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    Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

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    Maria Al
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    Post  Maria Al on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 7:27 pm

    Perez, Maria Althea Sabrina L.
    Executive-4


    “When you look in the mirror, what do you see? Do you like what you see?” these are the frequently asked questions seen in the television or heard elsewhere. Women are under pressure to measure up to a certain social and cultural ideal of beauty, which can lead to poor body image. Women are constantly bombarded with "Barbie-like" doll images. By presenting an ideal difficult to achieve and maintain, the cosmetic and diet product industries are assured of growth and profits. It's no accident that youth is increasingly promoted, along with thinness, as an essential criterion of beauty. If not all women need to lose weight, for sure they're all aging — which is a "disaster" sure to happen — as described by older women.

    For women, surgery is not just an option, they think it’s the SOLUTION.

    According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons (ASPS), there are two categories of patients who are good candidates for surgery. The first includes patients with a strong self-image, who are bothered by a physical characteristic that they'd like to improve or change. The second category includes patients who have a physical defect or cosmetic flaw that has diminished their self-esteem over time. It's important to remember that cosmetic surgery can create both physical changes and changes in self-esteem.

    According to the National Mental Health Center in the United States, some women choose surgery not because of physical flaws but as an escape from an emotional turmoil in their lives. The American Society of Plastic Surgeons summed up a list of inappropriate candidates for cosmetic surgery.
    • Patients in crisis, such as those who are going through divorce, the death of a spouse, or the loss of a job. These patients may be seeking to achieve goals that cannot be obtained through an appearance change-goals that relate to overcoming crisis through an unrelated change in appearance is not the solution. Rather, a patient must first work through the crisis.
    • Patients with unrealistic expectations, such as those who insist on having a celebrity's nose, with the hope that they may acquire a celebrity lifestyle; patients who want to be restored to their original "perfection" following a severe accident or a serious illness; or patients who wish to find the youth of many decades past.
    • Impossible-to-please patients, such as individuals who consult with surgeon after surgeon, seeking the answers they want to hear. These patients hope for a cure to a problem, which is not primarily, or not at all physical.
    • Patients who are obsessed with a very minor defect, and may believe that once their defect is fixed, life will be perfect. Born perfectionists may be suitable candidates for surgery, as long as they are realistic enough to understand that surgical results may not precisely match their goals.
    • Patients who have a mental illness, and exhibit delusional or paranoid behavior, may also be poor candidates for surgery. Surgery may be appropriate in these cases if it is determined that the patient's goals for surgery are not related to the psychosis. In these cases, a plastic surgeon may work closely with the patient's psychiatrist.
    Aesthetic Surgery Journal (2006) released new data from a study on the impact of aesthetic plastic surgery on body image and sexual satisfaction. Women who undergo common elective cosmetic surgery procedures not only feel better about their bodies, but also have higher degrees of satisfaction with their sex lives, including ability to orgasm. Women in the study who had undergone aesthetic procedures were more sexually satisfied, reported that their partners were more sexually satisfied, dressed to enhance their new figures, and were apt to try more and different sexual activities post-surgery. The greatest benefits were seen in women who had breast augmentation/breast lift and/or body contouring procedures.

    In an alternative approach to understanding weight concern, research has examined the role of ethnicity. Akan and Grilo (1995) reported that although the African-American subjects in their college sample had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI), the white subjects showed higher degrees of disordered eating. Similarly, white subjects have frequently been found to report greater body dissatisfaction and eating concerns than both Asian and Black subjects (Powell and Kahn, 1995).

    Building a healthy lifestyle that includes a healthy diet and physical activity is important to improving body image. Women want to look their best, but a healthy body is not always linked to appearance. In fact, healthy bodies come in all shapes and sizes! Developing and nurturing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to a woman's happiness and wellness.
    It is important to remember that when you change your body image, you don't change your body, you change the way you think about your body.
    Essentials to developing healthy body image include:
    • eating healthy
    • regular exercise
    • plenty of rest
    Eating healthy can promote healthy skin and hair, along with strong bones; exercise has been showed to increase self-esteem, self-image, and energy; and plenty or rest is the key to stress management - all of these can make you feel good about your body.
    With a positive body image, a woman has a real perception of her size and shape and feels comfortable and proud about her body. With a negative body image, a woman has a distorted perception of her shape and size, compares her body to others, and feels shame, awkwardness, and anxiety about her body. A woman's dissatisfaction with her body affects how she thinks and feels about herself. A poor body image can lead to emotional distress, low self-esteem, dieting, anxiety, depression, and eating disorders.

    References:

    L. Abrams & C. Stormer (2000). Sociocultural Variations in the Body Image Perceptions
    of Urban Adolescent Females. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, Vol. 31, No. 6, December 2002, pp. 443–450

    Abell, S., and Richards, M. (1996). The relationship between body shape satisfaction and self-esteem: An investigation of gender and class differences. J. Youth Adolesc. 25(5): 691–704.

    Anderson-Fye, E., and A.E. Becker 2004 Socio-Cultural Aspects of Eating Disorders. In Handbook of Eating Disorders and Obesity. J.K. Thompson, ed., pp. 565–589. Wiley.

    J. Ogden (1997). The Role of Family Status and Ethnic Group on Body Image and Eating Behavior. Department of General Practice, UMDS, London University, London, United Kingdom

    Honigman R, Phillips KA, Castle DJ (2004) A review of psychosocial outcomes for patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Plast Reconstr Surg, 113.

    National Plastic Surgery Procedural Statistics, 2006. Arlington Heights, III, American Society of Plastic Surgeons, 2007


    - my apologies for posting a late reply regarding this discussion, i had a problem with my computer kasi.
    Smile

    Angel Ve
    Guest

    Women with disabilities- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  Angel Ve on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 2:54 pm

    Hello everyone!

    I had a great time reading your posts. All of you were able to obtain in depth understanding of how body image is affected by physical, psychological, cultural and social factors and how these factors can affect the way a woman behaves and see herself. I want to recognize some of you who shared their own personal experience of dealing with their own struggle of holding an image that is ideal.

    Each individual holds an idealized mental picture of his or her physical self; he or she uses this image to measure concepts related to body image. Once an individual's percepts or concepts of this body image are altered, emotional, perceptual and psychosocial reactions can result.

    Body image is the mental picture a person forms of his or her physical self. According to Kolb (Kolb LC. 1959), each individual holds an image of the body that he or she considers the ideal in relation to his or her own body. An alteration in a person's body image sets up a series of emotional, perceptual and psychosocial reactions (Kolb LC. 1975)

    As I was reading your answers, I noticed that all of us agreed that there are different aspects and conditions that can change women’s view of body image. Disabilities which are phenomenon that may be caused by several conditions (aging, diabetes, cancer and others) can have an impact on the way a woman view herself. It can limit the activities of women that can hinder her from conforming on the image set and accepted by the society. This distortion can lead to women seeing their imperfect bodies as indicators of an imperfect person (Brownell, 2005. It can negatively influence women’s experiences, feelings and attitudes toward their own bodies. (Taleporos, 2002).

    Aside from disabilities, most of you also mentioned the influence of culture and society specifically the mass media on body image of women. Researches put special consideration on factors stemming from social and cultural forces that play a role in determining body image. A woman’s attitude about body image is formed within her cultural environment and is the result of sociocultural experiences (Arena, 2003). Different cultures have different beliefs and influences on what are considered valued behaviors. Moreover, society places value on youthful (and gorgeous) physical appearance, physical disabilities can negatively affect a woman's body image and in turn decrease her self esteem. Socially constructed differences toward appearance contribute toward “thinness” standards for women. Many women in American society are identified by their body type. This unrealistic standard of beauty has been further distorted in the mass media.

    Women changes their view of what ideal body image is. It is hard to find a woman who likes her body. (Brownell, 2005)Women are always dissatisfied on how they look because of the belief that they have to conform on the stereotyped body image portrayed by society particularly the media.

    We all agreed to the fact that mass media has a special contribution in setting up the standard of beauty for women. We see different advertisements on the television that shows sexy body, beautiful skin and face which can change our idea of body image. (Kaminski, 2005). But may we come to realize that these media and the advertisements that they show can be biased. They show us what is not realistic at hand. They try to persuade women and send message that if we look like not the same us their models, we are not acceptable. So we have to use their products. Messages from the advertisements show that losing weight is easy and that if you are not similar to the picture you are lazy and fat. Many women who want to meet the unrealistic standard of media come into a point that they will develop eating disorders in an effort to become thin (Elliot, 2006). And when these women were not able to achieve it they may have poor body image.

    It is good that most of you also mentioned developmental factor influencing body image in women. Dissatisfaction is prevalent among women and girls. (Choate, 2005) In children, female dissatisfaction with appearance and poor body image begins at very early age. Studies have reported body dissatisfaction prevalence greater than 60 percent for high school aged females and higher than 80 percent for women in universitys (Choate, 2006). A large percentage of younger women feel that their body weight is too high and are trying to lose weight even when their weights are within, or below, the range that is considered healthy (Clay, 2005). In middle aged women, they are more conscious of their body image and believe that they no longer conform to society’s youth and beauty which can lead to their low-self-esteem, depression and anxiety.
    Ara also included pregnancy as part of developmental factor wherein there are resultant changes in all factors of self-concept.As the pregnancy progresses, the woman’s body image adjusts to accommodate the idea that the baby is a separate individual. Also there are changes in physical appearance during delivery like increase in weight, visible stretch marks for some, darkening of the armpit and neck.. These make women feel insecure and afraid that their husband will look for someone that is more beautiful than they are. In this case, they have to feel secured and reassured. (can you recall Jonnah’s experience?) After delivery, the woman who has positive self-esteem will accept and love the baby. One who feels unlovable or unattractive may make disparaging remarks about the infant, and have difficulty bonding appropriately and adjusting to the life changes a new baby introduces.

    Several researches that you stated for body image intervention include:
    • Obesity, Stigma and Public Health Planning
    • Body Image Among Women with HIV: A Cross Sectional Evaluation
    • The Effect of Gender in Improving Body Image and Self Esteem, Australia Research review on Body programs
    • Australia A Research Review of Body Image Prout school-based interventions, Adolescent Community-Based Interventions, University Interventions, Adult Community Interventions and Self-esteem interventions
    • Cognitive Dissonance Intervention

    With regards to the nursing role, all of us have the same view on how we are going to provide interventions for patients with this condition. First is that we have to be aware of ourselves so that we can use our own selves in rendering care and comfort to these patients. Some mentioned of allowing the patient to verbalize their feelings. Therapeutic communication will play an important role here. Encouraging the client to verbalize will help the nurse identify the learning needs of the patient and will allow the nurse to provide information and appropriate intervention that will satisfy patient’s doubts about her condition.


    Thank you classmates for imparting your knowledge and sharing your experiences.

    Let me leave you with this:

    “Do not look on his appearance or on the height of his stature, because I have rejected him. For the Lord sees not as man sees: man looks on the outward appearance, but the Lord looks on the heart.” (1 Samuel 16:7)

    Thanks again. Have a great day!

    <ANGEL>

    ara_portillo

    Posts : 74
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    Women and Body Image

    Post  ara_portillo on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 11:38 am

    PORTILLO, Maria Santa R.
    MCN – EXEC 4


    1. What is the impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women?

    It is notorious that women are really “vain” when it comes to their selves. Even the ancient times, females will strive their best to look good and presentable. That’s why the concept of beauty products came into being. Given this reality, disabilities affecting women will definitely create a great impact their body image. Same with jonnah, I have an encounter with this patient (who is in her 30’s) when I’m still a student. She’ll be undergoing mastectomy and with my dealings with her during the pre-op stage, aside from her anxieties to the operation, she would verbalize her worries of how it is to live without one of her breasts and how will her husband looks at her after it. And for me, this is really a big concern for all the girls.

    Still, the severity of the impact among the women depends on many factors. First, it addresses the woman’s own perception of herself given that disability – to grieve at the early stage of it is part of the process but later on, her coping mechanism (together with her values in life) will play a great role. Second, the support system available can either help a lot or make her suffer more. If acceptance among the people around her is present, coping is easy; but if such acceptance is absent, it is really a great challenge for her.

    2. Aside from disabilities, other factors play a role in influencing women’s perception of herself. How can cultural, social and developmental factors affect how a woman perceives her body image?
    According to Schilder, perception of self is influenced by one’s own attitudes and values placed on her body in comparison with others; and by social experiences, with ongoing interactions between what others say with the physical appearance and her personal reactions to these impressions (Breakey, 1997).

    Between the two, social factors have the great driving force in the way body image is viewed. The culture that the woman grew up with is one. In countries where inequalities between gender in the culture exists, specially those paying more importance to the males will produce women whose view of themselves are always lesser, someone who has limited access and rights to many things. (Cases like this is shown from our readings). Also, each culture has their own definitions and standards of what is beautiful and what is not. And women would make those as a guide in evaluating themselves, being able to fit themselves with the standards given, the more welcome they feel they are. This is the same with the culture being exposed in the media. It is a mentality nowadays that whatever is being flashed in front of the television screens becomes the society’s measure on what is acceptable and nice. So if you are “in” or “out” with the portrayed trend will affect how you will be evaluated by those around you and also, how you will evaluate yourself.

    Development transitions
    also affect women’s view on body image. For example, pregnancy is a process with resultant changes in all these factors of self-concept. In the early part of pregnancy, the woman incorporates the baby into her self-image. As the pregnancy progresses, the woman’s body image adjusts to accommodate the idea that the baby is a separate individual. After delivery, the woman who has positive self-esteem will accept and love the baby. One who feels unlovable or unattractive may make disparaging remarks about the infant, and have difficulty bonding appropriately and adjusting to the life changes a new baby introduces. Another is menopause. Some people view the female climacteric (menopausal phase) as an indication of loss of femininity with resultant decrease in value as a person. Other women view menopause as a sign of freedom from the risk of childbearing (Edelman & Mandle, 1997).

    3. Are there specific researches done to determine body image interventions that focus on an individual and in a larger population?

    Most of the researchers available includes exploration of the extent of effects of body image disturbance (due to different causes) among women in order to propose for sound interventions or approaches for care. However, search for studies concerning about interventions will yield research concerning interventions specific for a particular cause of body image disturbance. Examples are as follows:

    • Obesity, Stigma and Public Health Planning - In North America, stigma is associated with obese people. Much is written in the literatures about his stigmatization but few guidelines are available for public health workers who design and implement obesity prevention programs to minimize the stigma. The authors, then examine the stigmatization of obese people and the consequences of this social process, and discuss how stigma is manifest in health service provision; then, they give suggestions for designing non-stimagtisizing obesity prevention public health programs (MacLean, et al., 2009).
    • Body Image Among Women with HIV: A Cross Sectional Evaluation – The study demonstrated that HIV and lipodystrophy status among women is associated with poor body image. The authors call for universal efforts should be made in the HIV medical community to recognize body image issues particularly among persons affected by lipodystrophy so that appropriate intervention and support may be provided (Huang et el., 2006).
    • The Effect of Gender in Improving Body Image and Self Esteem - There is considerable agreement that physical activity is associated with improvements in self-esteem and body image perception, however it would seem that these effects are not the same for both genders. This study examines the differences between the sexes on the affect of activity on self-esteem and body image. In conclusion the present study gives support for the notion that participation in a worthwhile activity can improve body image and self-esteem. In this study body image improved as a consequence of aerobic exercise, whilst self-esteem improved following a computer course but both of these effects were seen only in men. This generates the interesting question of if one were to design an intervention bring about a positive change in self esteem and body image whether the nature of it (for example duration, intensity, style) should be different depending on the gender of the target group (Murray, G., & Kirby, S., 2009)

    4. As a nurse, what will be your role in taking care of a woman with disrupted body image due to disabilities?

    As nurses, it is a challenging role for us to deal with women suffering from disrupted body image due to disabilities. An advantage that we have (for female nurses) is that we know how hard it is to be in such conditions. But hopefully, this advantage will not be the means for us to be so immersed to the client’s case to the extent that we can no longer perform what is expected of us.

    Our roles will be to attend to their physical needs associated with their disabilities and to provide also for their psychological needs. Being attentive listeners to their concerns will be of great help. Telling them that being sad about it is just normal. Also, we need to aid them to utilize healthy defense mechanisms. Later on, once they have accepted it, we can propose and help them decide for alternatives like use of a wig, hat, etc.

    References:
    Breakey J. 1997. Body Image: the Inner Mirror. Retrieved June 25, 2009. Available at: http://www.oandp.org/jpo/library/1997_03_107.asp
    Edelman, C. L., & Mandle, C. L. (1997). Health promotion throughout the life span (4th ed.). St. Louis: Mosby.

    DeLaune, S., & Lander, P., 2002. Foundations of Nursing Practice, 2nd Ed. Thomson Learning Inc.

    MacLean, L., Edwards, N., Garrad, M., Jones, N., Clinton, K., Asheley, L., 2009. Obesity, Stigma and Public Health Planning. Health Promotion International Advance Access published online on January 8, 2009. Availalbe at http://heapro.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/dan041v1

    Huang, J.S., Harrity, s., Lee, D., Becerra, k., Santos, R., Mathews, C., 2006. Body image in women with HIV: a cross sectional evaluation. AIDS Research and Therapy 2006, 3:17. Electronic version available at http://www.aidsrestherapy.com/content/3/1/17

    Murray, G., & Kirby, S., 2009. The Effect of Gender in Improving Body Image and Self Esteem. Online journal of Sports Psychology. Available at http://www.athleticinsight.com/Vol9Iss3/GenderandPositiveChange.htm

    ma. cristina arroyo

    Posts : 75
    Join date : 2009-06-24

    women and disabilities

    Post  ma. cristina arroyo on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 11:11 am


    Ma. Cristina D. Arroyo Women’s Health
    MSNMCN E4 Prof. Mae Nierras

    Women and Disabilities


    Impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women
    All research to date on body image shows that women are much more critical of their appearance than men (Fox, 1997).
    Disability is a natural phenomenon which occurs in every society, in every generation. Disabilities may result from several causes: prenatal factors, birth injuries, disease, traumatic injuries, physical or mental stress.
    Disability is not an illness, although some disabilities are caused by illness. Rather, disability is a chronic or long-term condition which substantially limits an individual in performing one or more activities of daily living (ADL's). Activities of daily living include walking, seeing, hearing, learning, caring for oneself, breathing, lifting, and so on. Girls and women with disabilities, especially physical disabilities, often notice that they do not conform to dominant cultural and/or commercial images of feminine beauty. As a result, people living with facial and physical differences and/or disabilities are often subject to negative or inaccurate perceptions of their bodies and lives, encountering judgmental comments, intrusive stares, and questions about their bodies (Rice, 2003). The mass media, as well as individual interactions, seem to emphasize a particular ideal of perfection, which disabled women may feel is unattainable. Women who are able to understand, analyze, and reject those images may develop a stronger sense of their own unique beauty (Hershey, 2000).
    Bodily impairment had a negative influence on the participants’ psychological experiences, feelings and attitudes toward their own bodies (Taleporos, 2002).
    Many people with disabilities feel hurt and angry because of the way able-bodied people speak to them. Conversation levels and voice tones that are often used are not age-appropriate or are on topics, particularly about relationships and sexuality which are inappropriate, offensive or which can raise false hopes and expectations.


    Cultural, Social and Developmental factors of Body Image
    Body image may be considered as the total, constantly changing and evolving perception of one's physical self as separate and distinct from all others. This perception is based on inner sensations and functioning as well as on information derived from the external environment (Scott, 2009).

    Social Factors
    Society plays a significant factor in honing body image of a person especially of women. In society, reflects the what-to and what-not-to, further forming the images of little girls as what to become as they grow up. In society also that people conform into whatever is in and whatever the society accepts.
    • Attractive children are more popular, both with classmates and teachers. Teachers give higher evaluations to the work of attractive children and have higher expectations of them.
    • Attractive applicants have a better chance of getting jobs, and of receiving higher salaries. (one US study found that taller men earned around $600 per inch more than shorter executives.)
    • In court, attractive people are found guilty less often. When found guilty, they receive less severe sentences.
    • The 'bias for beauty' operates in almost all social situations – all experiments show we react more favourably to physically attractive people.
    • We also believe in the 'what is beautiful is good' stereotype – an irrational but deep-seated belief that physically attractive people possess other desirable characteristics such as intelligence, competence, social skills, confidence – even moral virtue. (The good fairy/princess is always beautiful; the wicked stepmother is always ugly) (Social Issues Research Centre, 2009).
    • People around us affect the way we see ourselves. It started back in childhood, when often mothers will dress up their children and boast to her friends. Another aspect of peer influence is the exposure to older children. It has been speculated that older children who have already internalized the cultural norms for body shapes may display these attitudes to the younger children who spend time with them. Consequently, this involvement between different age groups could lead to further awareness and internalization of body image by younger children.

    A major factor that reflects the society’s picture is through media. Many people especially children watch between two and four hours of television per day. The presence or absence of role models, how women and men, girls and boys are presented, and what activities they participate in on the screen powerfully affect how girls and boys view their role in the world. Studies looking at cartoons, regular television, and commercials show that although many changes have occurred and girls, in particular have a wider range of role models, for girls "how they look" is more important than "what they do." (National Institute on Media and Family)

    Developmental
    Children
    Female dissatisfaction with appearance – poor body-image – begins at a very early age. Human infants begin to recognize themselves in mirrors at about two years old. Female humans begin to dislike what they see only a few years later.
    Teasing factor: If you were teased about flaws in your appearance (particularly your size or weight) as a child or teenager, your body image may have become permanently disturbed and Touch-deprivation factor: People suffering from extreme body-image disturbance report a lack of holding and hugging as children.
    Adolescents
    Boys do go through a short phase of relative dissatisfaction with their appearance in early adolescence, but the physical changes associated with puberty soon bring them closer to the masculine ideal – i.e. they get taller, broader in the shoulders, more muscular etc.
    For girls, however, puberty only makes things worse. The normal physical changes – increase in weight and body fat, particularly on the hips and thighs, take them further from the cultural ideal of unnatural slimness.
    Adults
    Among women over 18 looking at themselves in the mirror, research indicates that at least 80% are unhappy with what they see. Looking through the changes that are happening, looking to what they lack instead of what they have.
    • Aging
    In a society that places much value on youth, a woman's body image can be affected by aging in many ways. Physical changes such as weight gain, hair loss, and wrinkles can affect a woman's self-esteem. Menopause can be a stressful time for women due to hormonal changes. Osteoporosis can lead to broken bones and fractures, affecting a woman's independence. Women can often have two stressful roles - as caregiver and caretaker - raising children and taking care of elderly parents. Women can also feel lonely and less useful as they age, leading to depression.
    Culture
    Black and Asian women generally have a more positive body-image than Caucasian women, although this depends on the degree to which they have accepted the beauty standards of the dominant culture.
    Culture plays in influencing body image especially on women as women are seen as object for men. Culture presents high regards to body image, where women must look good in order to marry a ‘someone’ in the society and must stay looking good in order for the husband to stay and not look for another else.

    Researches done to determine body image interventions
    Yes, there are actually existing researches that will tackle about body image interventions. However, there are only few studies in this particular issue.
    Dworkin, Sari H.; Kerr, Barbara A.Comparison of Interventions for Women Experiencing Body Image Problem. Journal of Counseling Psychology. Volume 34 (2).
    Rumsey N. Harcourt D. 2004. Body image and disfigurement: issues and interventions.Body Image. Volume 1 (1).
    Paxton S., Hay P. 2009. Interventions for Body Image and Eating Disorders Evidence and Practice.
    Nurse’s Role in Body Image Disturbance
    Nurses can promote peace between mind and body through the nursing process, role modeling, and community involvement. Body image should be assessed, particularly during vulnerable periods, such as adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Planning, intervention, and evaluation should focus on self-acceptance and emotional and physical well-being, rather than on changing one's appearance (Low,1993).
    The most vital role of the nurse is to encourage the patient's verbalization about her concerns and fears (Fortune, 2005).
    Nurse’s Role: (Sharma, 2002)
    1. Spend Time with Patients
    Calling a patient by his name, just remaining with him to listen to what he his to say, is a great contribution to his comfort and well being.
    2. Verbalization of Feelings
    The single most useful thing is to encourage and support the verbalization of emotions. In itself, putting worry into words very often brings about a tremendoes relief of tension.
    3. Handling the Crying of Patient Verbalization of distress is often accompanied by tearfulness. In our culture, is unacceptable for men to cry, and so you may find this behavior in a man upsetting. Many women get great relief from a `good cry' , men should not be denied too, it is just a manifestation. Any crying should be handled with care and privacy and support given until composure is regained.
    4. Orientation of Patient to Health Care Facility
    Provide detailed explanation of the care patient receives and of rationale behind various medical and nursing procedures that the patient has to undergo, with constant reassurances all along. This will alleviate the fear of 'unknown' in patients.
    5. Identification of Learning Needs of Patients
    In course of interacting with the patient and especially when distress is verbalized, learning needs of patients will be identified, e.g. a patient before surgery may worry about prognosis, pain, ambulation, dependency etc. Imparting information on these aspects will satisfy patients' need to know about his condition, treatment etc. and thus reduce anxiety.
    6. Act as a Resource Person
    When you identify learning needs of patients, that are best met by some other members of the health care team, act as a resource person and arrange for the, patient to receive that information.
    7. Diversional Activities
    Encourage diversional activities within the permissible limits of patients' condition, that are pleasurable and tension reducing. Many chronically anxious people either do not recognize or are uncomfortable with their need for recreation. Activities should not require intensive or prolonged concentration and should be in group rather than solitary.
    8. Performance of ADL
    Patients should be encouraged to carry out daily activities as physical condition permits. At the same time,-Nurses should be prepared to help as much and for as long as necessary.

    References:
    Rice C.2003. Talking about Body Image, Identity, Disability and Difference. Building Bridge, Toronto, Ontario.
    Hershey L. 2000. Women with Disabilities: Health, Reproduction and Sexuality. Available at
    Fortune E. 2005. A nursing approach to body image and sexuality adaptation in the mastectomy patient. Sexuality and Disability.Volume 2(1).
    Taleporos G., McCabe M. 2002. Body image and physical disability—personal perspectives.Social Science Medicine. Volume 54(6).
    Fox K.1997. Mirror, mirror A summary of research findings on body image. Social Issues Research Centre. Available at
    National Institute on Media and Family. Media's Effect On Girls: Body Image And Gender Identity. Available at
    Scott C. 2009. Factors that Influence Body Image. Health and Wellness. Available at
    Brown University Health Education.Body Image. Available at




    railibo-
    Guest

    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  railibo- on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 10:37 am

    I would like to agree with miguela.. Yes all of us ladies have always dreamed of having the appearance of a beauty queen. And we find it great or inspiring (or rather we feel envious) to read/hear of true life stories of women who grew up from an "Ugly Duckling" into a "Beautiful Swan", and we (at some point in our lives) would also wish that we could have that same story. I mean, who wouldn't want to have a face (or better yet an image) that could launch a thousand ships (or even more! ) Laughing Let's face it. Women value their body image because they equate it to self esteem. If your pretty then you feel good about yourself.

    In one study, the authors suggests that the development of body image starts in her childhood years. In childhood a woman learns what her body can and cannot do, what her body looks like, and whether she is a boy or a girl. At the same time she also develops a value for herself, her self-esteem, (described as how she judge her own abilities and worth). The opinions of other people also plays an important role in this process.

    Now in a society that places value on youthful (and gorgeous) physical appearance, physical disabilities can negatively affect a woman's body image and in turn decrease her self esteem. Physical abilities are those that can be caused by health condition or illness, surgeries or treatments as well as those natural life events that women experience. All these can affect a woman's body image.

    One qualitative study that was done among 31 women with disabilities , they identified "body image" as a key theme that impacted participants' sense of self. When a participant described how she felt about her body or how others viewed her body, she seemed often to be reflecting others' own sense of self. Themes identified in this study that related to body image were as follows:

    o For some women with disabilities, body image seemed to be part of their definition of sexuality or their view of themselves as attractive sensual women.

    o Body image was also linked to personal attributes, such as physical characteristics (bone size, weight) and their impact on the qualitative attributes ascribed to them (beauty or unattractive beliefs).

    o As expected, body image was linked to social comparison, or how a woman with a disability compared herself to other people in the community. Women with disabilities (like all women) are constantly exposed to unrealistic ideals of women portrayed in the media. Scars and deformity related to disability were identified as impacting body image and self-esteem. Women with disabilities living in this society are not exempt from the influence of messages that attempt to dictate what is desirable and what is not in a woman. These messages are often internalized, and have an impact on how women with disabilities see themselves.

    o Clothing and grooming were linked to body image. Several women with disabilities discussed using clothing as a way to make themselves feel more attractive. Some women with disabilities discussed using clothing to hide or mask their disability.

    o One woman described her body image being related to a lack of physical boundaries in her life and feeling that her body did not really belong to her.

    o Several women with disabilities had come to a point of being comfortable and accepting their disability as part of their body image. These women spoke of acceptance and realizing their inner beauty.

    It has been suggested that it is very important for a woman with a disability to appreciate her own value, assert her right to make choices that will improve her life, feel ownership of her body, restrict the limitations resulting from her disability to physical functioning only and not her body, and take action to enhance her attractiveness.impose those limitations on her sexual self, be accepting, not ashamed of. As a primary health provider, i think we should facilitate and help women with disabilities go through the process of developing and nurturing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude which is very crucial to their happiness and wellness, as they move through the different stages of their lives.

    It would be beneficial to include the partners of these women. Partners can go a long way to be loving and supportive in regards to woman's changing body image. Expressing acceptance and encouragement as a woman makes changes in wardrobe, hairstyle, or even diet and exercise can help her adjust and finally regain her esteem.

    Also early identification and treatment of body image dissatisfaction may help prevent the development of depression and other psychosocial impairment in women with disabilities.

    This is a quote from an Asian woman with tetraplegia that was quoted in one of the articles I've read.

    "You lost most of the confidence when you become disabled. Before that I like to wear fashion clothes, spend more time with myself like what kind of make-up and what kind of hairstyle I'd like to have today. After the accident, since I cannot do it myself, then you cannot be so picky when other people do it for you. It makes it very difficult at first because I was just not happy with the way that I looked, at first once I became disabled. Now I can accept it more, but I just don't think of myself as attractive as before."


    REFERENCES:

    How Breast Cancer May Affect Body Image retrieved June 25, 2009 from http://breastcancer.about.com/lw/Health-Medicine/Conditions-and-diseases/How-Breast-Cancer-May-Affect-Body-Image.htm

    Psychosocial Health--Body Image BCM Center for Research on Women with Disabilities retrieved June 25,2009 from http://www.bcm.edu/crowd/?pmid=1421

    Women and Body Image retrieved June 25, 2009 from http://www.medicinenet.com/script/main/art.asp?articlekey=19804[i]

    jenny c.
    Guest

    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  jenny c. on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 3:29 am

    As I looked into different articles relating surgeries and body image, it was fairly noted that surgeries and practices that involves femininity and sexuality of women are often being linked and studied to be relevant in determining the body image of women. And this observation directed me to found a very relevant quote which says that:
    “To men a man is but a mind. Who cares what face he carries or what he wears? But woman’s body is the woman” (Ambrose Bierce, 1958).
    Women’s perception of self and her body had been influenced by a lot of factors that somehow led to a struggle of contentment and insecurity. Media, most especially, had contributed a lot to how women dramatically behave and see themselves as woman. Multi-media advertisement displaying beautiful and almost perfect cover girls and endorsers had even more sensationalize how a woman should appear. Long-legged, meztiza-looking, with long black hair and a coca-cola body are being portrayed to represent women in general; thus, resulting to more body-conscious women of generation.

    As someone who is expected to provide holistic care to patients across lifespan, encouraging them in verbalizing their thoughts and express their emotions about themselves and their condition is very critical; however, there are instances that in as much as we want to relieve this patient from the burden of losing her identity and esteem, it is as if (personally) become very difficult to deal with. I remember a friend quoting that: you’re saying it’s alright because you are not in the same position as what the person is in now. And you are not feeling the same emotions as hers, not unless you’ve been there. Truly I can say that you cannot give what you don’t have. And I also believe that nurses are present to encourage and provide support to this kind of patients, whether through palliative care, and the rest of the healing and acceptance should start from the person with disability.

    crown pr
    Guest

    Answers continuation

    Post  crown pr on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 12:42 am

    Miguela Marie A. Senga


    3. Are there specific researches done to determine body image interventions that focus on an individual and in a larger population?

    Body image dissatisfaction is increasingly being recognised as an important target for public health action (Paxton, 2000a). Research evidence links body dissatisfaction to physical and mental health concerns, especially, but not exclusively, in women. In Australian women, body dissatisfaction mainly focus on concerns about weight even in underweight and healthy weight individuals (Ben-Tovim & Walker, 1991) and is reflected in unhealthy weight loss practices (crash dieting, fasting, laxative misuse, vomiting etc) in those in all weight ranges (e.g. Wertheim et al., 1992).


    In Australia a Research Review of Body Image Programs was conducted wihich cites the following interventions:

    School-Based Interventions
    School-based interventions have been widely evaluated. They have the particular advantage of reaching a very vulnerable population, children and adolescents. At primary age, in many if not all cases, there is the potential for genuine prevention before body image problems have become entrenched. In later years, there may be the opportunity to reduce body dissatisfaction that may already be present. If school-based curricula incorporated into wider school programs could be demonstrated to be valuable, they would offer a viable mechanism for widespread intervention, an important goal of prevention interventions.
    About half the school-based curricula have been shown to have some positive impact on some aspect of body image. A smaller proportion has produced changes in eating measures. Where knowledge has been assessed most programs also increase understanding of socio-cultural factors that contribute to body dissatisfaction and disordered eating symptoms. Typically these programs consist of about 5-10 classroom sessions addressing body image and eating issues with varying levels of student participation. They may be led by outside “experts” or the usual class teacher, but at present there is no reason to think one is more effective than the other. One study did find, however, that there was no difference in response to a video about body image issues when it was believed to be presented by a peer compared to an ex-sufferer from an eating disorder, an expert on eating disorders or of no given identity (Heinze, Wertheim & Kashima, 2000).
    School-based programs have usually been primarily of the eclectic, psycho-educational approach (described below), although one has focused on elevating self-esteem (O’Dea & Abraham, 2000). At this point there has not been a definitive study identifying specific aspects of interventions that are associated with greatest impact. However, the more recent programs that include strongly interactive and participatory components (e.g. McVey et al., unpublished manuscript B; Steiner-Adair et al., in press; Stewart et al., 2001) do seem more successful than the more didactic style programs (e.g. Killen et al., 1993). It does appear that young women need to work with ideas counteracting the wider social pressures to be very thin in a very active manner in order to internalise new body image attitudes.

    Adolescent Community-Based Interventions
    Few community-based interventions have been evaluated. Neumark-Sztainer et al (2000) evaluated a prevention program in Girl Scout settings. The main focus of this intervention was media literacy and activism. After girls explored the ways in which media misrepresented female bodies, they were encouraged to take action against this, for example, by writing to editors of women’s magazines. While this program did not have a demonstrable effect on body image satisfaction in participants it did increase media knowledge and change attitudes towards media presentations that were maintained at follow-up. These attitudes may well be protective against a range of pressures from media in subsequent years and teach a healthy cynicism about believing all that is seen.
    University Interventions
    There is a high prevalence of body dissatisfaction and related problems in university age women. This means that normally it is too late to conduct primary prevention interventions as these aim to prevent the development of problems, rather than to
    14
    reduce them once they have become established. Consequently, mainly targeted, secondary prevention interventions have been trialed in college age women in which the main goal has been to reduce established body dissatisfaction and related attitudes. Typically, young women have self-selected into the program by responding to fliers advertising the intervention or by volunteering to take a course which addressing body image and eating issues.
    As described further below, in university age students, a cognitive dissonance reduction program (Stice, Mazotti, Weibel & Agras., 2000), media image comparison reduction interventions (Posovac, Posovac & Weigel, 2001), internet-based body image reduction psycho-education interventions (Zabinski et al., 2001; Winzelberg, Epstein, Eldredge, Wilfley et al. 2000), and an in-depth psycho-educational course on eating disturbance (Stice & Ragan, 2002) have shown promise in terms of reducing body image dissatisfaction, internalization of the thin ideal and comparison with media images.
    Adult Community Interventions
    Few prevention interventions have been directed towards alleviating body image concerns in the adult community in Australia or elsewhere. One particularly innovative approach was an intervention conducted by Louise Wigg and Body Image and Health Inc. that aimed to change the body culture at a gym to de-emphasise weight/fat loss and increase emphasis on health, well-being and enjoyment of physical activity (Wigg, 2001). The program aimed to change all facets of the gymnasium to become “body neutral” as opposed to body negative demanding change at all costs. Staff were given training and support to encourage a focus on health, well-being and enjoyment of physical activity rather than a focus on weight loss and body change to fit current body image ideals. Following the intervention, 68% of attendees who were surveyed had noticed changes at the gym and believed them to be positive, encouraging a more positive attitude towards ones body and exercise.
    Targeted intervention programs in adult women have also been shown to reduce body image concerns. An Australian study of particular interest (Higgins & Gray, 1998) evaluated a program for chronic dieters with high body dissatisfaction, drawn from community volunteers, with a mean age of 44.4 years. They participated in a six-
    15
    session program, Freedom from Dieting, that promoted a “natural” approach to eating. They observed marked reductions in body shape concerns in the intervention group that were maintained over a one-year follow-up. Targeted interventions of this kind in adults are likely to be very valuable.
    Approach and Content of Interventions
    Eclectic Psycho-educational Packages
    The underlying goal of psycho-educational programs is to reduce the internalization of the thin ideal for girls or the excessively muscular ideal for boys, and importance placed on thinness, that appear to be causal risk factors for the development of body dissatisfaction, by providing more realistic information. They also aim to provide information that might prevent girls from developing disordered eating behaviours as a consequence of “normal” dieting. While eclectic, psycho-educational programs have different emphases they usually address aspects of the following content areas.
    • Normal changes in body shape and physiology at puberty;
    • Cultural influences on body image and eating behaviour, and changes over time;
    • Suggestions for building a positive body image;
    • Unrealistic and unhealthy body image ideals promoted in the media;
    • Manipulation of female images in the media;
    • Weightism and discrimination;
    • The dangers of short-term crash dieting;
    • The nature and symptoms of disordered eating and how to get help if required;
    • Healthy weight management; and
    • Understanding the relationship between feelings and eating.
    Taken together, these programs appear to have a range of benefits. In quite short interventions they consistently increase knowledge and awareness of body image issues. While knowledge may not immediately translate into changed attitudes it potentially widens a young persons view of herself or himself and his or her environment in a manner that may later be psychologically protective. About half evaluated programs have found short-term improvements in a measure of self- reported body dissatisfaction or unhealthy eating, though the effects sizes are not great. No negative effects have been substantiated.

    Self-esteem interventions
    It has been argued that if the psychological factors which may underpin the development of body dissatisfaction, such as low mood and self-esteem, are prevented from developing, there will be a subsequent prevention of the development of body image dissatisfaction and other problems with a similar foundation. One of the difficulties here is that to date, the risk factors for the development of body dissatisfaction are not entirely clear. There is tentative support for the proposal that low self-esteem and depression do underpin the development of these problems (e.g. Button et al., 1996; Leon et al., 1999; Schutz et al, under review), and it does seem an intuitively logical hypothesis.
    Only one controlled, evaluated intervention has implemented a program which aimed to build self-esteem but examined body image and eating disorder outcome variables (O’Dea & Abraham, 2000). The program was titled Everybody’s Different. The program was conducted in Grade 7 and 8 children. It did show promise. At post-test but not follow-up, decreases in body dissatisfaction were reported. In addition at follow-up, the importance of social acceptability and physical appearance were lower in the intervention group. However, at follow-up the standard body weight of the intervention group had gone up compared to the control group and dieting had increased. The authors suggested that the control group, through restrained eating, may have limited the normal weight gain usually observed at this age. I consider it unlikely that these relatively small negative effects, would contribute to the development of disorder, but future research is needed to clarify these relationships, since higher BMI and dieting are known risk factors for the development of disordered eating.

    Cognitive Dissonance Intervention:
    One of the most promising interventions has been conducted in first year university students, in young women with elevated body image concerns, (a targeted prevention intervention) by Stice and colleagues (2000; 2001). In these studies, the focus was to reduce the internalization of the thin body ideal (the extent to which youth “buy into” the culturally prescribed ideal body image for women). This attitude was selected as it is an important risk factor for the later development of body dissatisfaction and disordered eating. Dissonance theory states that the possession of inconsistent attitudes and beliefs causes psychological discomfort that motivates people to alter their beliefs to make them consistent with each other.
    Stice et al. (2000; 2001) reasoned that if they could get females who internalised the thin ideal to voluntarily take a stance against it, that this should reduce the extent to which they endorse the thin ideal. “A reduction in thin-ideal internalization should lead to consequent decreases in body dissatisfaction, dieting, and negative affect, which in turn should result in decreased bulimic symptoms… To induce participants into adopting an anti-thin-ideal stance we told them research suggests that when women discuss ways to help younger girls avoid body image problems, it often helps improve women’s own body satisfaction and related factors. We thus designed an intervention that involved a series of verbal, written, and behavioural exercises that required participants who had internalised the thin-ideal to take a stance against it.”

    4. As a nurse, what will be your role in taking care of a woman with disrupted body image due to disabilities?
    One again I stress the importance of recognizing our own reactions to people with disabilities. We need to clarify our own value. As nurses, we are the one who work closely in the care of our patients with disabilities. While they may need extra care in terms of their physiologic needs, we let them feel as normal as possible. They may have different emotional reactions because of their disabilities but we must not let them feel that they are less of a person just because of a disability. Acceptance that other people will be different from us is one strategy that is important to remeber in caring for people with disabilities.

    some intervention we ca do includes the following:
    * Acknowledge normalcy of emotional response to actual or perceived change in body structure or function. Stages of grief over loss of a body part or function is normal, and typically involves a period of denial, the length of which varies from individual to individual.
    * Help patient identify actual changes. Patients may perceive changes that are not present or real, or they may be placing unrealistic value on a body structure or function.
    * Encourage verbalization of positive or negative feelings about actual or perceived change. It is worthwhile to encourage the patient to separate feelings about changes in body structure and/or function from feelings about self-worth.
    * Assist patient in incorporating actual changes into ADLs, social life, interpersonal relationships, and occupational activities. Opportunities for positive feedback and success in social situations may hasten adaptation.
    * Demonstrate positive caring in routine activities. Professional caregivers represent a microcosm of society, and their actions and behaviors are scrutinized as the patient plans to return to home, to work, and to other activities.[/font]

    [/font]


    References:

    Disability and Body Image available at:

    Discrimination at work By Robert L. Dipboye, Adrienne Colella available at:

    Nursing Diagnosis: Disturbed Body Image. available at:

    Susan J Paxton (2002) Research Review of Body Image Programs
    An Overview of Body Image Dissatisfaction Prevention Interventions
    available at:

    crown pr
    Guest

    Answers

    Post  crown pr on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 12:38 am

    Miguela Marie A. Senga


    [font=Comic Sans Ms][color=green]Our self-esteem and identity are linked to our body image. A healthy body image includes having a realistic picture of our body, accepting this image without fear or shame, recognizing the wholeness and connectedness of our body, mind, and spirit, and allowing ourselves to experience our infinite capacity for pleasure.

    The picture we have of ourselves is like a mosaic, each experience contributing another piece. Every time someone who is not happy with their body hears songs like the 'Ugly Duckling' or 'Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer' (where simply looking different is considered to be a reasonable cause for ostracism) their self-image can be slightly damaged. Every time a children's story uses physical difference (the ugly step-sisters, dwarves, giants) as a symptom of evil or stupidity, the disabled child receives another tiny put-down. Over time, these tiny hurts are aggravated by the disablist language of abuse, patronising media, deliberate or inadvertent belittling remarks by strangers, and the exclusion of disability from the idealised world of the advertiser.

    If powerful images, particularly in television advertising, can make all but the young, beautiful /handsome and multi-orgasmic, feel less adequate, what does it do to people with a disability who are not mobile or feel that they are mis-shapen or that their limbs are useless? In his book 'How to Survive the Family' John Cleese suggests that when two people meet it is the first twenty seconds, before words are exchanged when eye contact is made and body-language exchanged, that is of paramount importance!

    1. What is the impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women?

    Having a disability in general makes one feel different than the rest. Not many people have reached the level of self-actualization. Having a disability especially one that is physically obvious makes one vulnerable to having a body image disturbance. These people with disabilities may feel that they are deemed as less of a person and seen as more sensitive than the rest of us. I admit that I feel that some issues are too sensitive for people with disabilities to hear. But once again I realize that I am speaking for the part of the person when I claim that some issues are just too sensitive for them and not recognizing their right whether they want to participate in in or not. I am guilty to treating them and reacting to them differently. According to a reading I have read, people with diabilities can sense that we are reacting differently to them because they have disabilities.

    To a woman under chemo who has just had her hair fallen out may take getting used to the idea of seeing her new and different appearance. Sometimes people are not really aware of their own reactions and may display attitudes which do not support the woman's fragile self-esteem. This goes as well for other disfiguring conditions such as having an amputation where change is really obvious.

    2. Aside from disabilities, other factors play a role in influencing women’s perception of herself. How can cultural, social and developmental factors affect how a woman perceives her body image?

    Socially, much of what is said to be beautiful are based on the standards set by the influential people in our society. The fashion industry and the media in particular dictates what is beautiful or not. As each woman is unique physically, not everyone may fall into the category of beautiful in our society's norms. Adolescent girls in particular look up to celebrities and try to look like them. If they do not fall within the norms they become outcasts and worst some are being bullied and this takes its toll on their self-image.

    Similarly, if one belongs in a certain culture and she does not fall into the norms of what is beautiful or acceptable then it also has an impact on a woman's self-image.

    In the workplace there is also the existence of discrimination among people with disabilities, by viewing them as less efficient than the rest.

    Many disabled people are aware that their disability is often going to make it more difficult for them to form relationships or to have a satisfactory sex-life (in able-bodied terms) but this does not mean it is impossible.

    Many disabled people feel that the withholding of information, the lack of privacy and the arbitrary imposition of carers values and opinions often present greater difficulties than the sexual problems they have or which they might have if they were "allowed" to have a relationship.


    crown pr
    Guest

    Answers

    Post  crown pr on Fri 26 Jun 2009, 12:31 am

    Miguela Marie A. Senga



    [color=green][font=Comic Sans Ms]Our self-esteem and identity are linked to our body image. A healthy body image includes having a realistic picture of our body, accepting this image without fear or shame, recognizing the wholeness and connectedness of our body, mind, and spirit, and allowing ourselves to experience our infinite capacity for pleasure.

    The picture we have of ourselves is like a mosaic, each experience contributing another piece. Every time someone who is not happy with their body hears songs like the 'Ugly Duckling' or 'Rudolph the Red-nosed Reindeer' (where simply looking different is considered to be a reasonable cause for ostracism) their self-image can be slightly damaged. Every time a children's story uses physical difference (the ugly step-sisters, dwarves, giants) as a symptom of evil or stupidity, the disabled child receives another tiny put-down. Over time, these tiny hurts are aggravated by the disablist language of abuse, patronising media, deliberate or inadvertent belittling remarks by strangers, and the exclusion of disability from the idealised world of the advertiser.

    If powerful images, particularly in television advertising, can make all but the young, beautiful /handsome and multi-orgasmic, feel less adequate, what does it do to people with a disability who are not mobile or feel that they are mis-shapen or that their limbs are useless? In his book 'How to Survive the Family' John Cleese suggests that when two people meet it is the first twenty seconds, before words are exchanged when eye contact is made and body-language exchanged, that is of paramount importance!

    1. What is the impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women?

    Having a disability in general makes one feel different than the rest. Not many people have reached the level of self-actualization. Having a disability especially one that is physically obvious makes one vulnerable to having a body image disturbance. These people with disabilities may feel that they are deemed as less of a person and seen as more sensitive than the rest of us. I admit that I feel that some issues are too sensitive for people with disabilities to hear. But once again I realize that I am speaking for the part of the person when I claim that some issues are just too sensitive for them and not recognizing their right whether they want to participate in in or not. I am guilty to treating them and reacting to them differently. According to a reading I have read, people with diabilities can sense that we are reacting differently to them because they have disabilities.

    To a woman under chemo who has just had her hair fallen out may take getting used to the idea of seeing her new and different appearance. Sometimes people are not really aware of their own reactions and may display attitudes which do not support the woman's fragile self-esteem. This goes as well for other disfiguring conditions such as having an amputation where change is really obvious.

    2. Aside from disabilities, other factors play a role in influencing women’s perception of herself. How can cultural, social and developmental factors affect how a woman perceives her body image?

    Socially, much of what is said to be beautiful are based on the standards set by the influential people in our society. The fashion industry and the media in particular dictates what is beautiful or not. As each woman is unique physically, not everyone may fall into the category of beautiful in our society's norms. Adolescent girls in particular look up to celebrities and try to look like them. If they do not fall within the norms they become outcasts and worst some are being bullied and this takes its toll on their self-image.

    Similarly, if one belongs in a certain culture and she does not fall into the norms of what is beautiful or acceptable then it also has an impact on a woman's self-image.

    In the workplace there is also the existence of discrimination among people with disabilities, by viewing them as less efficient than the rest.

    Many disabled people are aware that their disability is often going to make it more difficult for them to form relationships or to have a satisfactory sex-life (in able-bodied terms) but this does not mean it is impossible.

    Many disabled people feel that the withholding of information, the lack of privacy and the arbitrary imposition of carers values and opinions often present greater difficulties than the sexual problems they have or which they might have if they were "allowed" to have a relationship.

    crown pr
    Guest

    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  crown pr on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 7:48 pm

    I still have my fair share of insecurities so body image has been a big deal for me up to now. I am blessed to have a complete (and healthy) set of fingers and toes and limbs and yet my mother and friends still hear me complain and say "why am I not skinnier?" or "why did god not give me a beautiful pair of legs?" or "why are my cheeks so chubby?" or "why am I so fat?" I admit, I have some issues with my body image. I believe that part of what has been influencing me to say all of those is contributed by the media. It is the media that sets the standards of physical beauty. I mean look at the women in hollywood I dont think even half of them reach their normal BMI, they are all so skinny. Just look at Angelina Jolie, she was already beautiful during her Lara Croft days and yet she is proclaimed to be even more beautiful now that she is practically skin and bones. Anyway I am being carried away from the topic.. What I am trying to say is that if my body image is a big deal for me especially those who are in the media who apparently are very normal looking, then it must really have a very big impact on those who have gone through a disease state and came out with a missing body part in order to go on living. I have read through the article and I could not help but simply ponder on how it would affect me if I were to have those conditions that would lead me to losing a body part. It seems scary..

    Let me share my experience..
    Back when I was a senior in college i found a mass in my breast and I had it removed..no big deal since it was benign...2 months after the surgery there it was again, a mass in the same place (I just had it removed last year). Anyway at that time I was thinking (and I still think about it now) what if I turn out to have breast cancer will I go for chemotherapy where my hair would fall off or would I go for mastectomy where my breast will be removed FOREVER? Anyway, thinking about mastectomy, I said its just the breast that will be removed, I'd still be me. I can still go after my professional goals... But what about my dreams of finding my PRINCE (yes I really used that word because I really love fairy tales and I really hope that I would have my own happily ever after). Would someone (by the standards that I set) still be attracted to me?

    Let me be brutally honest. I know I am not drop-dead gorgeous but I know I am not hideous looking either. I believe I have the right to choose whom to like even when I judge them at face value alone. Yes, I would say I want a good-looking boyfriend in the future. But the problem is, those good-looking boys, they also look at girls at the face value...so now given that a person is missing a body part or is slightly disfigured..what happes to their self esteem? for those who are single, how can they move on forward and look for the man that they fell that they deserve?
    I mean just because you are not at par with other women's level of beauty then u are of less value... I believe every woman has the right to feel that they deserve to have a good looking man beside them.


    I love this topic, I just need to go to my bible study...
    more later and I'll make my point clearer..

    -miguela

    lauren
    Guest

    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  lauren on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 6:25 pm

    2. Aside from disabilities, other factors play a role in influencing women’s perception of herself. How can cultural, social and developmental factors affect how a woman perceives her body image?
    As women, we all want to look and feel our best. This is not always easy, considering the busy life today's woman leads and the many responsibilities she may have. It can be tough to find time for exercising and eating right, not to mention controlling stress! Sometimes women can feel pressured to look and feel a certain way. We live in a culture that puts much emphasis on physical appearance. Developing and nurturing a positive body image and a healthy mental attitude is crucial to our happiness and wellness, as we move through the different stages of our lives.
    Our health, which we sometimes can and cannot control, affects not just how we feel but how we look. Our body image - how we feel about how we look - can change when we have a health condition or illness. Pregnancy and menopause, natural life events women experience, can also affect body image. Learning about how our health affects our body image is an important first step in developing a positive body image.

    3. Are there specific researches done to determine body image interventions that focus on an individual and in a larger population?
    Yes there are research done to determine body image interventions that focus on an individual and in a larger population. Some examples are the following:
    What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.
    A Meta-Analytic Review of Obesity Prevention Programs for Children and Adolescents: The Skinny on Interventions that Work

    Body Image and Self-Esteem among Adolescents undergoing an Intervention Targeting Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors




    4. As a nurse, what will be your role in taking care of a woman with disrupted body image due to disabilities?
    As a nurse, our role in taking care of a woman with disrupted body image due to disabilities is to allow her to be love and feel that acceptance despite and in spite of her physical appearance. We all know that as human being we need to be love and be accepted for what we are and not for what we have and to encourage them to live as a normal individual like those people who do not have any disabilities. Encourage them that they don’t have to limit their abilities and dwell from those negative thoughts that come out from their mind. Inspire them to involve themselves in more productive activities to divert their mind and to mingle or socialize with others. Boost their moral through affirmation.




    References:

    lauren
    Guest

    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  lauren on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 6:19 pm

    1. What is the impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women?
    There is a great impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women especially on emotional, social, physical and mental and spiritual aspect of her life. There are some diseases listed below that can affect women’s life as a whole and these include the following:
    a. Aging-
    In a society that places much value on youth, a woman's body image can be affected by aging in many ways. Physical changes such as weight gain, hair loss, and wrinkles can affect a woman's self-esteem. Menopause can be a stressful time for women due to hormonal changes. Osteoporosis can lead to broken bones and fractures, affecting a woman's independence. Women can often have two stressful roles - as caregiver and caretaker - raising children and taking care of elderly parents. Women can also feel lonely and less useful as they age, leading to depression. But aging is not all gloom and doom. It can offer women new opportunities in life and a new outlook. It is important to keep a positive attitude about aging.
    b. Alopecia and Hair Loss
    When a woman has hair thinning or falling out, it can have a big impact on how she feels about herself. The most common type of hair loss in women is female pattern alopecia or baldness. It affects women mostly after menopause, although it can start as early as the pre-teenage years. Causes can include physical stress such as surgery and illness, emotional stress, thyroid problems, certain medications, and hormonal changes. Hair most often returns to normal once the causes are resolved. Another hair loss condition, which is also temporary in most cases, is alopecia areata. While researchers do not know what causes this condition, they think it may be an autoimmune disease. Hair loss, which is also temporary, is very common in women undergoing chemotherapy treatment for cancer.
    People who have hair loss are usually in good health. But emotionally, this condition can be hard to handle and can change a woman's body image. There are treatments available for hair loss, along with a wide range of wigs, hairpieces, and techniques for styling hair. It is important to first talk with your health care provider if you have concerns about hair loss. Be aware that there are products on the market that make lots of promises but have never been tested for safety or effectiveness.

    C. Cancer
    Cancers that are specific to or affect women in high numbers include breast, cervical, endometrial (uterine), ovarian, lung, skin, and colorectal cancers, as well as AIDS-associated cancers. Breast cancer is the most frequent type of new cancer diagnosed in women. The number one cause of cancer deaths in women is lung cancer; breast cancer is number two. Cancer is a complex group of diseases where cells grow out of control, becoming abnormal and causing illness. Major advances have occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of cancer.
    Cancer and its treatments can affect a woman's body image in many ways. Surgery can cause changes in physical appearance and scarring. Other treatments can cause weight loss or weight gain, fatigue, nausea, hair loss, and skin changes, which can change how a woman looks and feels. Wigs and makeup are some options to help women look and feel better. If a woman has a breast removed, she can have surgery to reconstruct the breast or wear a prosthesis (an artificial or fake breast). Some women can find it hard to be upbeat when their treatment makes them feel bad or changes how they look. It is normal to feel this way. Talking with family, friends and your health care provider can give you the support you need to cope with cancer and it's treatments.
    D. Diabetes
    During pregnancy, diabetes can occur, which goes away when the pregnancy is over. But this can put a woman at increased risk for developing diabetes when she is older. People who have diabetes have higher than normal blood sugar levels, which prevents their bodies from getting needed fuel for growth and energy. Some of the problems that can occur with diabetes include blindness, loss of a limb, heart disease, kidney failure, and premature death. With the proper treatment and changes in diet and exercise, many people who have diabetes can live healthy and full lives.
    A woman's body image can change when she has diabetes. Even if a woman feels great, having to always watch what she eats and check her blood sugar can be a constant reminder that something is wrong. Starting a diet and exercise program to help manage diabetes can be stressful. It is important for women to learn as much as they can about managing diabetes. It is also important for women to know the warning signs of diabetes: extreme thirst; frequent urination; weight loss without trying to lose weight; extreme hunger; sudden vision changes; tingling or numbness in the hands or feet; continuous fatigue; very dry skin; slow-healing sores; and increase in infections. Seeing your health care provider as soon as you think there may be a problem is best.
    e. HIV/AIDS
    The number of women getting infected with HIV has increased greatly in the past 10 years, particularly for younger women. HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. HIV weakens the body's immune system, causing infections and illnesses in a person that they otherwise could fight off. With major advances in treatment, HIV is becoming a chronic (lifelong) disease that can be managed with drugs. Prevention, such as not having sex and always using a condom every time a person has sex, is the best weapon against HIV.
    Living with a chronic disease like HIV can affect a woman's body image. Drugs that a woman needs to stay healthy and to treat HIV-related illnesses can change how she feels and looks. Side effects such as nausea, fatigue, headache, diarrhea, and weight loss, can vary from person to person and be mild to extreme. Living with HIV can be stressful, affecting a woman's self-esteem and mental health. Women may need to care for children and other family members who also have HIV. Feeling alone, overwhelmed, and depressed at times is normal. Taking care of yourself and having a positive attitude is important. Getting the support you need from family and friends is equally important.
    f. Lupus
    Autoimmune disease is the fourth leading cause of disability in women. There are over 80 different disorders, such as lupus, multiple sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Seventy-five percent of these illnesses occur in women, mostly of childbearing age. Lupus is three times more common in African-American women, even though women of all races get lupus. With autoimmune disease a person's immune system, which fights off disease and infection, attacks healthy tissue, making a person sick. Autoimmune diseases are hard to diagnose and treat. People can suffer a great deal, both physically and mentally, before health care providers figure out what is wrong.
    Lupus and other autoimmune diseases can affect a woman's body image in many ways. Physical changes a woman has no control over can occur. With lupus, there is a trademark "butterfly" rash on the face and hair loss. Fatigue that can often be extreme is a partner in all of these illnesses, and can lead to depression. Coping with not feeling well, sometimes every day, can be very stressful. A woman may lose her independence or not be able to care for her family. It is important for women to talk about their concerns and to get the support they need. Many advances are happening with the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.
    g. Menopause
    Menopause is the point in a woman's life when her period stops for good. This means she can no longer get pregnant. Menopause does not happen all at once. It can be a slow process where a woman has symptoms before her period stops, called perimenopause.
    Learning about the physical and emotional changes with menopause is a good first step in having a positive body image. Hot flashes, while giving you really low heating bills, can be uncomfortable and embarrassing. Other symptoms include sleep problems, anxiety, depression, vaginal dryness (which can cause painful sex), having to urinate a lot, memory loss, weight gain, thinning hair, and changes in sex drive. Not every woman gets all these symptoms and each woman's experience is different. But when a woman starts to have any of these symptoms, it can be a surprise to her and can change how she sees herself. Simple changes in diet and exercise can help to ease the symptoms, along with hormone therapy (HT).
    H. Oral Health
    But not having healthy teeth can affect not only how our smile looks, it can also affect our overall health. People with gum disease are more at risk for heart disease. Pregnant women with gum disease are more likely to have their babies born early and with low birth weights. Many serious illnesses show early signs and symptoms in the mouth. Cavities can happen to us at any age, not just when we are children. Brushing each day after every meal with a soft bristle toothbrush and using dental floss daily, drinking fluorinated water, using fluoride toothpaste, plus check ups with a health care provider, can help a person to have and maintain good oral health.
    A woman's body image can be affected by her oral health. Oral lesions, such as cold sores and canker sores, may happen more often due to changing hormones during a woman's period, pregnancy, and menopause. Dry mouth, common in adults, can make it hard to eat and speak, and can be hard to cope with. Bad breath can happen when teeth and dentures (false teeth) are not properly cleaned and can be embarrassing. Tooth loss can occur as a result of gum disease or tooth decay. People over 40 years old are more at risk for mouth cancer, which often is not noticed in its early stages because people do not have regular visits with their health care provider. It can be hard for some women to get used to dentures.
    I. Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD) and Infertility
    Infertility - not being able to get pregnant - affects millions of American men and women. In women, infertility is most often explained by problems with ovulation, the process where the ovaries release eggs to be fertilized. Polycystic Ovary Disease makes a woman's ovaries become larger than normal and have fluid-filled sacs or cysts, which can make it more difficult to become pregnant or cause infertility. In addition to infertility, PCOD can cause irregular or no periods and pelvic pain. Women with PCOD can be more at risk for diabetes and miscarriage. There are many treatments for PCOD, along with options for getting pregnant.
    PCOD and infertility can affect a woman's body image. Not being able to get pregnant can be very frustrating and can change how a woman views herself. Symptoms of PCOD, such as weight gain, excess hair growth (particularly on the face), thinning hair, and acne, can be upsetting and affect a woman's confidence. Losing a pregnancy can cause feelings of loss and guilt. Coping with PCOD can be stressful and women can experience depression and mood swings. Taking care of yourself, reducing stress, and getting support from family and friends is important.
    J. Pregnancy
    Even before a woman knows for sure that she is pregnant, her body is already starting to change. It can be a wonderful experience and many women feel good and strong, especially by their second trimester. However, while every pregnancy is different, there are common discomforts most women have that can take getting some used to, such as weight gain, morning sickness, and fatigue. Getting enough rest, eating right, not over-doing it, and exercise can help to ease the symptoms. It is important to have regular pre-natal care from your health care provider.
    A woman's body image can change during pregnancy. Skin changes such as acne or spider veins on the face and varicose veins on the legs can occur. Some women feel more emotional because of changing hormones. Sleep loss can add stress to already stressed lives. Women can worry about their changing roles, from being in the workplace, a wife, a single person, to becoming a mother and a caregiver. Women may have concerns about how a new baby will affect their other children. Relationships with partners can change, which can affect how women feel about themselves. It is important to talk to your partner, family, and friends about your feelings and concerns throughout your pregnancy.
    k. Skin Disorders and Scarring
    Facing the day can be hard when a person has a skin disorder. While not life threatening, they can change the way a person looks and can be upsetting. Skin disorders can occur on not just a person's face, they can appear all over the body. Common skin disorders include acne, rosacea, eczema, and psoriasis. Some skin disorders tend to run in the family. While the reasons for some skin disorders are not clear, stress, pregnancy, and reactions to medications can affect skin health. Scars can form on a person's body from injury, surgery, and burns, and can vary in how noticeable they are.
    Physical changes from a skin disorder can affect a woman's body image. Deep marks on the face from teenage acne, redness and bumps from rosacea, thick and scaly patches of skin from psoriasis, and red and swollen skin from eczema can occur. Skin disorders can be uncomfortable with itching, burning, and pain. While there are many treatments for skin disorders, it can be stressful finding the right one. It can take also time to clear up or get a skin disorder under control. Talk to your family and friends for support. It is also important to talk with your health care provider about ways to treat a skin disorder and use makeup to make the skin look better. Be aware that over-the-counter products can make false claims about what they can do.

    jonnahca
    Guest

    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  jonnahca on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 5:29 pm

    In a society where beautiful means - a woman with shiny, straight, lack hair; slim, ivory-white body; with vital statistics of 36-24-36, and height of at least 5'2, It is common but to feel "ugly" and "unattractive".
    This feeling occurs not exclusive to women with disabilities but as well as to those who think and believe that they aren't good enough.
    Can we now imagine how worst a woman with disability feels?
    Let me share a personal encounter with a breast cancer survivor. The most "heartbreaking" word that came from her during one of our usual talk was:
    "Whenever I look at the mirror, All I could see is a woman without breast and bald". Just two weeks before she was diagnosed with stage III breast cancer, she had her hair rebonded. I just can't imagine how she cried when after a series of chemotherapy, chunks of her hair fell off her head. For me, it was like going back your teenage years when you do everything to achieve what society thinks is beautiful and attractive. Many teenagers are either bulimic or anorexic, and it's all because they hardly see themselves pleasing enough. Parenting roles should play an important part here. If a child was acknowledged of her gifts, then she would grew up with confidence and high self-esteem.
    Let me tell a personal story. My first preganancy left me with stretch marks (!!!) and 2-3 inch keloid. Since my husband is a surgeon, I asked him what he can do for me so it would come back to it's pre-pregnancy state. He told me "I'll do tummy-tuck on you". Actually, I was expecting of him to tell me that I still look beautiful and attractive. Crying or Very sad

    Angel Ve
    Guest

    Women with Disabilities- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  Angel Ve on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 3:36 pm

    Classmates,

    Good Pm! I just want to make a correction regarding the title that I posted, our topic is WOMEN WITH DISABILITIES- SURGERIES THAT IMPACT BODY IMAGE and not "Women with surgeries..." Embarassed

    Very Happy -angel

    Angel Ve
    Guest

    Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  Angel Ve on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 2:33 pm

    You can access the suggested reading material given by Prof. Nierras on this site:

    Other References:

    Breakey J. 1997. Body Image: the Inner Mirror. Available at:
    Deja-Fit. 2007. Women’s Body Image: What Influences? Available at:

    A list of material about culture and body image Available at:

    Effects of Ideal Body Images--Translatable Across Gender and Culture?

    Lubkin I., Larsen P. Chronic Illness: Impact and Intervention, Fifth Ed. Jones and Barlett Publications. Available also at:

    Angel Ve
    Guest

    Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

    Post  Angel Ve on Thu 25 Jun 2009, 1:07 pm

    Good day Ma’am Nierras and classmates!!

    I’m Angel and I will be your moderator for today. Our 4th day of online discussion will focus on “Women with Disabilities- Surgeries that Impact Body Image”. Several questions that will be asked will guide you through a deeper understanding of how body image of a woman is affected by a number of factors.

    Please be guided by the following questions as you go through the reading material.

    1. What is the impact of certain disabilities on the body image of women?
    2. Aside from disabilities, other factors play a role in influencing women’s perception of herself. How can cultural, social and developmental factors affect how a woman perceives her body image?
    3. Are there specific researches done to determine body image interventions that focus on an individual and in a larger population?
    4. As a nurse, what will be your role in taking care of a woman with disrupted body image due to disabilities?

    Women and Body Image

    • More than 40 percent of women are unhappy with their bodies, a number virtually unchanged since 1984. Other statistics show that in 1970 the average age of a girl who started dieting was 14; by 1990 the average dieting age fell to 8. A study also found that women overestimate the size of their hips by 16% and their waists by 25%, yet the same women were able to correctly estimate the width of a box.

    • Body image" refers to the mental picture we have of our own bodies. This is a "perception" of how we think we look, in combination with how we think others perceive our bodies. How we perceive and relate to our own physical aesthetics or body image is influenced by cultural and social factors.

    • The noted neurologist Sir Henry Head was the first to describe the concept of body image. This image, or body schema, is a unity of experiences of the past, coupled with present body sensations, which are organized in the sensory cortex of the cerebrum (Head H. 1920). Each individual develops this body schema: a model or self-picture that can be compared to others in terms of body postures and body motions (Head H. 1926). Body experience is important to normal psychological development and behavior (Head H. 1920).

    • Body image is more than a reference model. It also has emotional and symbolic significance (Fisher S, Cleveland SE. 1958). Schilder defines body image as the picture of our own body which we form in our mind (Fisher S, Cleveland SE. 1958). Practicing as a psychiatrist, he realized distortions in body experience attributed to brain pathology needed to be studied not only from the perspective of brain physiology but also from the psychological viewpoint. The many variables associated with body image have principal relevance in both the pathological aspects of daily life and in ordinary everyday events. Because body image lies at the center of personality, body experience is the nucleus of psychological life (Fisher S, Cleveland SE. 1958).



    Top ten factors that can affect Body Image:

    1. Aging
    Women always have a special concern on how they will look like when they are already old. Many changes due to aging such as losing of memory, teeth, eyesight, hearing, sex drive and also physical changes like weight gain, hair loss and wrinkles can affect self-esteem. Depression also takes place when women undergo menopause because of hormonal changes.

    2. Alopecia and Hair Loss
    Causes can include physical stress such as surgery and illness, emotional stress, thyroid problems, certain medications and hormonal changes. This also happens in women undergoing chemotherapy because the fast normal dividing cells are also affected.

    3. Cancer

    By the end of 2001, some 625,000 women will have been diagnosed with cancer, and about 267,300 women will have died of the disease. Fifty-eight percent of the estimated 8.9 million cancer survivors today are women. Cancers that are specific to or affect women in high numbers include breast, cervical, endometrial (uterine), ovarian, lung, skin, and colorectal cancers, as well as AIDS-associated cancers. Treatment for Cancers can affect woman’s body image because of the changes that were brought about by its side-effects.

    4. Diabetes

    Several implications follow when the patient is diagnosed to have DM. Starting a diet with so many restrictions can make the client feel that something is wrong and this could initiate a stressful event for the woman. One should be aware of the warning signs and symptoms of diabetes to immediately act on the prevention of its complications.

    5. HIV/AIDS

    This is the third leading cause of disability in women. Chronic disease like AIDS has a big impact in an individual and also in the society. With the advances in technology, HIV/ AIDS can be managed with the use of drugs. However, these drugs pose some undesirable side effects such ass nausea, fatigue, headache, diarrhea and weight loss. HIV/AIDS can be stressful which may affect woman’s self-esteem and mental health.

    6. LUPUS

    With lupus, there is a trademark "butterfly" rash on the face and hair loss. Fatigue that can often be extreme is a partner in all of these illnesses, and can lead to depression. Coping with not feeling well, sometimes every day, can be very stressful. A woman may lose her independence or not be able to care for her family. It is important for women to talk about their concerns and to get the support they need. Many advances are happening with the diagnosis and treatment of autoimmune diseases.

    7. MENOPAUSE
    Physical and emotional changes should be learned in order that the person will become aware of the signs and symptoms of menopausal period such as hot flashes, sleep sleep problems, anxiety, depression, vaginal dryness (which can cause painful sex), having to urinate a lot, memory loss, weight gain, thinning hair, and changes in sex drive.

    8. Oral Health
    People over 40 years old are more at risk for mouth cancer, which often is not noticed in its early stages because people do not have regular visits with their health care provider. Oral lesions, such as cold sores and canker sores, may happen more often due to changing hormones during a woman's period, pregnancy, and menopause. Dry mouth, common in adults, can make it hard to eat and speak, and can be hard to cope with. Bad breath can happen when teeth and dentures (false teeth) are not properly cleaned and can be embarrassing. Tooth loss can occur as a result of gum disease or tooth decay.

    9. Polycystic Ovarian Disease and Infertility
    Most women with PCOS have ovulatory dysfunction or absent ovulation. If the egg is not released from the ovary each month in a normal fashion, this can obviously lead to infertility. Anovulation may also manifest itself by infrequent or irregular menstrual cycles. In the absence of ovulation, the ovary does not make the hormone progesterone in the second half of the menstrual cycle. Without progesterone, the lining of the uterus is not shed in an efficient and timely manner. After a number of years, this can place women with PCOS at risk for an abnormal buildup of the lining of the uterus (endometrial hyperplasia) . For this reason, women with PCOS who are not trying to get pregnant should be treated with progesterone-like medications to induce a normal menstrual period at least every 2-3 months.

    10. Pregnancy
    A woman's body image can change during pregnancy. Skin changes such as acne or spider veins on the face and varicose veins on the legs can occur. Some women feel more emotional because of changing hormones. Sleep loss can add stress to already stressed lives. Women can worry about their changing roles, from being in the workplace, a wife, a single person, to becoming a mother and a caregiver. Women may have concerns about how a new baby will affect their other children. Relationships with partners can change, which can affect how women feel about themselves.

    *Suggested readings will be posted later. If you have any concerns, pls. feel free to ask.
    God Bless!
    Very Happy

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    Re: Women with Surgeries- Surgeries that Impact Body Image

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