, Zacchari Andrei

    Each generation varies from their predecessor. Learning methods evolve to learning centered that focuses on student learning rather than on teacher delivery (Monaco, 2007). Nowadays, students are highly dependent on technology and their support system, rather that exploring the real world, and going out and finding the answers for themselves. With this evolution, teachers must now adapt to the new paradigm and shift their techniques, and develop new strategies that can produce effective learning outcomes for the new age learners.

    At this note, one must know their audience in order to develop instructional methods and delivery styles to use. So with the use of a proper course syllabus it can provide good direction of a step-by-step guide for the student on what to be expected and what will they be learning. The new age learners are surely technologically savvy. Today learners of the 21st century rely on the personal technologies for information and connection to others social networking sites. The international Society for technology in Education (ISTE) believes that “to live, learn, and work successfully in an increasingly complex and information- students must be able use technology effectively.”

    Teachers use several tools for formative assessment. These include observation, classroom discussion, and analysis of student work, including homework and regular test. In a formative assessed environment, student can take tests and get immediate feedback on how they performed. A differentiated classroom offers student different ways to learn subject content, make sense of ideas, and demonstrate learning.

    According to Julia Thompson (2007), there are existing characteristics in a 21st century learning environment. First, is the physical environment being invitational. Many of us teach in cramped and overcrowded rooms without enough basic materials and certainly not expensive equipment such as interactive white boards and LCD projectors. Despite these restrictions, effective secondary teachers can manage to create an environment where students focus on learning.

    Secondly, students understand the rules and procedures they are expected to follow. The teacher has obviously given much thought to planning and establishing a well-organized learning climate. In a well-disciplined class, students understand what they are expected to achieve each day and how they are to go about it.

    Next, students are actively engaged in the pursuit of knowledge. Then, there is a persistent tone of mutual respect. Teachers and students treat each other with obvious respect. This is evident in such nonverbal interactions as body language and tone of voice as well as in what students and teachers say to each other. Students speak with confidence because they feel their opinions are valued. Students in a well-disciplined class also respect their classmates. They have been taught to appreciate each other’s unique contributions to the class as well as appropriate ways to resolve conflicts. There is a general sense of togetherness and steadfast courtesy.

    Lastly, students take responsibility for their learning. In a well-disciplined class, students may be led by their teachers, but they are not coerced into good behavior through threats and punishment. Instead, they are encouraged to understand the importance of choosing good behavior and its lasting rewards over the short-term thrills of bad behavior. In an orderly they also work with their teacher to achieve academic and behavioral goals that they themselves have helped establish. Successful teachers employ a variety of strategies to promote responsible decision-making and create self-reliant students.

    With all of these being said, Coil (2005), identified answers towards teaching creatively. She discusses the 21st century needs for teaching having flexibility, adequate resources, correct choice, and appropriate planning. Differentiated instruction is a way to enhance learning for all students by engaging them in instructional strategies and learning activities that address diverse learning need, strengths, and preferences. Students can learn using the method that work best for them or what challenges them the most.


    Coil C. (2005). Teaching Tools for the 21st Century. John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp. 201-203

    Monaco, M. Martin, M. (2007) The millennial student: a new generation of learners. Athletic training education journal; (April-June) : pp.42-46

    Thompson J. (2007). Five Characteristics of a Well- Managed 21st Century Classroom. John Wiley & Sons Inc. pp.57-60

    Good, TL. (2008) 21st Century Education: A Reference Handbook. Sage Publications.

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    Join date : 2010-04-07

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    Post  FELIXAQUINO on Wed 07 Apr 2010, 8:52 pm

    Aquino, Felix
    Magdael, Rutchelle Kaye
    Sarmiento, Noel
    Vallarta, Aldrin Vincent

    Empirical Analysis 26957_383485864381_737384381_3617917_6384886_n
    Source: Abu-Moghli, F. A. et al (2005). Jordanian baccalaureate nursing students’ perception of their learning styles. International Council of Nurses 52;39-45. Retrieved on April 6,2010 at EBSCO.

    Needs of 21st Century Learners (nursing education)

    The study was conducted among 420 Jordanian nursing students to determine their perception on their own learning styles. The table depicts that there are certain needs that must be addressed in nursing schools. These are poor study skills (39.5%), needs assistance in solving problems (45.9), fix schedule of activities (60.3) and difficulty in adjusting resources to needs (50.5).

    According to Lambert (2001), the needs of the learners are:
    • keen perception of new social trends and change
    • skills of self-reliance, the ability to take, survive and profit from risks
    • ability to develop and maintain value of their ‘portfolio’, to adapt goals in the face of changing circumstances, and to seek out and manage ... and not to fear - career transitions
    • underlying confidence and sense of self-worth
    • support towards responsibility in learning, because as Ball (1996) points out: ‘The key principle governing provision for and pursuit of learning in the future must be the primacy of personal responsibility for learning, encouraged and enabled by the support of the whole community


    The 21st century learners must possess characteristics that would help them meet their needs. These are the ability to articulate thoughts and ideas clearly and effectively through speaking and writing, work effectively with diverse teams, exercise flexibility and a willingness to be helpful in making necessary compromises to accomplish a common goal, and assume shared responsibility for collaborative work.

    Learning Styles (nursing education)

    In the study of Moura (2006), he identified five learning styles of graduate students enrolled in the master’s program. These are as follows:

    Deep Learning assesses two different aspects, labeled semantic and critical. The semantic facet involves a preference for knowing about things rather than knowing things directly from practical experience. The critical facet of Deep Learning involves critical analysis of theories. Students who score high on this subscale tend to question the reasons behind each theory.

    Elaborative Learning is characterized by a preference for dialectical learning, which can emphasize either theoretical or experiential forms of knowledge. Students who use elaborative processing tend to have more integrated self-concepts and use self-reference as a learning tactic. Elaborative Learning also assesses two aspects, labeled episodic and self-actualizing. The episodic involves imagination and use of memory in problem-solving situations. Self-actualizing learning emphasizes self-expression and personal development, and relies on intuition rather than logic.

    Agentic Learning, on the other hand, is characterized by a propensity toward a realistic approach, where learning is task-oriented and responsive to external circumstances. Serial and analytic are the two subscales of Agentic Learning. Serial involves scheduling and programming of activities and academic tasks to be done. Analytic emphasizes logical decomposition of the constituents of tasks using appropriate tactics.

    Methodical Learning focuses on techniques rather than content.

    The final dimension of learning is called Literal Memorization. This scale identifies students who repeat information the teacher provides. Unfortunately, many educators like to see this as a kind of learning style. They believe that they are educating; however, rather than education this is a process of oppression.


    Abu-Moghli, F. A. et al (2005). Jordanian baccalaureate nursing students’ perception of their learning styles. International Council of Nurses 52;39-45. Retrieved on April 6,2010 at EBSCO.

    Ampitheater Public Schools (2004). Teaching and learning. Retrieved on April 6, 2010 at www.amphi.com/departments/teachlearn/protocols.html

    Lambert, M. (2001). 21st Century Learners - and their approaches to learning.Retrievd on April 6, 2010 at http://ultibase.rmit.edu.au/Articles/sept02/lambert1.htm

    Mouro L. 2006. Learning styles of nursing graduate students enrolled in a master’s degree program. Retrieved on April 6, 2010 at http://www.scielo.br/pdf/ape/v19n4/v19n4a02.pdf

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